Periodical cicadas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Magicicada)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Periodical cicada
Magicicada septendecim TPopp.jpg
Specimen of Magicicada septendecim in the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich (2015)
A Magicicada chorus with M. septendecim, M. cassinii, and M. septendecula
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Family: Cicadidae
Subfamily: Cicadettinae
Tribe: Lamotialnini
Genus: Magicicada
W. T. Davis, 1925
Type species
Magicicada septendecim[1]

Magicicada is the genus of the 13-year and 17-year periodical cicadas of eastern North America, consisting of seven species. Although they are sometimes called "locusts", this is a misnomer, as cicadas belong to the taxonomic order Hemiptera (true bugs), suborder Auchenorrhyncha, while locusts are grasshoppers belonging to the order Orthoptera.[2] Magicicada belongs to the cicada tribe Lamotialnini, a group of genera with representatives in Australia, Africa, and Asia, as well as the Americas.[3]

Magicicada species spend around 99.5% of their long lives underground in an immature state called a nymph. While underground the nymphs feed on xylem fluids from the roots of deciduous forest trees in the eastern United States.[4] In the spring of their 13th or 17th year mature cicada nymphs emerge between late April and early June at a given locality, synchronously and in tremendous numbers. The adults are active for only about four to six weeks after the unusually prolonged developmental phase.[5]

The males aggregate in chorus centers and call there to attract mates. Mated females lay eggs in the stems of woody plants. Within two months of the original emergence, the life cycle is complete; the adult cicadas die and their brood disappears for another 13 or 17 years.

Description[edit]

Many Brood X periodical cicadas (Magicicada) (video with sound)

The winged imago (adult) periodical cicada has red eyes and a black dorsal thorax. The wings are translucent with orange veins. The underside of the abdomen may be black, orange, or striped with orange and black, depending on the species.[6]

Adults are typically 2.4 to 3.3 cm (0.9 to 1.3 in), depending on species, generally about 75% the size of most of the annual cicada species found in the same region. Mature females are slightly larger than males.[7]

Magicicada males typically form large aggregations that sing in chorus to attract receptive females. Different species have different characteristic calling songs. The call of decim periodical cicadas is said to resemble someone calling "weeeee-whoa" or "Pharaoh".[8] The cassini and decula periodical cicadas (including M. tredecula) have songs that intersperse buzzing and ticking sounds.[7]

Cicadas cannot sting and do not normally bite. Like other Auchenorrhyncha (true) bugs, they have mouthparts used to pierce plants and suck their sap. These mouthparts are used during the nymph stage to tap underground roots for water, minerals and carbohydrates and in the adult stage to acquire nutrients and water from plant stems. An adult cicada's proboscis can pierce human skin when it is handled, which is painful, but in no other way harmful. Cicadas are neither venomous nor poisonous and there is no evidence that they or their bites can transmit diseases.[9]

Cicadas pose little threat to mature vegetation, although planting new trees or shrubs is best postponed until after an expected emergence of the periodical cicadas. Mature plants rarely suffer lasting damage, although twig die-off or flagging may result from egg-laying.[10] Young trees or shrubs can be covered with cheesecloth or other mesh netting with holes that are 38 in (1.0 cm) in diameter or smaller to prevent damage during the oviposition period,[11] which begins about a week after the first adults emerge and lasts until all females have died.

Massospora cicadina is a fungal pathogen that infects only 13 and 17 year periodical cicadas. Infection results in a "plug" of spores that replaces the end of the cicada's abdomen while it is still alive, leading to infertility, disease transmission, and eventual death of the cicada.[12]

Life cycle[edit]

Transformation of the periodical cicada from the mature nymph to the adult
Time-lapse of a periodical cicada's final molt and darkening, taken over a period of 4.5 hours

Nearly all cicadas spend years underground as juveniles, before emerging above ground for a short adult stage of several weeks to a few months. The seven periodical cicada species are so named because, in any one location, all members of the population are developmentally synchronized—they emerge as adults all at once in the same year. This periodicity is especially remarkable because their life cycles are so long—13 or 17 years. No other species of cicada in the world (among perhaps 3,000 species) synchronize their development in this way.

In contrast, for nonperiodical species, some adults mature each summer and emerge while the rest of the population continues to develop underground. Many people refer to these nonperiodical species as annual cicadas because some are seen every summer. This may lead some to conclude that the non-periodic cicadas have life cycles of one year. This is incorrect. The few known life cycles of "annual" species range from two to 10 years, although some could be longer.

The nymphs of the periodical cicadas live underground, usually within 2 ft (61 cm) of the surface, feeding on the juices of plant roots.[13] The nymphs of the periodical cicada undergo five instar stages in their development underground. The difference in the 13- and 17-year life cycle is said to be the time needed for the second instar to mature. When underground the nymphs move deeper below ground, detecting and then feeding on larger roots as they mature.[14]

In late April to early June of the emergence year, mature fifth-instar nymphs construct tunnels to the surface and wait for the soil temperature to reach a critical value.[5][15] In some situations, nymphs extend mud turrets up to several inches above the soil surface.[16] The function of these turrets is not known, but the phenomenon has been observed in some nonperiodical cicadas, as well as other tunneling insects.[17]

The nymphs first emerge on a spring evening when the soil temperature at around 20 cm (8 in) of depth is above 17.9 °C (64 °F). The crepuscular emergence is thought to be related to the fact that maximum soil temperatures lag behind maximum insolation by several hours, conveniently providing some protection for the flightless nymphs against diurnal sight predators such as birds. For the rest of their lives the mature periodical cicadas will be strongly diurnal, with song often nearly ceasing at night.

During most years in the United States this emergence cue translates to late April or early May in the far south, and late May to early June in the far north. Emerging nymphs may molt in the grass. or climb from a few centimeters to more than 100 feet (30 m) to find a suitable vertical surface to complete their transformation into adults. After securing themselves to tree trunks, the walls of buildings, telephone poles, fenceposts, hanging foliage, and even stationary automobile tires, the nymphs undergo a final molt and then spend about six days in the trees to await the complete hardening of their wings and exoskeletons. Just after emerging from this final molt the teneral adults are off-white, but darken within an hour.

Adult periodical cicadas live for only a few weeks; by mid-July, all have died. Their ephemeral adult forms are adapted for one purpose: reproduction. Like other cicadas the males produce a very loud species-specific mating song using their tymbals. Singing males of the same Magicicada species tend to form aggregations called choruses whose collective songs are attractive to females. Males in these choruses alternate bouts of singing with short flights from tree to tree in search of receptive females.[2] Most matings occur in so-called chorus trees.[6]

Receptive females respond to the calls of conspecific males with timed wing-flicks (visual signaling is apparently a necessity in the midst of the males' song) which attract the males for mating.[18] The sound of a chorus can be literally deafening and depending on the number of males composing it, may reach 100 dB in the immediate vicinity. In addition to their "calling" or "congregating" songs, males produce a distinctive courtship song when approaching an individual female.[6]

Both males and females can mate multiple times, although most females seem to mate only once. After mating, the female cuts V-shaped slits in the bark of young twigs and lays about 20 eggs in each, for a total clutch of 600 or more. After about 6–10 weeks, the eggs hatch and the nymphs drop to the ground, where they burrow and begin another 13- or 17-year cycle.

Predator satiation survival strategy[edit]

The nymphs emerge in very large numbers at nearly the same time, sometimes more than 1.5 million individuals per acre (>370/m2).[19] Their mass emergence is, among other things, a survival trait called predator satiation. The details of this strategy are simple: for the first week after emergence the periodical cicadas are easy prey for reptiles, birds, squirrels, cats, dogs and other small and large mammals.[5][20] In their present range the periodical cicadas have no effective predators, and all other animals feeding on them after emergence quickly fade into irrelevance with respect to their impact on total cicada populations.

Early entomologists maintained that the cicadas' overall survival mechanism was simply to overwhelm predators by their sheer numbers, ensuring the survival of most of the individuals. Later, the fact that the developmental periods were both a prime number of years (13 and 17) was hypothesized to be a predator avoidance strategy, one adopted to eliminate the possibility of potential predators receiving periodic population boosts by synchronizing their own generations to divisors of the cicada emergence period.

On this prime number hypothesis, a predator with a three-year reproductive cycle, which happened to coincide with a brood emergence in a given year, will have gone through either four cycles plus one year (12 + 1) or five cycles plus two years (15 + 2) by the next time that brood emerges. In this way prime-numbered broods exhibit a strategy to ensure that they nearly always emerge when some portion of the predators they will confront are sexually immature and therefore incapable of taking maximum advantage of the momentarily limitless food supply.[21]

Another viewpoint turns this hypothesis back onto the cicada broods themselves. It posits that the prime-numbered developmental times represent an adaptation to prevent hybridization between broods. It is hypothesized that this unusual method of sequestering different populations in time arose when conditions were extremely harsh. Under those conditions the mutation producing extremely long development times became so valuable that cicadas which possessed it found it beneficial to protect themselves from mating with cicadas that lacked the long-development trait.

In this way, the long-developing cicadas retained a trait allowing them to survive the period of heavy selection pressure (i.e., harsh conditions) brought on by isolated and lowered populations during the period immediately following the retreat of glaciers (in the case of periodic cicadas, the North American Pleistocene glacial stadia). When seen in this light, their mass emergence and the predator satiation strategy that follows from this serves only to maintain the much longer-term survival strategy of protecting their long-development trait from hybridizations that might dilute it.[22]

This hybridization hypothesis was subsequently supported through a series of mathematical models and remains the most widely-accepted explanation for the unusually lengthy and mathematically sophisticated survival strategy of these insects.[23] The length of the cycle was hypothesized to be controlled by a single gene locus, with the 13-year cycle dominant to the 17-year one,[24] but this interpretation remains controversial and unsubstantiated at the level of DNA.

Impact on other populations[edit]

Cycles in cicada populations are significant enough to affect other animal and plant populations. For example, tree growth has been observed to decline the year before the emergence of a brood because of the increased feeding on roots by the growing nymphs.[25] Moles, which feed on nymphs, have been observed to do well during the year before an emergence, but suffer population declines the following year because of the reduced food source.[26] Wild turkey populations respond favorably to increased nutrition in their food supply from gorging on cicada adults on the ground at the end of their life cycles. Uneaten carcasses of periodic cicadas decompose on the ground, providing a resource pulse of nutrients to the forest community.[25]

Cicada broods may also have a negative impact. Eastern gray squirrel populations have been negatively affected, because the egg-laying activity of female cicadas damaged upcoming mast crops.[citation needed]

Broods[edit]

Periodical cicadas are grouped into geographic broods based on the calendar year when they emerge. For example, in 2014, the 13-year brood XXII emerged in Louisiana and the 17-year brood III emerged in western Illinois and eastern Iowa.

In 1907, entomologist Charles Lester Marlatt assigned Roman numerals to 30 different broods of periodical cicadas: 17 distinct broods with a 17-year life cycle, to which he assigned brood numbers I through XVII (with emerging years 1893 through 1909); plus 13 broods with a 13-year cycle, to which he assigned brood numbers XVIII through XXX (1893 through 1905).[27] Marlatt noted that the 17-year broods are generally more northerly than are the 13-year broods.[28]

Many of these hypothetical 30 broods have not been observed. Marlatt noted that some cicada populations (especally Brood XI in the valley of the Connecticut River in Massachusetts and Connecticut) were disappearing, a fact that he attributed to the reduction in forests and the introduction and proliferation of insect-eating "English sparrows" (House sparrows, Passer domesticus) that had followed the European settlement of North America.[29] Two of the broods that Marlatt named (Broods XI and XXI) are now extinct. His numbering scheme has been retained for convenience (and because it clearly separates 13- and 17-year life cycles), although only 15 broods are known to survive today.[30]

Name Nickname Cycle (yrs) Last emergence Next emergence Extent
Brood I Blue Ridge brood 17 2012 2029 Western Virginia, West Virginia
Brood II East Coast brood 17 2013 2030 Connecticut, Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, District of Columbia
Brood III Iowan brood 17 2014 2031 Iowa
Brood IV Kansan brood 17 2015 2032 Eastern Nebraska, southwestern Iowa, eastern Kansas, western Missouri, Oklahoma, north Texas[31]
Brood V 17 2016 2033 Eastern Ohio, Western Maryland, Southwestern Pennsylvania, Northwestern Virginia, West Virginia, New York (Suffolk County)[32]
Brood VI 17 2017 2034 Northern Georgia, western North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina
Brood VII Onondaga brood 17 2018 2035 Central New York (Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario, Yates counties)[Note 1]
Brood VIII 17 2019 2036 Eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia
Brood IX 17 2020 2037 southwestern Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina
Brood X Great eastern brood 17 2021 2038 New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan[33][Note 2]
Brood XI 17 1954 Extinct Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island. Last seen in 1954 in Ashford, Connecticut along the Fenton River
Brood XIII Northern Illinois brood 17 2007 2024 Northern Illinois and in parts of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Indiana[Note 3]
Brood XIV 17 2008 2025 Southern Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, northern Georgia, Southwestern Virginia and West Virginia, and parts of New York and New Jersey[Note 3]
Brood XIX Great Southern Brood 13 2011 2024 Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia[Note 4]
Brood XXI Floridian Brood 13 1870 Extinct Last recorded in 1870, historical range included the Florida panhandle
Brood XXII Baton Rouge brood[36] 13 2014 2027 Louisiana, Mississippi[Note 5]
Brood XXIII Lower Mississippi River Valley brood 13 2015 2028 Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee
  1. ^ Consists only of M. septendecim
  2. ^ Largest of all 17-year periodical broods. A premature emergence, or "straggling" occurred in 2017[34]
  3. ^ a b Premature emergences, or "straggling" occurred in 2003 and 2006.[35]
  4. ^ Largest of all 13-year periodical cicada broods
  5. ^ This 13-year brood does not include M. neotredecim.

Map of brood locations[edit]

County-by-county map showing the locations of cicada broods, published May 2013
USDA Forest Service map of periodical cicada brood locations by county and timing of next emergence (as of 2013)[needs update]

Taxonomy[edit]

Phylogeny[edit]

Magicicada is a member of the cicada tribe Lamotialnini, which is distributed globally aside from South America. Despite Magicicada being only found in eastern North America, its closest relatives are thought to be the genera Tryella and Aleeta from Australia, with Magicicada being sister to the clade containing Tryella and Aleeta.[37] Within the Americas, its closest relative is thought to be the genus Chrysolasia from Guatemala.[38]

Species[edit]

Seven recognized species are placed within Magicicada—three 17-year species and four 13-year species. These seven species are also sometimes grouped differently into three subgroups, the so-called Decim species group, Cassini species group, and Decula species group, reflecting strong similarities of each 17-year species with one or more species with a 13-year cycle.[39]

17-year cycle Species
group
13-year cycle
Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
2013 05-23 IMG 9586 (3).jpg M. septendecim
(Linnaeus, 1758)
17-year locust,
Pharaoh cicada
Canada,
United States
Decim Magicicada tredecim.jpg M. tredecim
(Walsh & Riley, 1868)
southeastern
United States
M. neotredecim
Marshall & Cooley, 2000
United States
Magicicada cassini (17-year periodical cicada) (Flint Ridge, Ohio, USA) (27294270804).jpg M. cassinii
(Fisher, 1852)
17-year cicada,
dwarf periodical cicada
United States Cassini Magicicada tredecassini NC XIX male dorsal trim.jpg M. tredecassini
Alexander & Moore, 1962
United States
Magicicada septendecula male (Brood IX) - journal.pone.0000892.g003C.png M. septendecula
Alexander & Moore, 1962
United States Decula Magicicada tredecula Brood XIX 11.US.IL.DAS.jpg M. tredecula
Alexander & Moore, 1962
United States

Note that while the original and correct spelling for Fisher's 17-year species is cassinii,[40] with the trailing double 'i's, a large majority of publications have spelled the name cassini since the mid-1960s. However, the original spelling has been maintained throughout by taxonomic catalogues,[41] and the rules of nomenclature support the priority of cassinii (Article 33.4).[42] The correct spelling for the 13-year relative is tredecassini.[43]

Evolution and speciation[edit]

Not only are the periodical cicada life cycles curious for their use of the prime numbers 13 or 17, but their evolution is also intricately tied to one- and four-year changes in their life cycles.[22][24] One-year changes are less common than four-year changes and are probably tied to variation in local climatic conditions. Four-year early and late emergences are common and involve a much larger proportion of the population than one-year changes. The different species are well-understood to have originated from a process of allochronic speciation,[44][45] in which species subpopulations that are isolated from one another in time eventually become reproductively isolated as well.

Recent research suggests that in extant periodical cicadas, the 13- and 17-year life cycles evolved at least eight different times in the last 4 million years and that different species with identical life cycles developed their overlapping geographic distribution by synchronizing their life cycles to the existing dominant populations.[45] The same study estimates that the Decim species group split from the common ancestor of the Decula plus Cassini species groups around 4 million years ago (Mya). At around 2.5 Mya, the Cassini and Decula groups split from each other.

The Sota et al. (2013) paper also calculates that the first separation of extant 13-year cicadas from 17-year cicadas took place in the Decim group about 530,000 years ago when the southern M. tredecim split from the northern M. septendecim. The second noteworthy event took place about 320,000 years ago with the split of the western Cassini group from its conspecifics to the east. The Decim and the Decula clades experienced similar western splits, but these are estimated to have taken place 270,000 and 230,000 years ago, respectively. The 13- and 17-year splits in Cassini and Decula took place after these events.

The 17-year cicadas largely occupy formerly glaciated territory, and as a result their phylogeographic relationships reflect the effects of repeated contraction into glacial refugia (small islands of suitable habitat) and subsequent re-expansion during multiple interglacial periods. In each species group, Decim, Cassini, and Decula, the signature of the glacial periods is manifested today in three phylogeographic genetic subdivisions: one subgroup east of the Appalachians, one midwestern, and one on the far western edge of their range.

The Sota et al. data suggest that the founders of the southern 13-year cicada populations seen today originated from the Decim group. These were later joined by Cassini originating from the western Cassini clade and Decula originating from eastern, middle, and western Decula clades. As Cassini and Decula invaded the south, they became synchronized with the resident M. tredecim. Today, these Cassini and Decula are known as M. tredecassini and M. tredecula. More data is needed to lend support to this hypothesis and others hypotheses related to more recent 13- and 17-year splits involving M. neotredecim and M. tredecim.

Distribution[edit]

The 17-year periodical cicadas are distributed across the Eastern, upper Midwestern, and Great Plains states within the U.S., while the 13-year cicadas occur in the Southern and Mississippi Valley states, but some may overlap slightly. For example, broods IV (17-year cycle) and XIX (13-year cycle) overlap in western Missouri and eastern Oklahoma.[46][47] Their emergences should again coincide in 2219, 2440, 2661, etc., as they did in 1998[48] (although distributions change slightly from generation to generation and older distribution maps can be unreliable.[47]).

An effort that the National Geographic Society is sponsoring is currently underway (as of April 2021) at the University of Connecticut to generate new distribution maps of all periodical cicada broods.[49] The effort uses crowdsourced data and records that entomologists and volunteers collect.[50]

Symbiosis[edit]

Magicicada are unable to obtain all of the essential amino acids from the dilute xylem fluid that they feed upon, and instead rely upon endosymbiotic bacteria that provide essential vitamins and nutrients for growth.[51] Bacteria in the genus Hodgkinia live inside periodical cicadas, and grow and divide for years before punctuated cicada reproduction events impose natural selection on these bacteria to maintain a mutually beneficial relationship. As a result, the genome of Hodgkinia has fractionated into three independent bacterial species each containing only a subset of genes essential for this symbiosis. The host now requires all three subgroups of symbionts, as only the complete complement of all three subgroups provides the host with all its essential nutrients.[52] The HodgkiniaMagicicada symbiosis is a powerful example of how bacterial endosymbionts drive the evolution of their hosts.

History[edit]

The first known account of a large emergence of cicadas appeared in a 1633 report by William Bradford, the governor of the Plymouth Colony, which had been established in 1620 within the future state of Massachusetts.[53][54] After describing a "pestilent fever" that had swept through the colony and neighboring Indians, the report stated:

It is to be observed that, the spring before this sickness, there was a numerous company of Flies which were like for bigness unto wasps or Bumble-Bees; they came out of little holes in the ground, and did eat up the green things, and made such a constant yelling noise as made the woods ring of them, and ready to deafen the hearers; they were not any seen or heard by the English in this country before this time; but the Indians told them that sickness would follow, and so it did, very hot, in the months of June, July, and August of that summer.[55][56]

(Elaborating on an observation that Marlatt reported in 1907,[57] Gene Kritsky has suggested that Bradford's report is misdated, as Broods XI and XIV would have emerged in Plymouth in 1631 and 1634, respectively, while no presently known brood would have emerged there in 1633.[58])

Historical accounts cite reports of 15- to 17-year recurrences of enormous numbers of noisy emergent cicadas ("locusts") written as early as 1733.[56][59] John Bartram, a noted Philadelphia botanist and horticulturist, was among the early writers that described the insect's life cycle, appearance and characteristics.[60]

On May 9, 1715, the Rev. Andreas Sandel, the pastor of Philadelphia's "Gloria Dei" Swedish Lutheran Church, described in his journal an emergence of Brood X.[61] Pehr Kalm, a Finnish naturalist visiting Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1749 on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, observed in late May another emergence of that brood.[62][63] When reporting the event in a paper that a Swedish academic journal published in 1756, Kalm wrote:

The general opinion is that these insects appear in these fantastic numbers in every seventeenth year. Meanwhile, except for an occasional one which may appear in the summer, they remain underground.
There is considerable evidence that these insects appear every seventeenth year in Pennsylvania.[63]

Kalm then described Rev. Sandel's report and one that he had obtained from Benjamin Franklin that had recorded in Philadelphia the emergence from the ground of large numbers of cicadas during early May 1732. He noted that the people who had prepared these documents had made no such reports in other years.[63]

Kalm further noted that others had informed him that they had seen cicadas only occasionally before the insects emerged from the ground in Pennsylvania in large swarms on May 22, 1749.[63] He additionally stated that he had not heard any cicadas in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1750 in the same months and areas in which he had heard many in 1749.[63] The 1715 and 1732 reports, when coupled with his own 1749 and 1750 observations, supported the previous "general opinion" that he had cited.

Kalm summarized his findings in a book translated into English and published in London in 1771,[64] stating:

There are a kind of Locusts which about every seventeen years come hither in incredible numbers ... In the interval between the years when they are so numerous, they are only seen or heard single in the woods.[56][65]

Based on Kalm's account and a specimen that Kalm had provided, in 1758 Carl Linnaeus named the insect Cicada septendecim in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae.[6][66]

Moses Bartram, a son of John Bartram, described the next appearance of the brood (Brood X) that Kalm had observed in 1749 in an article entitled Observations on the cicada, or locust of America, which appears periodically once in 16 or 17 years that he wrote in 1766. Bartram's article, which a London journal published in 1768, noted that upon hatching from eggs deposited in the twigs of trees, the young insects ran down to the earth and "entered the first opening that they could find". He reported that he had been able to discover them 10 feet (3 m) below the surface, but that others had reportedly found them 30 feet (9 m) deep.[67]

In 1775, Thomas Jefferson recorded in his "Garden Book" Brood II's 17-year periodicity, writing that an acquaintance remembered "great locust years" in 1724 and 1741, that he and others recalled another such year in 1758 and that the insects had again emerged from the ground at Monticello in 1775. He noted that the females lay their eggs in the small twigs of trees while above ground.[68]

A Brood X Magicicada with abdominal Massospora cicadina infection in Bethesda, Maryland (May 31, 2021)

In April 1800, Benjamin Banneker, who lived near Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, wrote in his record book that he recalled a "great locust year" in 1749, a second in 1766 during which the insects appeared to be "full as numerous as the first", and a third in 1783. He predicted that the insects (Brood X) "may be expected again in they year 1800 which is Seventeen Since their third appearance to me".[69] Describing an effect that the pathogenic fungus, Massospora cicadina, has on its host,[70] Banneker's record book stated that the insects:

.... begin to Sing or make a noise from first they come out of the Earth till they die. The hindermost part rots off, and it does not appear to be any pain to them, for they still continue on Singing till they die.[71]

In 1845, Dr. D.L. Pharas of Woodville, Mississippi, announced the 13-year periodicity of the southern cicada broods in a local newspaper, the Woodville Republican.[28] In 1858, Pharas placed the title Cicada tredecim in a subsequent article that the newspaper published on the subject.[28] Ten years later, the American Entomologist published in December 1868 a paper that Benjamin Dann Walsh and Charles Valentine Riley had writen that also reported the 13-year periodicity of the southern cicada broods.[28]

Walsh's and Riley's paper, which Scientific American reprinted in January 1869, illustrated the interior and exterior characteristics of the nymphs' emergence holes and raised turrets.[54] Their article, which did not cite Pharas' reports, was the first to describe the southern cicadas' 13-year periodicity that received widespread attention.[28] Riley later acknowledged Pharas' work in an 1885 publication on periodical cicadas that he authored.[28][72]

In 1998, an emergence contained a brood of 17-year cicadas (Brood IV) in western Missouri and a brood of 13-year cicadas (Brood XIX) over much of the rest of the state. Each of the broods are the state's largest of their types. As the territories of the two broods overlap (converge) in some areas, the convergence was the state's first since 1777.[73]

Use as human food[edit]

Magicicada species are edible when cooked for people who lack allergies to similar foods. A number of recipes are available for this purpose. Some recommend collecting the insects shortly after molting while still soft. Others exhibit preferences for emergent nymphs or hardened adults.[74]

The insects have historically been eaten by Native Americans, who roasted them in hot ovens, stirring them until they were well browned.[75] Marlatt wrote in 1907:

The use of the newly emerged and succulent cicadas as an article of human diet has merely a theoretical interest, because, if for no other reason, they occur too rarely to have any real value. There is also the much stronger objection in the instinctive repugnance which all insects seem to inspire as an article of food to most civilized nations. Theoretically, the Cicada, collected at the proper time and suitably dressed and served, should be a rather attractive food. The larvae have lived solely on vegetable matter of the cleanest and most whole-some sort, and supposedly, therefore, would be much more palatable and suitable for food than the oyster, with its scavenger habit of living in the muddy ooze of river bottoms, or many other animals which are highly prized and which have not half so clean a record as the periodical Cicada.[76]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Maxine Shoemaker Heath (1978). Genera of American cicadas north of Mexico (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Florida. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.42291.
  2. ^ a b "General Periodical Cicada Information". Cicadas. Storrs, Connecticut: University of Connecticut. February 16, 2017. Archived from the original on May 11, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  3. ^ Marshall, DC; Moulds, M; Hill, KBR; Price, BW; Wade, EJ; Owen, CO; Goemans, G; Marathe, K; Sarkar, V; Cooley, JR; Sanborn, AF; Kunte, K; Villet, MH; Simon, C (2018). "A molecular phylogeny of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) with a review of tribe and subfamily classification". Zootaxa. 4424 (1): 1–64. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4424.1.1. PMID 30313477. Archived from the original on August 23, 2018.
  4. ^ Lloyd, M. & H.S. Dybas (1966). "The periodical cicada problem. I. Population ecology". Evolution. 20 (2): 133–149. doi:10.2307/2406568. JSTOR 2406568. PMID 28563627.
  5. ^ a b c Williams, K.S. & C. Simon (1995). "The ecology, behavior, and evolution of periodical cicadas" (PDF). Annual Review of Entomology. 40: 269–295. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.40.010195.001413. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 29, 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d Alexander, Richard D.; Moore, Thomas E. (1962). "The Evolutionary Relationships of 17-Year and 13-Year Cicadas, and Three New Species (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada)" (PDF). University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 26, 2012.
  7. ^ a b Capinera, John L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer. pp. 2785–2794. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016.
  8. ^ Stranahan, Nancy. "Nature Notes from the Eastern Forest". Arc of Appalachia. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  9. ^ (1) Dan (June 28, 2008). "Do cicadas bite or sting?". Cicada Mania. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
    (2) Miller, Korin (March 24, 2021). "How to Prepare for a Swarm of Cicadas This Year—and Why You Should Never Kill Them". Prevention. Hearst Magazine Media, Inc. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
    (3) West Virginia University (July 27, 2020). "Return of the zombie cicadas: Manipulative qualities of fungal-infected flyers". Science Daily. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  10. ^ Cook, William M.; Robert D. Holt (2002). "Periodical cicada (Magicicada cassini) oviposition damage: visually impressive yet dynamically irrelevant" (PDF). American Midland Naturalist. 147 (2): 214–224. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2002)147[0214:PCMCOD]2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2011.
  11. ^ (1) Cox, Lauren; Hernandez, Daisy (June 14, 2020). "How to Deal With the Cacophony of Brood X Cicadas This Spring". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazine Media, Inc. Archived from the original on April 6, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
    (2) Raupp, Michael J. (May 15, 2013). "Brood II Up In Maryland, Magicicada spp." Bug Of The Week. University of Maryland Extension. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  12. ^ Cooley, John R.; Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R. (January 23, 2018). "A specialized fungal parasite (Massospora cicadina) hijacks the sexual signals of periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)" (PDF). Scientific Reports. Springer Nature. 8 (1432): 1432. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.1432C. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19813-0. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5780379. PMID 29362478. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  13. ^ Marlatt, C. L. (1907). "The Habits of the Larva and Pupa.: The Food of the Larva and Pupa.". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology—Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 123–125. LCCN agr07001971. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  14. ^ White, J; Lloyd, M. (1979). "Seventeen year cicadas emerging after eighteen years-a new brood?". Evolution. 33 (4): 1193–1199. doi:10.2307/2407477. JSTOR 2407477. PMID 28563914.
  15. ^ Heath, J.E. (1968). "Synchronization of Emergence in Periodical "17-year" Cicadas (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada)". American Midland Naturalist. 80 (2): 440–448. doi:10.2307/2423537. JSTOR 2423537.
  16. ^ Marlatt, C.L (1907). "Transformation to the Adult Stage.: Cicada Huts, or Cones.". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology — Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 91–98. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  17. ^ Betard, F. (2020). "Insects as zoogeomorphic agents: an extended review". Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 46: 89–109. doi:10.1002/esp.4944. S2CID 225534427.
  18. ^ "Sexual Signals in Periodical Cicadas" (PDF). Behaviour. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
  19. ^ Dybas, H. S.; Davis, D. D. (1962). "A populations census of seventeen-year periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)". Ecology. 43 (3): 432–444. doi:10.2307/1933372. JSTOR 1933372.
  20. ^ Williams, K. S.; Smith, K. G.; Stephen, F. M. (1993). "Emergence of 13-year periodical cicadas (Cicadidae, Magicicada): phenology, mortality, and predator satiation". Ecology. 74 (4): 1143–1152. doi:10.2307/1940484. JSTOR 1940484.
  21. ^ Goles, E.; Schulz, O.; Markus, M. (2001). "Prime number selection of cycles in a predator-prey model". Complexity. 6 (4): 33–38. Bibcode:2001Cmplx...6d..33G. doi:10.1002/cplx.1040.
  22. ^ a b Cox, R. T. & C. E. Carlton (1988). "Paleoclimatic influences in the evolution of periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.)". American Midland Naturalist. 120 (1): 183–193. doi:10.2307/2425898. JSTOR 2425898. S2CID 4213280.
  23. ^ Tanaka, Y; Yoshimura, J.; Simon, C.; Cooley, J.; Tainaka, K. (2009). "Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (22): 8975–8979. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.8975T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900215106. PMC 2690011. PMID 19451640.
  24. ^ a b Cox, R. T. & C. E. Carlton (1991). "Evidence of genetic dominance of the 13-year life cycle in periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.)". American Midland Naturalist. 125 (1): 63–74. doi:10.2307/2426370. JSTOR 2426370.
  25. ^ a b Yang, Louie H. (2004). "Periodical Cicadas as Resource Pulses in North American Forests". Science. 306 (5701): 1565–1567. Bibcode:2004Sci...306.1565Y. doi:10.1126/science.1103114. PMID 15567865. S2CID 27088981.
  26. ^ "National Geographic: Cicada Outbreaks Linked to Other Animals' Booms, Busts". Archived from the original on July 22, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
  27. ^ Marlatt, C. L. (1907). "The Classification of the Broods". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology—Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 28–30. LCCN agr07001971. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Marlatt, C.L (1907). "The Races, Broods, and Varieties of the Cicada: A Seventeen–Year Race and a Thirteen–Year Race". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology — Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 14–18. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  29. ^ Marlatt, C.L (1907). "Summary of the Habits and Characteristics of the Cicada.". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology — Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 13–14. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  30. ^ Post, Susan L. (2004). "A Trill of a Lifetime". The Illinois Steward. Archived from the original on May 10, 2007.
  31. ^ "Brood IV". Cicadas. Storrs, Connecticut: University of Connecticut. February 21, 2017. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  32. ^ "Periodical Cicada - Brood V". United States Department of Agriculture: United States Forest Service. April 15, 2016. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016.
  33. ^ "Brood X (17-year)". Museum of Zoology, Division of Insects. University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015.
  34. ^ Sheikh, Knvul (May 27, 2017). "Brood Awakening: 17-Year Cicadas Emerge 4 Years Early". Scientific American.
  35. ^ "Swarms of cicadas emerging in Midwest". Associated Press. May 20, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2007.
  36. ^ "Brood XXII (13-year) The Baton Rouge Brood". National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  37. ^ Marshall, David C.; Moulds, Max; Hill, Kathy B. R.; Price, Benjamin W.; Wade, Elizabeth J.; Owen, Christopher L.; Goemans, Geert; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Cooley, John R.; Sanborn, Allen F. (May 28, 2018). "A molecular phylogeny of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) with a review of tribe and subfamily classification". Zootaxa. 4424 (1): 1–64. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4424.1.1. ISSN 1175-5334. PMID 30313477.
  38. ^ says, Dave (January 10, 2019). "Chrysolasia guatemalena (Distant, 1883)". Cicada Mania. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  39. ^ "Magicicada species". National Geographic Society. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
  40. ^ Fisher, J. C. 1852. On a new species of Cicada. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 5: 272-275.
  41. ^ (1) Sanborn, A. F. 2013. Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). With contributions to the bibliography by Martin H. Villet. Elsevier. Inc., Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
    (2) Duffels, J.P., and P. A. van der Laan. 1984. Catalogue of the Cicadoidea (Homoptera, Auchenorhyncha) 1956-1980. Series Entomologica vol. 34. 414 pp. Junk, Dordrecht, Netherlands
    (3) Metcalf, Z.P., 1963. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fasc. 8. Cicadoidea. Part 1: Cicadidae. vii, 919 pages. Part 2: vi, 492 pages. [Species index by Virginia Wade, 1964, 26 pp.] University of North Carolina State College, Raleigh, U.S.A.
    (4) Dmitriev, D. 2003. 3I Interactive Keys and Taxonomic Databases.
  42. ^ ICZN, 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th Edition Archived 24 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, Natural History Museum, London.
  43. ^ Alexander, R.D., and T. E. Moore. 1962. The evolutionary relationships of 17-year and 13-year cicadas, and three new species (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan 121: 1-59.
  44. ^ (1) Rebecca S. Taylor and Vicki L. Friesen (2017). "The role of allochrony in speciation". Molecular Ecology. 26 (13): 3330–3342. doi:10.1111/mec.14126. PMID 28370658. S2CID 46852358.
    (2) Marshall, D. C.; Cooley, J. R. (2000). "Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecem". Evolution. 54 (4): 1313–1325. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00564.x. PMID 11005298. S2CID 28276015.
    (3) Simon, C.; Tang, J.; Dalwadi, S.; Staley, G.; Deniega, J.; Unnasch, T. R. (2000). "Genetic evidence for assortative mating between 13-year cicadas and sympatric '17-year cicadas with 13-year life cycles' provides support for allochronic speciation". Evolution. 54 (4): 1326–1336. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00565.x. PMID 11005299. S2CID 19105047.
  45. ^ a b Sota, Teiji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Cooley, John R.; Hill, Kathy B. R.; Simon, Chris5; Yoshimura, Jin (April 23, 2013). "Independent divergence of 13- and 17-y life cycles among three periodical cicada lineages". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (17): 6919–6924. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.6919S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1220060110. PMC 3637745. PMID 23509294.
  46. ^ "Broods". Cicadas. University of Connecticut. February 27, 2017. Archived from the original on March 31, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  47. ^ a b See Figure 1, p. 107 in Cooley, John R.; Kritsky, Gene; Edwards, Marten J.; Zyla, John D.; Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R.; Krauss, Rachel; Simon, Chris. "The distribution of periodical cicadas" (PDF). American Entomologist. 55 (2): 106–112. doi:10.1093/ae/55.2.106. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 26, 2011.
  48. ^ Omara-Otunnu, Elizabeth (April 26, 2004). "Lifecycles Of Cicada Species Are Focus Of Biologist's Research". The UConn Advance. University of Connecticut. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  49. ^ "Making Modern Maps: A National Geographic Society sponsored project". Cicadas. University of Connecticut. February 18, 2017. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021. To date, we have surveyed and mapped over 10,000 localities within periodical cicada emergences, using detailed base maps and GPS technology, such as the custom GPS datalogger ... .
  50. ^ (1) "Crowdsourcing". Cicadas. University of Connecticut. January 25, 2021. Archived from the original on March 27, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021. You can report periodical cicadas using the Cicada Safari App, available on the Google Play Store or the Apple Store.
    (2) "Mapping Techniques". Cicadas. University of Connecticut. May 19, 2020. Archived from the original on March 27, 2021. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  51. ^ Hilary Christensen & Marilyn L. Fogel (2011) Feeding ecology and evidence for amino acid synthesis in the periodical cicada (Magicicada). Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 211–219
  52. ^ Campbell, Matthew A.; Łukasik, Piotr; Simon, Chris; McCutcheon, John P. (2017). "Idiosyncratic Genome Degradation in a Bacterial Endosymbiont of Periodical Cicadas". Current Biology. 27 (22): 3568–3575.e3. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.10.008. PMID 29129532.
  53. ^ Bradford, William. "The 10. Chap.: Showing how they sought out a place of habitation, and what befell them thereaboute.". In Davis, William T. (1908) (ed.). Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation: 1606-1646. Original Narratives of Early American History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 105. LCCN 08007375. OCLC 954260374. Retrieved September 10, 2020 – via HathiTrust Digital Library.
  54. ^ a b "Seventeen and thirteen year locusts". Scientific American. New series. New York: Munn & Company. 20 (13): 195–196. March 27, 1869. Retrieved July 24, 2021 – via Google Books.
  55. ^ (1) Morton, Nathaniel (1669). "1633". In Higginson, John; Thatcher, Thomas (eds.). New-England's Memorial: or, A brief relation of the most memorable and remarkable passages of the providence of God manifested to the planters of New-England in America : with special reference to the first colony thereof, called New-Plimouth.: As also a nomination of divers of the most eminent instruments deceased, both of church & common wealth. Improved in the first beginning and after progress of sundry of the respective jurisdictions in those parts; in reference unto sundry exemplary passages of their lives, & the time of their death. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Printed by S. G. and M. J. for John Usher of Boston. pp. 116–118. LCCN 01012090. OCLC 685167252. Retrieved October 7, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
    (2) Barton, Benjamin Smith, ed. (1805). "On the Locusts of North America: Note". The Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal. 1. Philadelphia: J. Conrad & Co. p. 59. LCCN sf88091541. OCLC 565367549. Retrieved October 7, 2020 – via HathiTrust Digital Library.
  56. ^ a b c Marlatt, C.L (1898). "The Periodical Cicada in Literature". The Periodical Cicada: An Account of Cicada Septendecim, Its Natural Enemies and the Means of Preventing its Injury, Together with a Summary of the Distribution of the Different Broods. United States Department of Agriculture: Division of Entomology: Bulletin No. 14 - New Series. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 112–118. OCLC 1039550735. Retrieved July 29, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  57. ^ Marlatt, C.L (1907). "Brood XIV—Septendecim". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology — Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 58. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  58. ^ Kritsky, Gene (July 1, 2001). "Periodical Revolutions and the Early History of the "Locust" in American Cicada Terminology" (PDF). American Entomologist. 47 (3): 186–188. doi:10.1093/ae/47.3.186. OCLC 5710011450. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 7, 2020.
  59. ^ Dudley, Paul (1733). "Periodical Revolutions". Additional Manuscripts 4433, Folios 4-11, Division of Manuscripts of the British Library, London. Cited in Kritsky, Gene (2004). "John Bartram and the Periodical Cicadas: A Case Study (Reference No. 16)". In Hoffmann, Nancy E.; Van Horne, John C. (eds.). America's Curious Botanist: A Tercentennial Reappraisal of John Bartram 1699-1777. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. p. 49. ISBN 9780871692498. LCCN 2003050212. OCLC 891409264. Retrieved July 29, 2021 – via Google Books. Moreover, the first time the Society had heard about periodical cicadas was from Paul Dudley, who sent a manuscript to the Society in 1733. .... Dudley correctly noted the seventeen-year life cycle and provided evidence. However, Collinson's paper shows that he used Bartram's claim of a fifteen-year cycle in his paper.
  60. ^ Kritsky, Gene (2004). "John Bartram and the Periodical Cicadas: A Case Study". In Hoffmann, Nancy E.; Van Horne, John C. (eds.). America's Curious Botanist: A Tercentennial Reappraisal of John Bartram 1699-1777. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. p. 44. ISBN 9780871692498. LCCN 2003050212. OCLC 891409264. Retrieved July 29, 2021 – via Google Books.
  61. ^ Sandel, Andreas (January 1906). "Extracts from the Journal of Rev. Andreas Sandel, Pastor of "Gloria Dei" Swedish Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, 1702-1719: May 9, 1715". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 30. Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. pp. 448–449. ISSN 0031-4587. JSTOR 20085357. OCLC 1762062. Retrieved October 7, 2020 – via Google Books.
  62. ^ Kalm, Peter (1772). "Preface". Travels into North America; Containing Its Natural History, and a Circumstantial Account of Its Plantations and Agriculture in General, with the Civil, Ecclesiastical and Commercial State of the Country, the Manners of the Inhabitants, and Several Curious and Important Remarks on Various Subjects. Translated into English by John Reinhold Forster. 1 (2nd ed.). London: Printed for T. Lowndes, No. 77, in Fleet-street. pp. v–vii. ISBN 9780665515019. LCCN 02013569. OCLC 1042021758. Retrieved August 24, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  63. ^ a b c d e Davis, J.J. (May 1953). "Pehr Kalm's Description of the Periodical Cicada, Magicicada septendecim L., from Kongl. Svenska Vetenskap Academiens Handlinger, 17:101-116, 1756, translated by Larson, Esther Louise (Mrs. K.E. Doak)" (PDF). The Ohio Journal of Science. 53: 139–140. hdl:1811/4028. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 29, 2019. Republished by "Knowledge Bank". The Ohio State University Libraries and Office of the Chief Information Officer. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
  64. ^ Kalm, Peter (1771). Travels into North America: Translated into English, By John Reinhold Foster. 2. London: T. Lowndess. pp. 212–213. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2020 – via Google Books..
  65. ^ Kalm, Peter (1771). Travels into North America: Translated into English, By John Reinhold Foster. 2. London: T. Lowndess. pp. 6–7. Retrieved September 10, 2020 – via Google Books.
  66. ^ Linnaei, Caroli (1758). Insecta. Hemiptera. Cicada. Mannifera. septendecim. Systema Naturae Per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. 1 (10 ed.). Stockholm, Sweden: Laurentii Salvii. pp. 436–437. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL).
  67. ^ Bartram, Moses (1766). "Observations on the cicada, or locust of America, which appears periodically once in 16 or 17 years. Communicated by the ingenious Peter Collinson, Esq.". The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politicks, and Literature, for the Year 1767. London: Printed for J. Dodsley (1768). pp. 103–106. OCLC 642534652. Retrieved May 21, 2017 – via Google Books.
  68. ^ Jefferson, Thomas (1775). Betts, Edward Morris (ed.). "Thomas Jefferson's garden book, 1766-1824, with relevant extracts from his other writings". Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. 22: 68. LCCN 45001776. OCLC 602659598. Retrieved May 20, 2017 – via Google Books. Dr. Walker sais he remembers that the years 1724 and 1741 were great locust years. we all remember that 1758 was and now they are come again this year of 1775. It appears that they come periodically from the ground once in 17 years. They come out of the ground from a prodigious depth. It is thought they eat nothing while in this state, laying their eggs in the small twigs of trees seems to be their only business. The females make a noise well known. The males are silent.
  69. ^ (1) Latrobe, pp. 11–12.
    (2) Barber, Janet E.; Nkwanta, Asamoah (2014). "Benjamin Banneker's Original Handwritten Document: Observations and Study of the Cicada". Journal of Humanistic Mathematics. 4 (1): 112–122. doi:10.5642/jhummath.201401.07. ISSN 2159-8118. OCLC 700943261. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014. Page 115, Fig. 3: Image of page in Benjamin Banneker's Astronomical Journal, 1791-1806. Manuscript written by Benjamin Banneker (MS 2700). Special Collection. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland: "The first great Locust year that I can Remember was 1749. ....".
  70. ^ Cooley, John R.; Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R. (January 23, 2018). "A specialized fungal parasite (Massospora cicadina) hijacks the sexual signals of periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)" (PDF). Scientific Reports. Springer Nature. 8 (1432): 1–6. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.1432C. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19813-0. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5780379. PMID 29362478. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  71. ^ (1) Latrobe, p. 12.
    (2) Barber, Janet E.; Nkwanta, Asamoah (2014). "Benjamin Banneker's Original Handwritten Document: Observations and Study of the Cicada". Journal of Humanistic Mathematics. 4 (1): 112–122. doi:10.5642/jhummath.201401.07. ISSN 2159-8118. OCLC 700943261. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014. Page 115, Fig. 3: Image of page in Benjamin Banneker's Astronomical Journal, 1791-1806. Manuscript written by Benjamin Banneker (MS 2700). Special Collection. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland: "I like to forget that I inform to report that if their lives are Short they are merry, they begin to Sing or make a noise from first they come out of the Earth till they die. The hindermost part rots off, and it does not appear to be any pain to them, for they still continue on Singing till they die.".
  72. ^ Riley, Charles V. (1885). "The Periodical or Seventeen–Year Cicada And Its Thirteen-Year Race". The Periodical Cicada. An Account of Cicada Septendicim And Its Tridecim Race. With A Chronology of All Broods Known. United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology. Bulletin No. 8 (Second ed.). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 5–6. LCCN unk82081627. OCLC 868033643. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  73. ^ "Brood History and Outlook". Periodical Cicadas. Missouri Department of Conservation. Archived from the original on May 13, 2021. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
    (2) Uhlenbrock, Tom (May 19, 1998). "From 1998: 13- and 17-year cicadas coincided for first time since 1777". St. Louis, Missouri: St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  74. ^ (1) Would you Cook and Eat Cicadas? on YouTube. May 16, 2021, Arlington County, Virginia: Hank Productions. Retrieved July 27, 2021. (video, 7:18 minutes)
    (2) Cooking with cicadas on YouTube. May 24, 2021, Knoxville, Tennessee: WBIR Channel 10. Retrieved July 27, 2021. (video, 6:23 minutes)
    (3) Frothingham, R. Scott (2013). Cooking with Cicadas. FastForward Publishing. ISBN 9781484976388. OCLC 892659744. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021 – via Goodreads.
    (4) Jadin, Jenna; University of Maryland Cicadamaniacs (2004). "Cicada-Licious: Cooking and Enjoying Periodical Cicadas" (PDF). Tullabs.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
    (5) "If You Can't Beat 'Em, Eat 'em! (Cicada Recipes)". Cicada Invasion: Tracking the Outbreak of the Great East Coast Brood. Nashville, Tennessee: Anderson Design Group. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original on December 19, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2021 – via Blogger.
    (6) Sonde, Kari (May 5, 2021). "Can you eat cicadas? Yes, and here's the best way to catch, cook and snack on them". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
    (7) Larkin, Ximena N. (April 28, 2021). "What To Know About Cooking Cicadas Before Brood X Emerges in Your Backyard: Chef Joseph Yoon of Brooklyn Bugs shares his advice on the best way to enjoy the delicacy". thrillist. Group Nine Media. Archived from the original on May 10, 2010.
    (8) Hunter, Paul (June 13, 2021). "How to cook the perfect cicada: Chef thinks the beady-eyed insects are best when they're 'extra crispy'". Canada: CBC News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  75. ^ Marlatt, C. L. (1907). "The Cicada as an Article of Food". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology—Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 103. LCCN agr07001971. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  76. ^ Marlatt, C. L. (1907). "The Cicada as an Article of Food". The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology—Bulletin No. 71. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 104. LCCN agr07001971. OCLC 902809085. Retrieved July 26, 2021 – via Internet Archive.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]