||This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (January 2015)|
Spectral lines of magnesium
|Name, symbol||magnesium, Mg|
|Appearance||shiny grey solid|
|Magnesium in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||12|
|Group, block||group 2 (alkaline earth metals), s-block|
|Element category||alkaline earth metal|
|Standard atomic weight (Ar)||24.305 (24.304–24.307)|
|Electron configuration||[Ne] 3s2|
|2, 8, 2|
|Melting point||923 K (650 °C, 1202 °F)|
|Boiling point||1363 K (1091 °C, 1994 °F)|
|Density near r.t.||1.738 g/cm3|
|when liquid, at m.p.||1.584 g/cm3|
|Heat of fusion||8.48 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||128 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||24.869 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||+2, +1 (a strongly basic oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 1.31|
|Ionization energies||1st: 737.7 kJ/mol
2nd: 1450.7 kJ/mol
3rd: 7732.7 kJ/mol
|Atomic radius||empirical: 160 pm|
|Covalent radius||141±7 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||173 pm|
|Crystal structure||hexagonal close-packed (hcp)|
|Speed of sound thin rod||4940 m/s (at r.t.) (annealed)|
|Thermal expansion||24.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)|
|Thermal conductivity||156 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||43.9 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)|
|Young's modulus||45 GPa|
|Shear modulus||17 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||45 GPa|
|Brinell hardness||44–260 MPa|
|Naming||after Magnesia, Greece|
|Discovery||Joseph Black (1755)|
|First isolation||Humphry Davy (1808)|
|Most stable isotopes of magnesium|
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all Group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.
Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe. It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernova, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine.
Magnesium occurs naturally only in combination with other elements, where it invariably has a +2 oxidation state. The free element (metal) can be produced artificially, and is highly reactive (though in the atmosphere, it is soon coated in a thin layer of oxide that partly inhibits reactivity — see passivation). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant-white light. The metal is now obtained mainly by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine, and is used primarily as a component in aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called magnalium or magnelium. Magnesium is less dense than aluminium, and the alloy is prized for its combination of lightness and strength.
Magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body, and the ions are essential to all cells. Magnesium ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia. Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations they help impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters. Magnesium is the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is a common component in fertilizers.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 Forms
- 3 Production
- 4 History
- 5 Uses as a metal
- 6 Useful compounds
- 7 Biological roles
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Elemental magnesium is a gray-white lightweight metal, two-thirds the density of aluminium. It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although, unlike the other alkaline earth metals, an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary for storage because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide that is fairly impermeable and difficult to remove. Magnesium has the lowest melting (923 K (1,202 °F)) and the lowest boiling point 1,363 K (1,994 °F) of all the alkaline earth metals.
Magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium, a similar group 2 metal. When submerged in water, hydrogen bubbles form slowly on the surface of the metal—though, if powdered, it reacts much more rapidly. The reaction occurs faster with higher temperatures (see #Precautions). Magnesium's reversible reaction with water can be harnessed to store energy and run a magnesium-based engine.
Magnesium also reacts exothermically with most acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), producing the metal chloride and hydrogen gas, similar to the HCl reaction with aluminium, zinc, and many other metals.
Magnesium is highly flammable, especially when powdered or shaved into thin strips, though it is difficult to ignite in mass or bulk. Flame temperatures of magnesium and magnesium alloys can reach 3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F), although flame height above the burning metal is usually less than 300 mm (12 in). Once ignited, such fires are difficult to extinguish, with combustion continuing in nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon), and water (forming magnesium oxide and hydrogen). This property was used in incendiary weapons during the firebombing of cities in World War II, where the only practical civil defense was to smother a burning flare under dry sand to exclude atmosphere from the combustion.
Magnesium may also be used as an igniter for thermite, a mixture of aluminium and iron oxide powder that ignites only at a very high temperature.
Source of light
When burning in air, magnesium produces a brilliant-white light that includes strong ultraviolet wavelengths. Magnesium powder (flash powder) was used for subject illumination in the early days of photography. Later, magnesium filament was used in electrically ignited single-use photography flashbulbs. Magnesium powder is used in fireworks and marine flares where a brilliant white light is required. It was also used for various theatrical effects, such as lightning, pistol flashes, and supernatural appearances.
Magnesium is the eighth-most-abundant element in the Earth's crust by mass and tied in seventh place with iron in molarity. It is found in large deposits of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals, and in mineral waters, where magnesium ion is soluble.
cation is the second-most-abundant cation in seawater (about ⅛ the mass of sodium ions in a given sample), which makes seawater and sea salt attractive commercial sources for Mg. To extract the magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to seawater to form magnesium hydroxide precipitate.
2 + Ca(OH)
2 → Mg(OH)
2 + CaCl
2 + 2 HCl → MgCl
2 + 2 H
From magnesium chloride, electrolysis produces magnesium.
As of 2013, magnesium alloy consumption was less than one million tons per year, compared with 50 million tons of aluminum alloys. Its use has been historically limited by its tendency to corrode, creep at high temperatures, and combust.
The presence of iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt strongly activates corrosion. Greater than a very small percentage, these metals precipitate as intermetallic compounds, and the precipitate locales function as active cathodic sites that reduce water, causing the loss of magnesium. Controlling the quantity of these metals improves corrosion resistance. Sufficient manganese overcomes the corrosive effects of iron. This requires precise control over composition, increasing costs. Adding a cathodic poison captures atomic hydrogen within the structure of a metal. This prevents the formation of free hydrogen gas, an essential factor of corrosive chemical processes. The addition of about one in three hundred parts arsenic reduces its corrosion rate in a salt solution by a factor of nearly ten.
High-temperature creep and flammability
Research showed that magnesium's tendency to creep at high-temperatures is eliminated by the adding scandium and gadolinium. Flammability is greatly reduced by a small amount of calcium in the alloy.
Magnesium forms a variety of compounds important to industry and biology, including magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (Epsom salts).
Magnesium has three stable isotopes: 24
Mg and 26
Mg. All are present in significant amounts (see table of isotopes above). About 79% of Mg is 24
Mg. The isotope 28
Mg is radioactive and in the 1950s to 1970s was produced by several nuclear power plants for use in scientific experiments. This isotope has a relatively short half-life (21 hours) and its use was limited by shipping times.
The isomer 26
Mg has found application in isotopic geology, similar to that of aluminium. 26
Mg is a radiogenic daughter product of 26
Al, which has a half-life of 717,000 years. Excessive quantities of stable 26
Mg have been observed in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions of some carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. This anomalous abundance is attributed to the decay of its parent 26
Al in the inclusions, and researchers conclude that such meteorites were formed in the solar nebula before the 26
Al had decayed. These are among the oldest objects in the solar system and contain preserved information about its early history.
It is conventional to plot 26
Mg against an Al/Mg ratio. In an isochron dating plot, the Al/Mg ratio plotted is27
Mg. The slope of the isochron has no age significance, but indicates the initial 26
Al ratio in the sample at the time when the systems were separated from a common reservoir.
China is the dominant supplier of magnesium, with approximately 80% of the world market share. China is almost completely reliant on the silicothermic Pidgeon process (the reduction of the oxide at high temperatures with silicon, often provided by a ferrosilicon alloy in which the iron is but a spectator in the reactions) to obtain the metal. The process can also be carried out with carbon at approx 2300 °C:
(s) + Si
(s) + 2CaO
(s) → 2Mg
(g) + Ca
(s) + C
(s) → Mg
(g) + CO
In the United States, magnesium is obtained principally with the Dow process, by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride from brine and sea water. A saline solution containing Mg2+
ions is first treated with lime (calcium oxide) and the precipitated magnesium hydroxide is collected:
(aq) + CaO
(s) + H
2O → Ca2+
(aq) + Mg(OH)
2(s) + 2 HCl → MgCl
2(aq) + 2H
+ 2 e− → Mg
- 2 Cl−
2 (g) + 2 e−
A new process, solid oxide membrane technology, involves the electrolytic reduction of MgO. At the cathode, Mg2+
ion is reduced by two electrons to magnesium metal. The electrolyte is Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The anode is a liquid metal. At the YSZ/liquid metal anode O2−
is oxidized. A layer of graphite borders the liquid metal anode, and at this interface carbon and oxygen react to form carbon monoxide. When silver is used as the liquid metal anode, there is no reductant carbon or hydrogen needed, and only oxygen gas is evolved at the anode. It has been reported that this method provides a 40% reduction in cost per pound over the electrolytic reduction method. This method is more environmentally sound than others because there is much less carbon dioxide emitted.
The United States has traditionally been the major world supplier of this metal, supplying 45% of world production even as recently as 1995. Today, the US market share is at 7%, with a single domestic producer left, US Magnesium, a Renco Group company in Utah born from now-defunct Magcorp.
The name magnesium originates from the Greek word for a district in Thessaly called Magnesia. It is related to magnetite and manganese, which also originated from this area, and required differentiation as separate substances. See manganese for this history.
In 1618, a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well there. The cows refused to drink because of the water's bitter taste, but the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal scratches and rashes. The substance became known as Epsom salts and its fame spread. It was eventually recognized as hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO
The metal itself was first produced by Sir Humphry Davy in England in 1808. He used electrolysis on a mixture of magnesia and mercuric oxide. Antoine Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. Davy's first suggestion for a name was magnium, but the name magnesium is now used.
Uses as a metal
The main applications of magnesium are, in order: aluminium alloys, die-casting (alloyed with zinc), removing sulfur in the production of iron and steel, and the production of titanium in the Kroll process.
Magnesium is used in super-strong, lightweight materials and alloys. For example, when infused with silicon carbide nanoparticles, it has extremely high specific strength.
Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II.
The Germans coined the name "Elektron" for magnesium alloy, a term is still used today. In the commercial aerospace industry, magnesium was generally restricted to engine-related components, due fire and corrosion hazards. Currently, magnesium alloy use in aerospace is increasing, driven by the importance of fuel economy. Development and testing of new magnesium alloys continues, notably Elektron 21, which (in test) has proved suitable for aerospace engine, internal, and airframe components. The European Community runs three R&D magnesium projects in the Aerospace priority of Six Framework Program.
In the form of thin ribbons, magnesium is used to purify solvents; for example, preparing super-dry ethanol.
- Wright Aeronautical used a magnesium crankcase in the WWII-era Wright Duplex Cyclone aviation engine. This presented a serious problem for the earliest models of the Boeing B-29 heavy bomber when an in-flight engine fire ignited the engine crankcase. The resulting combustion was as hot as 5,600 °F (3,100 °C) and could sever the wing spar from the fusilage.
- Mercedes-Benz used the alloy Elektron in the body of an early model Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR; these cars ran (with successes) at Le Mans, the Mille Miglia, and other world-class race events in 1955.
- Porsche used magnesium alloy frames in the 917/053 that won Le Mans in 1971, and continues to use magnesium alloys for its engine blocks due to the weight advantage.
- Volkswagen Group has used magnesium in its engine components for many years.
- Mitsubishi Motors uses magnesium for its paddle shifters.
- BMW used magnesium alloy blocks in their N52 engine, including an aluminium alloy insert for the cylinder walls and cooling jackets surrounded by a high-temperature magnesium alloy AJ62A. The engine was used worldwide between 2005 and 2011 in various 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 series models; as well as the Z4, X1, X3, and X5.
- Chevrolet used the magnesium alloy AE44 in the 2006 Corvette Z06.
Both AJ62A and AE44 are recent developments in high-temperature low-creep magnesium alloys. The general strategy for such alloys is to form intermetallic precipitates at the grain boundaries, for example by adding mischmetal or calcium. New alloy development and lower costs that make magnesium competitive with aluminium will increase the number of automotive applications.
Because of low weight and good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop and tablet computers, cameras, and other electronic components.
Magnesium, being readily available and relatively nontoxic, has a variety of uses:
- Magnesium is flammable, burning at a temperature of approximately 3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F), and the autoignition temperature of magnesium ribbon is approximately 473 °C (746 K; 883 °F). It produces intense, bright, white light when it burns. Magnesium's high combustion temperature makes it a useful tool for starting emergency fires. Other uses include flash photography, flares, pyrotechnics, and fireworks sparklers. Magnesium is also often used to ignite thermite or other materials that require a high ignition temperature.
- In the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents, which are useful in organic synthesis.
- As an additive agent in conventional propellants and the production of nodular graphite in cast iron.
- As a reducing agent to separate uranium and other metals from their salts.
- As a sacrificial (galvanic) anode to protect boats, underground tanks, pipelines, buried structures, and water heaters.
- Alloyed with zinc to produce the zinc sheet used in photoengraving plates in the printing industry, dry-cell battery walls, and roofing.
- As a metal, this element's principal use is as an alloying additive to aluminium with these aluminium-magnesium alloys being used mainly for beverage cans, sports equipment such as golf clubs, fishing reels, and archery bows and arrows.
- Specialty, high-grade car wheels of magnesium alloy are called "mag wheels", although the term is often misapplied to aluminium wheels. Many car and aircraft manufacturers have made engine and body parts from magnesium.
- Magnesium batteries have been commercialized as primary batteries, and are an active topic of research for rechargeable secondary batteries.
Magnesium metal and its alloys can be explosive hazards; they are highly flammable in their pure form when molten or in powder or ribbon form. Burning or molten magnesium reacts violently with water. When working with powdered magnesium, safety glasses with eye protection and UV filters (such as welders use) are employed because burning magnesium produces ultraviolet light that can permanently damage the retina of a human eye.
- Mg (s) + 2 H
2O (l) → Mg(OH)
2 (s) + H
Therefore, water cannot extinguish magnesium fires. The hydrogen gas produced intensifies the fire. Dry sand is an effective smothering agent, but only on relatively level and flat surfaces.
- 2 Mg + CO
2 → 2 MgO + C (s)
Hence, carbon dioxide fuels rather than extinguishes magnesium fires.
Magnesium compounds, primarily magnesium oxide (MgO), are used as a refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron, steel, nonferrous metals, glass, and cement. Magnesium oxide and other magnesium compounds are also used in the agricultural, chemical, and construction industries. Magnesium oxide from calcination is used as an electrical insulator in fire-resistant cables.
Magnesium phosphate is used to fireproof wood used in construction.
Magnesium hexafluorosilicate is used for moth-proofing textiles.
Mechanism of action
The important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions makes magnesium essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of all cells of all known living organisms. More than 300 enzymes require magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes using or synthesizing ATP and those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA. The ATP molecule is normally found in a chelate with a magnesium ion.
Dietary sources, recommended intake, and supplementation
In the UK, the recommended daily values for magnesium is 300 mg for men and 270 mg for women. Reduced magnesium in the diet of modern Western countries (compared to earlier generations) may be related to food refining and modern fertilizers that contain no magnesium.
Numerous pharmaceutical preparations of magnesium and dietary supplements are available. Magnesium oxide, one of the most common forms in magnesium dietary supplements because of its high magnesium content per weight, is the least bioavailable.
An adult has 22–26 grams of magnesium, with 60% in the skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and 1% extracellular. Serum levels are typically 0.7–1.0 mmol/L or 1.8–2.4 mEq/L. Serum magnesium levels may be normal even when intracellular magnesium is deficient. The mechanisms for maintaining the magnesium level in the serum are varying gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion. Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Excess dietary magnesium is excreted in feces, urine, and sweat.
Detection in serum and plasma
Magnesium status may be assessed by measuring serum and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations coupled with urinary and fecal magnesium content, but intravenous magnesium loading tests are more accurate and practical. A retention of 20% or more of the injected amount indicates deficiency. No biomarker has been established for magnesium.
Magnesium concentrations in plasma or serum may be monitored for efficacy and safety in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdose. The newborn children of mothers who received parenteral magnesium sulfate during labor may exhibit toxicity with normal serum magnesium levels.
Magnesium deficiency (hypomagnesemia) is common: it is found in 2.5–15% of the general population. The primary cause of deficiency is decreased dietary intake: only 32% of people in the United States meet the recommended daily allowance. Other causes are increased renal or gastrointestinal loss, an increased intracellular shift, and proton-pump inhibitor antacid therapy. Most are asymptomatic, but symptoms referable to neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and metabolic dysfunction may occur. Alcoholism is often associated with magnesium deficiency. Chronically low serum magnesium levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2, fasciculation, and hypertension.
- Intravenous magnesium is recommended by the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death for patients with ventricular arrhythmia associated with torsades de pointes who present with long QT syndrome; and for the treatment of patients with digoxin induced arrhythmias.
- Magnesium is the drug of choice in the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
- Hypomagnesemia, including that caused by alcoholism, is reversible by oral or parenteral magnesium administration depending on the degree of deficiency.
- There is limited evidence that magnesium supplementation may play a role in the prevention and treatment of migraine.
- Oral magnesium may be therapeutic for restless leg syndrome.
Sorted by type of magnesium salt, other therapeutic applications include:
- Magnesium sulfate, as the heptahydrate called Epsom salts, is used as bath salts, a laxative, and a highly soluble fertilizer.
- Magnesium hydroxide, suspended in water, is used in milk of magnesia antacids and laxatives.
- Magnesium chloride, oxide, gluconate, malate, orotate, glycinate, ascorbate and citrate are all used as oral magnesium supplements.
- Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate, and magnesium sulfate are used as antiseptics.
- Magnesium bromide is used as a mild sedative (this action is due to the bromide, not the magnesium).
- Magnesium stearate is a slightly flammable white powder with lubricating properties. In pharmaceutical technology, it is used in pharmacological manufacture to prevent tablets from sticking to the equipment while compressing the ingredients into tablet form.
- Magnesium carbonate powder is used by athletes such as gymnasts, weightlifters, and climbers to eliminate palm sweat, prevent sticking, and improve the grip on gymnastic apparatus, lifting bars, and climbing rocks.
- Magnesium l–threonate, a new form of magnesium, holds promise as a treatment of mild cognitive impairment. This form is capable of delivering high amounts of magnesium to the central nervous system and has in preclinical animal studies shown remarkable results, even reversing advanced Alzheimer’s in some cases. These findings have been replicated in the first double-blind placebo controlled human trial which showed similar efficacy in treating cognitive impairment. The results are in line with systematic reviews showing that Alzheimer’s patients have lower magnesium levels than healthy people. Despite the apparent simplicity of replenishing the brains stores of a vital mineral, this study parallels recent findings in other domains of neurobiology. For example, the finding that a new copper formulation is able to halt the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Overdose from dietary sources alone is unlikely because excess magnesium in the blood is promptly filtered by the kidneys. Overdose with magnesium tablets is possible in the presence of impaired renal function. There is a single case report of hypermagnesemia in a woman with normal renal function using high doses of magnesium salts for catharsis. The most common symptoms of overdose are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; other symptoms include hypotension, confusion, slowed heart and respiratory rate, deficiencies of other minerals, coma, cardiac arrhythmia, and death from cardiac arrest.
Function in plants
Plants require magnesium to synthesize chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis. Magnesium in the center of the porphyrin ring in chlorophyll functions in a manner similar to the iron in the center of the porphyrin ring in heme. Magnesium deficiency in plants causes late-season yellowing between leaf veins, especially in older leaves, and can be corrected by applying to the soil either Epsom salts (which is rapidly leached), or crushed dolomitic limestone.
- Capacity. Production figures withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.
- Conventional Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
- Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
- Bernath, P. F.; Black, J. H. & Brault, J. W. (1985). "The spectrum of magnesium hydride" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal 298: 375. Bibcode:1985ApJ...298..375B. doi:10.1086/163620.
- Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-0131755536.
- Ash, Russell (2005). The Top 10 of Everything 2006: The Ultimate Book of Lists. Dk Pub. ISBN 0-7566-1321-3.
- "Abundance and form of the most abundant elements in Earth's continental crust" (PDF). Retrieved 15 February 2008.
- Anthoni, J Floor (2006). "The chemical composition of seawater". seafriends.org.nz.
- "Magnesium in health". magnesium.com. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H. & Vicenzi, Edward P. (2000). "Condensed-phase modifications in magnesium particle combustion in air". Scripta Materialia 122: 30–42. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00101-2.
- DOE Handbook – Primer on Spontaneous Heating and Pyrophoricity. U.S. Department of Energy. December 1994. p. 20. DOE-HDBK-1081-94. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Hannavy, John (2013-12-16). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 9781135873271.
- Scientific American: Supplement 48. Munn and Company. 1899-01-01. p. 20035.
- Inc, Nielsen Business Media (1974-02-09). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 20.
- Altman, Rick (2007-01-01). Silent Film Sound. Columbia University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780231116633.
- Lindsay, David (2005-05-01). Madness in the Making: The Triumphant Rise & Untimely Fall of America's Show Inventors. iUniverse. p. 210. ISBN 9780595347667.
- McCormick, John; Pratasik, Bennie (2005-08-04). Popular Puppet Theatre in Europe, 1800-1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780521616157.
- Dodson, Brian (29 August 2013). "Stainless magnesium breakthrough bodes well for manufacturing industries". Gizmag.com. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Birbilis, N.; Williams, G.; Gusieva, K.; Samaniego, A.; Gibson, M. A.; McMurray, H. N. (2013). "Poisoning the corrosion of magnesium". Electrochemistry Communications 34: 295–298. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2013.07.021.
- "2011 Minerals Yearbook, Magnesium" (PDF). USGS. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- "Magnesium Overview". China magnesium Corporation. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C. (2007). "The Use of Solid-Oxide-Membrane Technology for Electrometallurgy". JOM 59 (5): 44–49. Bibcode:2007JOM....59e..44P. doi:10.1007/s11837-007-0064-x.
- Derezinski, Steve (12 May 2011). "Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles" (PDF). MOxST. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Vardi, Nathan (22 February 2007). "Man With Many Enemies". Forbes.com. Retrieved 26 June 2006.
- "Magnesium: historical information". webelements.com. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Davy, H. (1808). "Electro-chemical researches on the decomposition of the earths; with observations on the metals obtained from the alkaline earths, and on the amalgam procured from ammonia". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 98: 333–370. Bibcode:1808RSPT...98..333D. doi:10.1098/rstl.1808.0023. JSTOR 107302.
- "Magnesium Video – The Periodic Table of Videos – University of Nottingham". Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Baker, Hugh D. R.; Avedesian, Michael (1999). Magnesium and magnesium alloys. Materials Park, OH: Materials Information Society. p. 4. ISBN 0-87170-657-1.
- Ketil Amundsen; Terje Kr. Aune; Per Bakke; Hans R. Eklund; Johanna Ö. Haagensen; Carlos Nicolas; et al. (2002). "Magnesium". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_559. ISBN 3527306730.
- "UCLA researchers create super-strong magnesium metal". ucla.edu.
- Aghion, E.; Bronfin, B. (2000). "Magnesium Alloys Development towards the 21st Century". Materials Science Forum. 350–351: 19–30. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.350-351.19.
- Bronfin, B; et al. (2007). "Elektron 21 specification". In Kainer, Karl. Magnesium: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Magnesium Alloys and Their Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-527-31764-6.
- Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Vicenzi, Edward P. (2000). "Condensed-phase modifications in magnesium particle combustion in air". Scripta Materialia 122: 30–42. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00101-2.
- Dorr, Robert F (15 September 2012). Mission to Tokyo: The American Airmen Who Took the War to the Heart of Japan. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9781610586634.
- AAHS Journal. 44–45. American Aviation Historical Society. 1999.
- Luo, Alan A. & Powell, Bob R. (2001). "Tensile and Compressive Creep of Magnesium-Aluminum-Calcium Based Alloys" (PDF). Materials & Processes Laboratory, General Motors Research & Development Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
- "Magnesium (Powder)". International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). IPCS INCHEM. April 2000. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- "Science Safety: Chapter 8". Government of Manitoba. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
- "Chemistry : Periodic Table : magnesium : chemical reaction data". webelements.com. Retrieved 26 June 2006.
- "Magnesium Burns in Dry Ice (CO2 Saturated) Environment". Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- Linsley, Trevor (2011). "Properties of conductors and insulators". Basic Electrical Installation Work. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-08-096628-1.
- Romani, Andrea, M.P. (2013). "Chapter 3. Magnesium in Health and Disease". In Astrid Sigel; Helmut Sigel; Roland K. O. Sigel. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences 13. Springer. pp. 49–79. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_3.
- "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium". Office of Dietary Supplements.
- "Vitamins and minerals – Others – NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Wester PO (1987). "Magnesium". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45 (5 Suppl): 1305–12. PMID 3578120.
- Firoz M; Graber M (2001). "Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations". Magnes Res 14 (4): 257–62. PMID 11794633.
- Lindberg JS; Zobitz MM; Poindexter JR; Pak CY (1990). "Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide". J Am Coll Nutr 9 (1): 48–55. doi:10.1080/07315724.1990.10720349. PMID 2407766.
- Saris NE, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, Khawaja JA, Lewenstam A (April 2000). "Magnesium. An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects.". Clin Chim Acta 294 (1-2): 1–26. PMID 10727669.
- "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet:Magnesium". US National Institute of Health.
- "Magnesium | University of Maryland Medical Center". Umm.edu. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Arnaud MJ (2008). "Update on the assessment of magnesium status". Br. J. Nutr. 99 Suppl 3: S24–36. doi:10.1017/S000711450800682X. PMID 18598586.
- Rob PM; Dick K; Bley N; Seyfert T; Brinckmann C; Höllriegel V; et al. (1999). "Can one really measure magnesium deficiency using the short-term magnesium loading test?". J. Intern. Med. 246 (4): 373–378. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1999.00580.x. PMID 10583708.
- Franz KB (2004). "A functional biological marker is needed for diagnosing magnesium deficiency". J Am Coll Nutr 23 (6): 738S–41S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2004.10719418. PMID 15637224.
- Baselt, R. (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Biomedical Publications. pp. 875–7. ISBN 0-9626523-7-7.
- Ayuk J.; Gittoes N.J. (Mar 2014). "Contemporary view of the clinical relevance of magnesium homeostasis". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 51 (2): 179–88. doi:10.1177/0004563213517628.
- "Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 September 2008. Last paragraph
- Geiger H; Wanner C (2012). "Magnesium in disease" (PDF). Clin Kidney J 5 (Suppl 1): i25–i38. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr165.
- Zipes DP; Camm AJ; Borggrefe M; et al. (2012). "ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society" (PDF). Circulation 114 (10): e385–e484. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.178233. PMID 16935995.
- James MF (2010). "Magnesium in obstetrics". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 24 (3): 327–337. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2009.11.004. PMID 20005782.
- Euser, A. G.; Cipolla, M. J. (2009). "Magnesium Sulfate for the Treatment of Eclampsia: A Brief Review". Stroke 40 (4): 1169–1175. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.527788. PMC 2663594. PMID 19211496.
- Giannini, A. J. (1997). Drugs of Abuse (Second ed.). Los Angeles: Physicians Management Information Co. ISBN 0-87489-499-9.
- Teigen L, Boes CJ (2014). "An evidence-based review of oral magnesium supplementation in the preventive treatment of migraine". Cephalalgia (Review). doi:10.1177/0333102414564891. PMID 25533715.
There is a strong body of evidence demonstrating a relationship between magnesium status and migraine. Magnesium likely plays a role in migraine development at a biochemical level, but the role of oral magnesium supplementation in migraine prophylaxis and treatment remains to be fully elucidated. The strength of evidence supporting oral magnesium supplementation is limited at this time.
- Trenkwalder C, Hening WA, Montagna P, Oertel WH, Allen RP, Walters AS, Costa J, Stiasny-Kolster K, Sampaio C (2008). "Treatment of restless legs syndrome: an evidence-based review and implications for clinical practice". Mov. Disord. 23 (16): 2267–302. doi:10.1002/mds.22254. PMID 18925578.
- Gowariker, Vasant; Krishnamurthy, V.P.; Gowariker, Sudha; Dhanorkar, Manik; Paranjape, Kalyani (8 April 2009). The Fertilizer Encyclopedia. p. 224. ISBN 9780470431764.
- Li W, Yu J, Liu Y, Huang X, Abumaria N, Zhu Y, Huang X, Xiong W, Ren C, Liu XG, Chui D, Liu G (2014). "Elevation of brain magnesium prevents synaptic loss and reverses cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model". Molecular Brain 7 (65): 1–20. doi:10.1186/s13041-014-0065-y. PMID 25213836.
- Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu ZL, Xue F, Sadeghpour S (2015). "Efficacy and safety of MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, for treating cognitive impairment in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Journal of Alzheimer's disease 49 (4): 971–990. doi:10.3233/JAD-150538. PMID 26519439.
- Veronese N, Zurlo A, Solmi M, Luchini C, Trevisan C, Bano G, Manzato E, Sergi G, Rylander R (2016). "Magnesium Status in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review". American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 31 (3): 208–213. doi:10.1177/1533317515602674. PMID 26351088.
- Williams JR, Trias E, Beilby PR, Lopez NI, Labut EM, Bradford CS, Roberts BR, McAllum EJ, Crouch PJ, Rhoads TW, Pereira C, Son M, Elliott JL, Franco MC, Estévez AG, Barbeito L, Beckman JS (2016). "Copper delivery to the CNS by CuATSM effectively treats motor neuron disease in SOD(G93A) mice co-expressing the Copper-Chaperone-for-SOD.". Neurobiology of disease 89 (4): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2016.01.020. PMID 26826269.
- Kontani M; Hara A; Ohta S; Ikeda T (2005). "Hypermagnesemia induced by massive cathartic ingestion in an elderly woman without pre-existing renal dysfunction". Intern. Med. 44 (5): 448–452. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.44.448. PMID 15942092.
- Magnesium at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
- Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Magnesium
- "Magnesium – a versatile and often overlooked element: new perspectives with a focus on chronic kidney disease". Clin Kidney J 5 (Suppl 1). February 2012.
|Periodic table (Large cells)|