|by Antonio Vivaldi|
The composer on a 1725 etching by François Morellon de La Cave
|Vocal||SATB choir and solo|
Magnificat is the name of choral compositions by Antonio Vivaldi that set the Magnificat canticle. Vivaldi scored his best known version, RV 610, for soloists, four-part choir and orchestra. He based this setting on an earlier version for string orchestra only, while RV 610 also uses two oboes. A later version in which the three solo movements are replaced by five arias, to be sung by girls from the Ospedale della Pietà orphanage, was catalogued as RV 611. The concise work is well suited for use in vespers services.
He composed settings of the Magnificat canticle, a regular part of vespers services. Musicologists differ in dating the works, for example before 1717 or in 1719. According to the musicologist Michael Talbot, Vivaldi wrote the earliest version in G minor for the orphanage c. 1715, and copied it for a Cistercian monastery of Osek soon afterwards. He revised it in the 1720s, making the tenor and bass parts more suitable to male voices, and adding two oboes, which he used prominently as obbligato instruments in an expanded version of "Sicut locutus est". This version became known as RV 610. While Vivaldi assigned two choirs, with instructions in the choral movements to use one or the other or both, it remains monochoral music. Vivaldi wrote a later setting, RV 611, which retained the choral sections but replaced the three sections for solo voices by five more elaborate arias, in which individual girls from the orphanage could show off their skills. Their names were noted in the score.
Structure and scoring
Vivaldi structured the Magnificat, RV 610, in nine movements, eight for the text of the canticle (Luke 1:46-55) and the conclusion for the doxology. Set in G minor, it is scored for two soprano soloists, alto and tenor soloists, SATB choir, violin I and II, viola, and basso continuo, such as cello and organ. The following table shows the title, voices, tempo marking, time, key and text source for the nine movements. Performances require approximately 15 minutes. Performances of RV 611, with the elaborate arias, are given as 20 minutes.
|1||Magnificat||SATB||Adagio||G minor||Luke 1:46|
|2||Et exultavit||S A T||Allegro||B-flat major||Luke 1:47-49|
|3||Et misericordia||SATB||Andante molto||C minor||Luke 1:50|
|4||Fecit potentiam||SATB||Presto||3/4||A major||Luke 1:51|
|5||Deposuit potentes de sede||SATB (unisono)||Allegro||3/4||G minor||Luke 1:52|
|6||Esurientes implevit bonis||S S||Allegro||B-flat major||Luke 1:53|
|7||Suscepit Israel||SATB||Largo||D minor||Luke 1:54|
|8||Sicut locutus est||SAB||Allegro ma poco||F major||Luke 1:55|
|9||Gloria patri||SATB||Largo||G minor||Doxology|
In the second movement, three passages of the verse are given to different solo voices in an aria a tre. "Et exultavit spiritus meus" (And my spirit rejoices) is sung by the soprano, "Quia respexit humilitatem" (because he regarded the humility of his servant) by the alto, with a choral entry to illustrate "omnes generationes" (all generations), and the passage "Quia fecit mihi magna" (because he did great things for me) by the tenor.
The third movement, "Et misericordia ejus", speaks of the mercy of the Lord for all who fear him. Both mercy and fear are expressed in a dense tecture of imitative music, with chromatic lines and leaps of minor sixths and major sevenths, called "anguished intervals".
The fourth movement, "Fecit potentiam" (He exerts power), is a fast, powerful choral movement.
The seventh movement, "Suscepit Israel", is a short chorale movement saying that the Lord sustains Israel, adding in a faster middle section "Recordatus misericordiae suae" (remembering his mercy).
The eighth movement, "Sicut locutus est ad patres nostros" (As He has promised our fathers), is a cheerful trio for three soloists and two obbligato oboes. A reviewer described the lines of oboes and bassoon as "bubbly", in dialogue with "lively transparent vocal lines".
The final movement adds the traditional doxology on the biblical text "Gloria Patri" (Glory to the Father). The music recalls the beginning of the first movement, with a long chromatic melisma on "sancto" (holy). "Sicut erat in principio" (As it was in the beginning) is also reminiscent of the first movement but leads to a traditional double fugue treatment of "Et in saecula saeculorum" (and for ever and ever) in one voice and simultaneously "Amen" in another.
In 1994, a recording was made by the The King's Consort and Choir, conducted by Robert King. A 2002 recording was performed by the Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir with soloists and the Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, conducted by Tonu Kaljuste. In 2015, the work was recorded, along with Vivaldi's Gloria, by Le Concert Spirituel conducted by Herve Niquet. The soprano and alto choir sections perform the solo movements in this performance, which was also presented at the Festival Oude Muziek in Utrecht.
- See Ryom-Verzeichnis.
- Horn, Paul (23 October 1978). "Foreword" (PDF). Carus-Verlag. p. 3. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Talbot, Michael (1994). "Magnificat, RV610a". hyperion-records.co.uk. Hyperion Records. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Hugill, Robert (February 2013). "Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) / Kyrie, RV 587 / Gloria in D Major, RV 589 / Credo, RV 591 / Magnificat RV 610". musicweb-international.com. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
- Heller, Karl (1997). Antonio Vivaldi: The Red Priest of Venice. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-57467-015-8.
- Adams, Susan (2011). Vivaldi: Red Priest of Venice. Lion Books. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7459-5353-3.
- Kolneder, Walter (1970). Antonio Vivaldi: His Life and Work. University of California Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-520-01629-3.
- "Vivaldi, Antonio / Magnificat RV 610/611 / Arranged for Soloists, Choir and Organ". Bärenreiter. 2004. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Antonio Vivaldi: Magnificat / RV 610". Carus-Verlag. 1978. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Vivaldi: Gloria; Magnificat / Vivaldi / Le Concert Spirituel / Herve Niquet". ArkivMusic. 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
- Veen, Johan van (2016). "Antonio VIVALDI (1678 - 1741): "Gloria - Magnificat"". musica-dei-donum.org. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Magnificat (Antonio Vivaldi).|
- Magnificat (Vivaldi): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Free scores of Magnificat, RV 610a (Antonio Vivaldi) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
- on YouTube