Magnesium sulfate

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Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate anhydrous.jpg
Anhydrous magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate.JPG
Epsomite (heptahydrate)
Coaq6SO4.tif
Xray
Names
IUPAC name
Magnesium sulphate
Other names
Epsom salt (heptahydrate)
English salt
Bitter salts
Bath salts
Identifiers
7487-88-9 YesY
14168-73-1 (monohydrate) YesY
24378-31-2 (tetrahydrate) YesY
15553-21-6 (pentahydrate) YesY
13778-97-7 (hexahydrate) YesY
10034-99-8 (heptahydrate) YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEBI CHEBI:32599 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1200456 N
ChemSpider 22515 YesY
DrugBank DB00653 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.453
E number E518 (acidity regulators, ...)
PubChem 24083
RTECS number OM4500000
UNII ML30MJ2U7I YesY
Properties
MgSO4
Molar mass 120.366 g/mol (anhydrous)
138.38 g/mol (monohydrate)
174.41 g/mol (trihydrate)
210.44 g/mol (pentahydrate)
228.46 g/mol (hexahydrate)
246.47 g/mol (heptahydrate)
Appearance white crystalline solid
Odor odorless
Density 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)
1.512 g/cm3 (11-hydrate)
Melting point anhydrous decomposes at 1,124°C
monohydrate decomposes at 200°C
heptahydrate decomposes at 150°C
undecahydrate decomposes at 2°C
anhydrous
26.9 g/100 mL (0 °C)
35.1 g/100 mL (20 °C)
50.2 g/100 mL (100 °C)
heptahydrate
71 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility 1.16 g/100 mL (18°C, ether)
slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol
insoluble in acetone
1.523 (monohydrate)
1.433 (heptahydrate)
Structure
monoclinic (hydrate)
Pharmacology
A06AD04 (WHO) A12CC02 (WHO) B05XA05 (WHO) D11AX05 (WHO) V04CC02 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other cations
Beryllium sulfate
Calcium sulfate
Strontium sulfate
Barium sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt, taking its name from a bitter saline spring in Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. The monohydrate, MgSO4·H2O is found as the mineral kieserite. The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.[1]

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. The anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately; the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions (for example, in medical preparations). Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses: for example, Epsom salt is also effective in the removal of splinters.[2]

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[3]

Uses[edit]

Medical[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is a common mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salt, used both externally and internally. Magnesium sulfate is highly water-soluble and solubility is inhibited with lipids typically used in lotions. Lotions often employ the use of emulsions or suspensions to include both oil and water-soluble ingredients. Hence, magnesium sulfate in a lotion may not be as freely available to migrate to the skin nor to be absorbed through the skin, hence both studies may properly suggest absorption or lack thereof as a function of the carrier (in a water solution vs. in an oil emulsion/suspension). Temperature and concentration gradients may also be contributing factors to absorption.

Epsom salt is used as bath salts and for isolation tanks. Magnesium sulfate is the main preparation of intravenous magnesium.

Internal uses include:

  • Oral magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a saline laxative or osmotic purgative.
  • Replacement therapy for hypomagnesemia[4]
  • Magnesium sulfate is a antiarrhythmic agent for torsades de pointes in cardiac arrest under the ECC guidelines and for managing quinidine-induced arrhythmias.[5]
  • As a bronchodilator after beta-agonist and anticholinergic agents have been tried, e.g. in severe exacerbations of asthma,[6] magnesium sulfate can be nebulized to reduce the symptoms of acute asthma.[6] It is commonly administered via the intravenous route for the management of severe asthma attacks.
  • Magnesium sulfate is effective in decreasing the risk that pre-eclampsia progresses to eclampsia.[7] IV magnesium sulfate is used to prevent and treat seizures of eclampsia. It reduces the systolic blood pressure but doesnt alter the diastolic blood pressure, so the blood perfusion to the foetus isnt compromised. It is also commonly used for eclampsia where compared to diazepam or phenytoin it results in better outcomes.[8][9]
  • In those who are at risk of a preterm birth. A systematic review suggested that intravenous magnesium sulfate before birth could reduce the risk of cerebral palsy and motor dysfunction in preterm infants by 30%.[10]
  • Magnesium sulfate has been used as an experimental treatment of Irukandji syndrome caused by envenomation by certain species of Irukandji jellyfish, but the efficacy of this treatment remains unproven.[11]
  • Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom salt may be given as first aid for barium chloride poisoning.[12][not in citation given]

An overdose of magnesium causes hypermagnesemia.

Pregnancy[edit]

Magnesium sulfate was once used as a tocolytic,[13][14] but meta-analyses have failed to support it as an anti-contraction medication.[15][16] Usage for prolonged periods (more than five to seven days) may result in health problems for the baby.[17]

In those at risk of an early delivery, magnesium sulfate appears to decrease the risk of cerebral palsy.[18][19] It is unclear if it helps those who are born at term.[20]

Bath salts and Flotation Tanks[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is used in bath salts, particularly in flotation therapy, where high concentrations raise the bath water's specific gravity, effectively making the body more buoyant. Traditionally, it is also used to prepare foot baths, intended to soothe sore feet. The reason for the inclusion of the salt is partially cosmetic: the increase in ionic strength prevents some of the temporary skin wrinkling (partial maceration) which is caused by prolonged immersion of extremities in pure water. Magnesium and sulfate ions are naturally present in some mineral waters.[21] The claimed health benefits of Epsom Salt baths have not been proven.[22]

Agriculture[edit]

In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil; magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, and sulfur is another important micronutrient.[23] It is most commonly applied to potted plants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes, roses, tomatoes, lemon trees, carrots, and peppers. The advantage of magnesium sulfate over other magnesium soil amendments (such as dolomitic lime) is its high solubility, which also allows the option of foliar feeding. Solutions of magnesium sulfate are also nearly neutral, compared with alkaline salts of magnesium as found in limestone; therefore, the use of magnesium sulfate as a magnesium source for soil does not significantly change the soil pH.[24]

Food Preparation[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in beer production to adjust the ion content of the brewing water and enhance enzyme action in the mash or promote a desired flavor profile in the beer.

It may also be used as a coagulant for making tofu.[25]

Chemistry[edit]

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water. During work-up, an organic phase is saturated with magnesium sulfate until it no longer forms clumps. The hydrated solid is then removed with filtration or decantation. Other inorganic sulfate salts such as sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate may also be used in the same way.

Marine use[edit]

Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is also used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals, as it is slowly depleted in their calcification process. In a magnesium-deficient marine aquarium, calcium and alkalinity concentrations are very difficult to control because not enough magnesium is present to stabilize these ions in the saltwater and prevent their spontaneous precipitation into calcium carbonate.[26]

Physical properties[edit]

Magnesium sulfate is highly soluble in water. The anhydrous form is strongly hygroscopic, and can be used as a desiccant. It is the primary substance that causes the absorption of sound in seawater[27] (acoustic energy is converted to thermal energy). Absorption is strongly dependent on frequency: lower frequencies are less absorbed by the salt, so that the sound travels much farther in the ocean. Boric acid also contributes to absorption, but the most abundant salt in seawater, sodium chloride, has negligible sound absorption.

Hydrates[edit]

Almost all known mineralogical forms of MgSO4 occur as hydrates. Epsomite is the natural analogue of "Epsom salt". Another heptahydrate, the copper-containing mineral alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O,[28] was recently recognized. Both are, however, not the highest known hydrates of MgSO4, due to the recent terrestrial find of meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, which is thought to also occur on Mars. Hexahydrite is the next lower (6) hydrate. Three next lower hydrates — pentahydrite (5), starkeyite (4) and especially sanderite (2) — are more rarely found. Kieserite is a monohydrate and is common among evaporitic deposits. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was reported from some burning coal dumps, but was never treated as a mineral.

The pH of hydrates is average 6.0 (5.5 to 6.5). Magnesium hydrates have water of crystallization.[29]

Manufacturing[edit]

The heptahydrate can be prepared by neutralizing sulfuric acid with magnesium carbonate or oxide, but it is usually obtained directly from natural sources.

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is prepared only by the dehydration of a hydrate.

Occurrence[edit]

Magnesium sulfates are common minerals in geological environments. Their occurrence is mostly connected with supergene processes. Some of them are also important constituents of evaporitic potassium-magnesium (K-Mg) salts deposits.

Bright spots observed by the Dawn Spacecraft in Occator Crater on the dwarf planet Ceres are most consistent with reflected light from magnesium sulfate hexahydrate.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Industrial Inorganic Chemistry, Karl Heinz Büchel, Hans-Heinrich Moretto, Dietmar Werner, John Wiley & Sons, 2d edition, 2000, ISBN 978-3-527-61333-5
  2. ^ "Quick Cures/Quack Cures: Is Epsom Worth Its Salt?". Wall Street Journal. April 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  4. ^ "Pharmaceutical Information – Magnesium Sulfate". RxMed. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  5. ^ "CPR and First Aid: Antiarrhythmic Drugs During and Immediately After Cardiac Arrest (section)". American Heart Association. Retrieved 29 August 2016. Previous ACLS guidelines addressed the use of magnesium in cardiac arrest with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (ie, torsades de pointes) or suspected hypomagnesemia, and this has not been reevaluated in the 2015 Guidelines Update. These previous guidelines recommended defibrillation for termination of polymorphic VT (ie, torsades de pointes), followed by consideration of intravenous magnesium sulfate when secondary to a long QT interval. 
  6. ^ a b Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH. Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest 2005;128:337-44. doi:10.1378/chest.128.1.337 PMID 16002955.
  7. ^ Duley, L; Gülmezoglu, AM; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Chou, D (Nov 10, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (11): CD000025. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000025.pub2. PMID 21069663. 
  8. ^ Duley, L; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Walker, GJ; Chou, D (Dec 8, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (12): CD000127. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000127.pub2. PMID 21154341. 
  9. ^ Duley, L; Henderson-Smart, DJ; Chou, D (Oct 6, 2010). "Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (10): CD000128. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000128.pub2. PMID 20927719. 
  10. ^ Doyle, LW; Crowther, CA; Middleton, P; Marret, S (Jun 2009). "Antenatal magnesium sulfate and neurologic outcome in preterm infants: a systematic review.". Obstetrics and gynecology. 113 (6): 1327–33. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a60495. PMID 19461430. 
  11. ^ Corkeron M (2003). "Magnesium infusion to treat Irukandji syndrome". Med J Aust. 178 (8): 411. PMID 12697017. 
  12. ^ "BARIUM CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE 4. First Aid Measures". Jtbaker.com. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  13. ^ "Magnesium sulfate for preterm labor". Webmd.com. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  14. ^ Lewis DF (September 2005). "Magnesium sulfate: the first-line tocolytic". Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 32 (3): 485–500. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2005.03.002. PMID 16125045. 
  15. ^ Simhan HN, Caritis SN (2007). "Prevention of Preterm Delivery". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (5): 477–487. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050435. PMID 17671256. 
  16. ^ Nanda, K; Grimes, DA (2006). "Magnesium sulfate tocolysis: Time to quit". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 108 (4): 986–989. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000236445.18265.93. PMID 17012463. 
  17. ^ "Magnesium Sulfate: Drug Safety Communication – Recommendation Against Prolonged Use in Pre-term Labor". FDA. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  18. ^ Doyle, LW; Crowther, CA; Middleton, P; Marret, S; Rouse, D (Jan 21, 2009). "Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD004661. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004661.pub3. PMID 19160238. 
  19. ^ Wolf, HT; Hegaard, HK; Greisen, G; Huusom, L; Hedegaard, M (Feb 2012). "Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.". Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 32 (2): 135–40. doi:10.3109/01443615.2011.638999. PMID 22296422. 
  20. ^ Nguyen, TM; Crowther, CA; Wilkinson, D; Bain, E (Feb 28, 2013). "Magnesium sulphate for women at term for neuroprotection of the fetus.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2: CD009395. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009395.pub2. PMID 23450601. 
  21. ^ "Bath - Hot Springs". Retrieved 16 October 2016. 
  22. ^ Ingraham, Paul. "Does Epsom Salt Work? The science of Epsom salt bathing for recovery from muscle pain, soreness, or injury". Pain Science. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  23. ^ Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. (9th ed., p. 791). Boston: Benjamin Cummings
  24. ^ "Pubchem: magnesium sulfate". 
  25. ^ US The present invention relates to a novel process for producing packed tofu, particularly a process for producing long-life packed tofu from sterilized soybean milk. 6042851, Matsuura, Masaru; Masaoki Sasaki & Jun Sasakib et al., "Process for producing packed tofu", published 28 Mar 2000 
  26. ^ "Do-It-Yourself Magnesium Supplements for the Reef Aquarium". Reefkeeping. 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  27. ^ "Underlying physics and mechanisms for the absorption of sound in seawater". Resource.npl.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  28. ^ Peterson, Ronald C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Seal, II, Robert R (Feb 2006). "Alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4·7H2O, a new mineral of the melanterite group, and cuprian pentahydrite: Their occurrence within mine waste". American Mineralogist. 91 (2–3): 261–269. doi:10.2138/am.2006.1911. 
  29. ^ Lucia Odochian "Study of the nature of the crystallization water in some magnesium hydrates by thermal methods," J. of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 45, Number 6, December, 1995. doi:10.1007/BF02547437
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External links[edit]