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|Flavius Magnus Magnentius|
|Usurper of the Roman Empire|
Golden multiplus by Magnentius
|Reign||January 18, 350 – August 11, 353|
August 11, 353 (aged 50)|
Early life and career
Born in Samarobriva (Amiens), Gaul, Magnentius was the commander of the Herculians and Jovians, the Imperial guard units. When the army grew dissatisfied with the behavior of Emperor Constans, it elevated Magnentius at Autun on January 18, 350. Constans was abandoned by all except a handful of retainers, and he was slain shortly afterwards by a troop of light cavalry near the Pyrenees.
Magnentius quickly attracted the loyalty of the provinces in Britannia, Gaul, and Hispania, in part because he proved to be far more tolerant towards both Christians and Pagans. His control of Italia and Africa was secured through the election of his men to the most important offices. However, the short-lived revolt of Nepotianus, a member of the Constantinian dynasty, showed Magnentius that his status as emperor needed to be consolidated.
Magnentius tried to strengthen his grasp on the territories previously controlled by Constans, moving towards the Danube. Vetranio, commander of the Pannonian army, had been elected Augustus by his troops in Mursa on 1 March. This revolt had a loyalist mark, since Vetranio was supported by Constantina, and Constantius II himself recognized Vetranio, sending him the imperial diadem.
The remaining emperor of the family of Constantine I, Constantius II, broke off his war with Persia, and marched west from Syria. Despite Magnentius' efforts to win Vetranio over to his cause, the elderly Vetranio reached Constantius with his army, resigned the crown, and went into retirement in Bithynia.
After electing Magnus Decentius (probably his brother) as Caesar and gathering as many troops as possible, Magnentius advanced his armies to meet those of Constantius in the Battle of Mursa Major in 351; Magnentius led his troops into battle, while Constantius spent the day of battle praying in a nearby church. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were defeated and forced to retreat back to Gaul.
As a result of Magnentius' defeat, Italy ejected his garrisons and rejoined the loyalist cause. Magnentius made a final stand in 353 at the Battle of Mons Seleucus, after which he committed suicide by falling on his sword.
Following the suppression of Magnentius' rebellion, Constantius began to root out his followers. The most notorious agent he employed in this search was the primicerius notariorum Paulus Catena ("Paul the Chain").
Some sources state that Magnentius' father was a Briton and his mother a Frank. Gibbon gives that he was probably born in one of the colonies of Franks or Alemans founded by Constantius' grandfather, Constantius I. in Gaul. His wife, Justina, later married Valentinian I.
- Cameron, Averil, and Peter Garnsey ed., The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol XIII, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
- Drinkwater, J.F. (2000). "The revolt and ethnic origin of the usurper Magnentius (350–53), and the rebellion of Vetranio (350)". Chiron (30).
- (in French) Pierre Bastien (numismat), Le Monnayage de Magnence (350 – 353), Wetteren (Belgium), Édition numismatique romaine, 1983
Media related to Magnentius at Wikimedia Commons
Non-dynasticBorn: 18 January 350 Died: 11 August 353
| Roman Emperor
Served alongside: Constantius II and Decentius as appointed Caesar (junior emperor)
| Consul of the Roman Empire
Flavius Magnus Decentius Caesar,
Flavius Iulius Constantius Augustus V,
Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar