Magrahat II

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Magrahat II
Community Development Block
Magrahat II is located in West Bengal
Magrahat II
Magrahat II
Location in West Bengal
Magrahat II is located in India
Magrahat II
Magrahat II
Location in India
Coordinates: 22°14′31″N 88°22′42″E / 22.2420°N 88.3784°E / 22.2420; 88.3784
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictSouth 24 Parganas
SubdivisionDiamond Harbour
Area
 • Total136.93 km2 (52.87 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total304,744
 • Density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, Hindi, English
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PIN
743355
Telephone code+91 3174
Vehicle registrationWB-19 to WB-22, WB-95 to WB-99
Lok Sabha constituencyJaynagar (SC)
Vidhan Sabha constituencyMagrahat Purba (SC)
Websitewww.s24pgs.gov.in

Magrahat II is a Community Development Block that forms an administrative division in Diamond Harbour subdivision of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Tebhaga Movement[edit]

During the Bengal Famine of 1943 the Communist Party of India provided relief to the peasantry of the Sundarbans area. In September 1946 Bangiya Pradeshik Kisan Sabha decided to launch the Tebhaga Movement. The peasant movement broke out in Kakdwip, Sonarpur, Bhangar and Canning. Kakdwip and Namkhana were the storm centres of the movement. The movement aimed at improving the share of the peasant engaged as sharecroppers. The prominent leaders of the movement were: Kansari Halder, Ashoke Bose and Rash Behari Ghosh. Peasant leaders like Gajen Malik, Manik Hazra, Jatin Maity, Bijoy Mondal and others rose to prominence. The movement continued till 1950, when the Bargadari Act was enacted. The Act recognised the right of the sharecropper to two-thirds of the produce when he provided the inputs.[1]

Land Reforms[edit]

During 1946-1950 the Tebhaga Movement in several parts of the 24 Parganas district led to the enactment of the Bargadari Act. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of Bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed peasant uprising against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD Block. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants. Subsequently, “Operation Barga” was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Magrahat II CD Block 407.19 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 267.28 acres or 70.54% of the vested land was distributed. The total number of patta holders was 1,582.[2]

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Magrahat II CD Block is located at 22°14′31″N 88°22′42″E / 22.2420°N 88.3784°E / 22.2420; 88.3784. It has an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft).

Magrahat II CD Block is bounded by Bishnupur I and Baruipur CD Blocks in the north, Jaynagar I CD Block in the east, Mandirbazar CD Block in the south and Magrahat I CD Block in the west.

It is located 27 kilometres (17 mi) from Alipore, the district headquarters.

Area & Administration[edit]

Magrahat II CD Block has an area of 136.93 square kilometres (52.87 sq mi). Magrahat police station serves this CD Block. Magrahat II panchayat samity has 14 gram panchayats. The CD Block has 83 inhabited villages.[3] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Magrahat.

Gram Panchayats[edit]

Gram Panchayats of Magrahat II CD Block/Panchayat Samiti are Amratala, Dehikalash, Dhamua North, Dhamua South, Dhanpota, Gokarni, Hotor Maryada, Jugdia, Magrahat East, Magrahat West, Mohanpur, Multi, Nainan and Urel Chandpur.[4]

Topography[edit]

South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent Geological Period, a large low-lying plain got exposed. Both Tidal inflows and the rivers have deposited sediments in this plain. The periodical collapse of both the natural Levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up the depressions containing Brackish Water wetlands. The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is Monsoon-dominated. Some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish.[5]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India, Magrahat II CD Block had a total population of 304,744, of which 218,504 were rural and 86,240 were urban. There were 156,568 (51%) males and 148,176 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 40,189. Scheduled Castes numbered 106,460 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 159.[6]

As per 2001 Census of India, Magrahat II CD Block had a total population of 262,022, out of which 135,145 were males and 126,877 were females. Magrahat II CD Block registered a population growth of 17.26% during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89%. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84%. Scheduled Castes at 98,469 formed over one-third the population. Scheduled Tribes numbered 2,086.[3][7][8]

Census Towns & Large Villages[edit]

Census Towns in Magrahat II CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets) are Dhamua (10,055), Shyampur (22,024), Nainan (6,772), Uttar Kalas (6,474), Dihi Kalas (11,494), Swangrampur (5,699), Bilandapur (6,330) and Magrahat (17,392).[6]

Large villages in Magrahat II CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets) are Chak Parankanta Khali (7,864), Uttar Amratala (4,483), Hotar (4,155), Marjyada (4,021), Kuldia (4,653), Mirzapur (4,049), Uttar Radhanagar (6,070), Harisankarpur (11,887), Mamudpur (4,367), Dakshin Kashi (4,490), Bisheshwarpur (4,443), Urel Chandpur (4,668), Gokarni (8,022), Barat Kamdebpur (8,660), Multi (10,215), Ramchandranagar (10,881) and Jugdia (13,579).[6]

Literacy[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India, the total number of literates in Magrahat II CD Block was 204,789 (77.41% of the population over 6 years) out of which 113,744 (55%) were males and 91,045 (45%) were females.[6]

As per 2011 Census of India, literacy in South 24 Parganas district was 77.51%.[9] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[10] Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[10]

As per 2001 Census of India, Magrahat II CD Block had a total literacy of 67.24% for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 77.89% female literacy was 55.85%. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45%, male literacy being 79.19% and female literacy being 59.01%.[3]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language[edit]

Bengali is the local language in this CD Block.

Religion[edit]

Religion in Magrahat II CD Block
Muslim
50.01%
Hindu
48.60%
Others
1.39%

In the 2011 Census of India, Muslims numbered 152,412 and formed 50.01% of the population in Magrahat II CD Block. Hindus numbered 148,091 and formed 48.60% of the population. Others numbered 4,241 and formed 1.39% of the population. Amongst the others, Christians numbered 3,542.[11]

In the 2011 Census of India, Hindus numbered 5,155,545 and formed 63.17% of the population in South 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,903,075 and formed 35.57% of the population.[11] In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[11]

Human Development Report[edit]

According to the South 24 Parganas district Human Development Report, it is an overwhelmingly rural district with 85% of the population living in rural areas. An analysis of the district’s population shows that 33% of the district’s population belongs to Scheduled Castes. While 65.86% of people are Hindus, 33.24% are Muslims. 86% of the population resided in the 29 CD Blocks. In 2005, more than 4 lakh households were identified as living below the poverty line, pushing the poverty ratio in the district to 34.11%, far above the state and national poverty ratios.[12]

Magrahat II CD Block had a poverty ratio of 29.26% of the households in 2005. In standard of living it was thirteenth amongst all the 29 CD Blocks. In infrastructure development it was eleventh amongst all CD Blocks. In Magrahat II CD Block, 15.59% households have access to electricity. The length of surfaced roads is 2.08 km per km2 area. The number of bank branches is 0.84 per 10,000 population. In Magrahat II CD Block, 45.09% of rural households are engaged as daily/ agricultural/ other physical labour, 15.91% are cultivators, 19.47% are self-employed rural artisans/ hawkers, 8.14% are engaged in labour oriented regular jobs in the unorganised sector, and 11.40% are engaged in the organised sector or work as professionals.[12]

As per 1991 Census of India, while male literacy rate was 66.17% female literacy was 34.52% and there was a gender gap of 31.65% in Magrahat II CD Block. The CD Blocks are gradually catching up with the municipalities in matters of literacy. In 2006, Magrahat II CD Block had 23 secondary and higher secondary schools. All but one of them had libraries, but 17 did not have computer facilities.[12]

In 2006, in Magrahat II CD Block for 132 villages there were 36 health sub-centres and three rural hospital/public health centres having 31 beds, with six medical officers, nine nurses, 53 health assistants and four pharmacists and technicians. 90.1% of the 374 habitations in Magrahat II CD Block had access to safe drinking water (including tube wells and tap water), 7.5% habitations were partly covered and 2.4% habitations were not covered.[12]


Health[edit]

Certain areas of South 24 Parganas district have been identified where ground water is affected by Arsenic Contamination.[13] High levels of arsenic in ground water were found in twelve CD Blocks of the district. Water samples collected from tubewells in the affected places contained arsenic above the normal level (10 micrograms per litre as specified by the World Health Organization). The affected CD Blocks are Baruipur, Bhangar I, Bhangar II, Bishnupur I, Bishnupur II, Basanti, Budge Budge II, Canning I, Canning II, Sonarpur, Magrahat II and Jaynagar I.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "District Statistical Handbook – 2009 – South 24 Parganas" (PDF). South 24 Parganas at a glance, Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.4 (b), 4.5. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  4. ^ "Blocks and Gram Panchayats in South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas District Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  5. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1 South 24 Parganas: An Overview, p 9-12. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  7. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – South 24 Parganas. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  8. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  9. ^ "District Census 2011". Population Census 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  11. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Intro: pp 16-19, 42 Block specific: pp 39-40, 73, 99, 132, 146, 192, 221. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  13. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (19 years study)". Groundwater arsenic contamination status of North 24-Parganas district, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India. SOES. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  14. ^ "High arsenic levels in South". The Statesman, 24 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2011.