Maha Vir Chakra

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Maha Vir Chakra
Mahavir-chakra
Maha Vir Chakra Medal
Awarded by India Republic of India
Country India Republic of India
Type Medal
Eligibility Military personnel only
Awarded for "... acts of gallantry in the presence of the enemy on land, at sea or in the air."[1]
Status Currently awarded
Statistics
Established 26 January 1950
First awarded 1947
Last awarded 2001
Precedence
Next (higher) Param Vishisht Seva Medal[2]
Next (lower) Kirti Chakra[2]
Maha Vir Chakra ribbon.svg
Service Ribbon

The Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) (literally great warrior medal) is the second highest military decoration in India, after the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. It replaced the British Distinguished Service Order (DSO). The medal may be awarded posthumously.

Appearance[edit]

The medal is made of standard silver and is circular in shape. Embossed on the obverse is a five pointed heraldic star with circular center-piece bearing the gilded state emblem of India in the center. The words "Mahavira Chakra" are embossed in Devanagari and English on the reverse with two lotus flowers in the middle. The decoration is worn on the left chest with a half-white and half-orange riband about 3.2 cm in width, the orange being near the left shoulder.[3]

History[edit]

More than 155 acts of bravery and selfless courage have been recognized since the inception of the medal. The most MVCs awarded in a single conflict was in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, when eleven were given to the Indian Air Force.

Provision was made for the award of a bar for a second award of the Maha Vir Chakra, the first two being awarded in 1965. To date, there are six known awards of a first bar:

# Rank Name Date of First Award Date of Second Award
1 Wing Commander Jag Mohan Nath 1 January 1962 1 September 1965
2 Major General Rajindar Singh 19 March 1948 6 September 1965
3 General Arun Shridhar Vaidya 16 September 1965 5 December 1971
4 Wing Commander Padmanabha Gautam 6 September 1965 5 December 1971
5 Colonel Chewang Rinchen 1 July 1948 8 December 1971
6 Brigadier Sant Singh 2 November 1965 2 January 1972

No second bars have been awarded. Award of the decoration carries with it the right to use M.V.C. as a postnominal abbreviation.

List of recipients[edit]

The Mahavir Chakra awardees include:[4]

# Rank Name Operation/War Date of Award
1 Lt Colonel Dewan Ranjit Rai 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 27-Oct-1947
2 Sep Dewan Singh 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 03-Nov-1947
3 Nt Chand Singh 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 22-Nov-1947
4 Sub Bishan Singh 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 12-Dec-1947
5 Jem Nand Singh 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 12-Dec-1947
6 Civ Dhobi Ramachander 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 18-Dec-1947
7 Major Gen Yadunath Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
8 Lt Colonel IJS Butalia 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
9 Lt Colonel Khushal Chand 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
10 Brigadier Mohammad Usman 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
11 Lt General Manmohan Khanna 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
12 Brigadier Rajinder Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
13 Lt Colonel Thakur Prithi Chand 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 01-Jan-1948
14 Major Annavi Krishnaswamy Ramaswamy 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 16-Jan-1948
15 Sep Man Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 25-Jan-1948
16 Hav Daya Ram 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 06-Feb-1948
17 Colonel Kishan Singh Rathore 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 06-Feb-1948
18 Sub Major (Hony Captain) Krishna Sonawale 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 06-Feb-1948
19 Major Sardar Malkiat Singh Brar 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 08-Feb-1948
20 Major Satyapal Chopra 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 15-Mar-1948
21 Lt Colonel Hari Chand 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 17-Mar-1948
22 Sep Hari Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 17-Mar-1948
23 Sub Gurdial Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 18-Mar-1948
24 Major General Rajindar Singh Sparrow 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 19-Mar-1948
25 Brigadier Arvind Nilkanth Jatar 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 08-Apr-1948
26 Nt Sis Pal Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 09-Apr-1948
27 Rfn Dhonkal Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 30-Apr-1948
28 Lt Colonel Kaman Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 18-May-1948
29 Jem Lal Bahadur Khattri 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 18-May-1948
30 Jem Hardev Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 24-May-1948
31 Nt Nar Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 31-May-1948
32 Nt Raju 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 11-Jun-1948
33 Sub Chuna Ram 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 15-Jun-1948
34 Civ Porter Mohd Ismail 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 23-Jun-1948
35 Sep Amar Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 25-Jun-1948
36 Major Chewang Rinchen 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 01-Jul-1948
37 Nt Pritam Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 03-Jul-1948
38 Jem Sampooran Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 06-Jul-1948
39 Brigadier Sher Jung Thapa 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 14-Aug-1948
40 Sub (Hony Captain) Fateh Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 14-Sep-1948
41 Lt Colonel Harbans Singh Virk 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 16-Sep-1948
42 Lt General Anil Krishna Barat 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 25-Sep-1948
43 L/Nt Rabi Lal Thapa 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 27-Sep-1948
44 Lt Colonel Dharam Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 08-Nov-1948
45 Major General Anant Singh Pathania 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 14-Nov-1948
46 Hav Ram Parsad Gurung 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 15-Nov-1948
47 Jem Lal Singh 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 15-Nov-1948
48 Brigadier Kanhya Lal Atal 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 23-Nov-1948
49 Captain Dara Dinshaw Mistry 1948 Operation Polo, Hyderabad 15-Dec-1948
50 Air Cmde Mehar Singh 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 26-Jan-1950
51 Air Mrshl Minoo Merwan Engineer 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 26-Jan-1950
52 Wg Cdr SB Noronha 1951 Operation Tomahawk 26-Jan-1950
53 Lt Colonel AG Rangaraj 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War 24-Mar-1951
54 Colonel Nirod Baran Banerjee 1961 Operation Vijay, Goa 29-Mar-1951
55 ACM Hrushikesh Moolgavkar 1961 Operation Vijay, Goa 08-Dec-1951
56 L/Nt Ran Bahadur Gurung 1962 Operation Leg Horn 06-Dec-1961
57 Nt Mahabir Thapa 1962 Operation Leg Horn 16-Dec-1961
58 Wg Cdr Jag Mohan Nath 1962 Operation Leg Horn 01-Jan-1962
59 Nt Chain Singh 1962 Operation Leg Horn 10-Oct-1962
60 Sub Kanshi Ram 1962 Operation Leg Horn 10-Oct-1962
61 Hav Saroop Singh 1962 Operation Leg Horn 19-Oct-1962
62 Lt Colonel Bhagwan Dutt Dogra 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
63 2nd Lt. Gopalkrishna Venkatesa Prasanna Rao 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
64 Lt Colonel Gurdial Singh 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
65 Captain Mahabir Prasad 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
66 Major Mahander Singh Chaudhary 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
67 Lt Colonel Sardul Singh Randhawa 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
68 Brigadier Sher Pratap Singh Shrikent 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
69 Sub Sonam Stobdan 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
70 General Tapishwar Narain Raina 1962 Operation Leg Horn 20-Oct-1962
71 Nb Sub (Hony Sub) Rabi Lal Thapa 1962 Operation Leg Horn 21-Oct-1962
72 Colonel Ajit Singh 1962 Operation Leg Horn 22-Oct-1962
73 Major General Bejoy Mohan Bhattacharjea 1962 Operation Leg Horn 25-Oct-1962
74 Sep Kewal Singh 1962 Operation Leg Horn 26-Oct-1962
75 Hav Satigian Phunchok 1962 Operation Leg Horn 27-Oct-1962
76 Jem Ishe Tundup 1962 Operation Leg Horn 27-Oct-1962
77 Rfn Jaswant Singh Rawat 1962 Operation Leg Horn 17-Nov-1962
78 Major Shyamal Dev Goswamy 1965 Operation Ablaze 18-Nov-1962
79 Lt Ved Prakash Trehan 1965 Operation Ablaze 29-Dec-1962
80 Major General Sushil Kumar Mathur 1965 Operation Ablaze 15-Apr-1965
81 Major Baljit Singh Randhawa 1965 Operation Ablaze 17-May-1965
82 Captain Chander Narain Singh 1965 Operation Ablaze 05-Aug-1965
83 Major General Sarup Singh Kalaan 1965 Operation Ablaze 05-Aug-1965
84 Lt General Ram Dharam Dass Hira 1965 Operation Ablaze 05-Aug-1965
85 Lt General Zorawar Chand Bakshi 1965 Operation Ablaze 05-Aug-1965
86 Colonel Gurbans Singh Sangha 1965 Operation Riddle 15-Aug-1965
87 Lt General Ranjit Singh Dyal 1965 Operation Riddle 25-Aug-1965
88 Major Bhaskar Roy 1965 Operation Riddle 01-Sep-1965
89 Wg Cdr Jag Mohan Nath 1965 Operation Riddle 01-Sep-1965
90 Air Cmde William Mac Donald Goodman 1965 Operation Riddle 01-Sep-1965
91 Sub Ajit Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
92 Brigadier Desmond Hayde 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
93 Major Gen Gurbaksh Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
94 Major Gen Rajindar Singh Sparrow 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
95 Lt General Har Krishen Sibal 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
96 Lt General Khem Karan Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
97 Lt Colonel Narindera Nath Khanna 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
98 Wg Cdr Padmanabha Gautam 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
99 Air Mrshl Prem Pal Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 06-Sep-1965
100 Brigadier Raghubir Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 07-Sep-1965
101 Lt Colonel Harbans Lal Mehta 1965 Operation Riddle 08-Sep-1965
102 Nb Sub (Hony Sub) Naubat Ram 1965 Operation Riddle 08-Sep-1965
103 Brigadier Thomas Krishnan Theogaraj 1965 Operation Riddle 08-Sep-1965
104 Major Gen Mohindar Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 09-Sep-1965
105 Brigadier Sampuran Singh 1965 Operation Ablaze 09-Sep-1965
106 Major General Salim Caleb 1965 Operation Riddle 10-Sep-1965
107 Major General Madan Mohan Singh Bakshi 1965 Operation Riddle 11-Sep-1965
108 General Arun Shridhar Vaidya 1965 Operation Riddle 16-Sep-1965
109 Major Asa Ram Tyagi 1965 Operation Ablaze 21-Sep-1965
110 Captain Kapil Singh Thapa 1965 Operation Riddle 21-Sep-1965
111 Brigadier Pagadala Kuppuswamy Nandagopal 1965 Operation Riddle 28-Sep-1965
112 Sub Tika Bahadur Thapa 1965 Operation Riddle 30-Sep-1965
113 Major Bhupinder Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 11-Oct-1965
114 Nt Darshan Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 02-Nov-1965
115 Captain Gautam Mubayi 1965 Operation Riddle 02-Nov-1965
116 Brigadier Sant Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 02-Nov-1965
117 Major Harbhajan Singh 1965 Operation Riddle 11-Sep-1967
118 Brigadier Rai Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 11-Sep-1967
119 Lt Colonel Mahatam Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Oct-1967
120 Lt General Anand Sarup 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
121 Brigadier Arun Bhimrao Harolikar 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
122 Major General Anthony Harold Edward Michigan 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
123 Major General Hardev Singh Kaler 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
124 Captain Mohan Narayan Rao Samant 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
125 Brigadier Rajkumar Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
126 Lt Colonel Surinder Kapur 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1971
127 L/Nt Ram Ugram Pandey 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 24-Nov-1971
128 Sep Ansuya Prasad 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 30-Nov-1971
129 Rfn Pati Ram Gurung 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 30-Nov-1971
130 Major Gen Shamsher Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Dec-1971
131 Vice Adm Swaraj Parkash 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Dec-1971
132 Major Anup Singh Gahlaut 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
133 Brigadier Basdev Singh Mankotia 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
134 Major General Anant Vishwanath Natu 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
135 Major General Kashmiri Lal Rattan 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
136 Major General Prem Kumar Khanna 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
137 Lt Colonel Jaivir Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
138 AVM Vidya Bhushan Vasisht 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 03-Dec-1971
139 Gp Captain Allan Albert D’Costa 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 04-Dec-1971
140 Sub Major (Hony Captain) Bir Bahadur Pun 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 04-Dec-1971
141 Cmde Kasargod Patnashetti Gopal Rao 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 04-Dec-1971
142 General Arun Shridhar Vaidya 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
143 Cmde Babru Bahan Yadav 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
144 Captain Devinder Singh Ahlawat 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
145 Lt General Krishnaswamy Gowri Shankar 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
146 Brigadier Kuldip Singh Chandpuri 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
147 Brigadier Narinder Singh Sandhu 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
148 Wg Cdr Padmanabha Gautam 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
149 Air Mrshl Ravinder Nath Bhardwaj 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
150 Lt Colonel Sawai Bhawani Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 05-Dec-1971
151 Lt General Joginder Singh Gharaya 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 06-Dec-1971
152 Brigadier Kailash Prasad Pande 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 06-Dec-1971
153 Brigadier Mohindar Lal Whig 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 06-Dec-1971
154 Sep Pandurang Salunkhe 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 06-Dec-1971
155 AVM Chandan Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 07-Dec-1971
156 Major Gen Chittoor Venugopal 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 07-Dec-1971
157 Lt General Joginder Singh Bakshi 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 07-Dec-1971
158 Sub Major Mohinder Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 07-Dec-1971
159 Major Chewang Rinchen 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 08-Dec-1971
160 P/O Chiman Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 08-Dec-1971
161 Cdr Joseph Pius Alfred Noronha 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 08-Dec-1971
162 Brigadier Udai Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 08-Dec-1971
163 Captain Mahendra Nath Mulla 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 09-Dec-1971
164 Nt Sugan Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 09-Dec-1971
165 Brigadier Rattan Nath Sharma 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 10-Dec-1971
166 Major Gen Harish Chandra Pathak 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 11-Dec-1971
167 Major Kulwant Singh Pannu 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 11-Dec-1971
168 Brigadier Sukhjit Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 11-Dec-1971
169 Major Vijay Rattan Choudhry 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 11-Dec-1971
170 L/Nt Drig Pal Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 13-Dec-1971
171 Captain Pradip Kumar Gour 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 14-Dec-1971
172 Brigadier Amarjit Singh Bal 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 15-Dec-1971
173 Sub Major (Hony Captain) Thomas Phillopose 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 15-Dec-1971
174 Lt Colonel Ved Prakash Ghai 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 15-Dec-1971
175 Lt General Hanut Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 16-Dec-1971
176 Lt General Raj Mohan Vohra 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 16-Dec-1971
177 Captain Shankar Rao Shankhapan Walkar 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 16-Dec-1971
178 AVM Cecil Vivian Parker 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
179 Air Cmde Harcharan Singh Mangat 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
180 AVM Madhavendra Banerji 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
181 Major Malkiat Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
182 Gp Captain Man Mohan Bir Singh Talwar 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
183 Air Cmde Ramesh Sakharam Benegal 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
184 2nd Lt. Shamsher Singh Samra 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
185 L/Nt Shangara Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 17-Dec-1971
186 L/Hav Dil Bahadur Chettri 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 21-Dec-1971
187 Rear Adm Santosh Kumar Gupta 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 21-Dec-1971
188 Brigadier Vijay Kumar Berry 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 28-Dec-1971
189 ACM S. K. Kaul 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 30-Dec-1971
190 Sub Nar Bahadur Chhetri 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 31-Dec-1971
191 Colonel Dharam Vir Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 01-Jan-1972
192 Brigadier Sant Singh 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 02-Jan-1972
193 Major Daljit Singh Narang 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly 20-Jan-1972
194 Lt General Ved Prakash Airy 1971 Operation Cactus-Lilly, 20-Jan-1972
195 Asst Comdt Ram Krishna Wadhwa 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 10-Dec-1972
196 L/Hav Nar Bahadur Ale 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 26-Jan-1987
197 Nt Prem Bahadur Gurung 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 26-Jan-1987
198 Colonel Krishna Gopal Chatterjee 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 15-Aug-1987
199 Lt Colonel Puttichanda Somaiah Ganapathi 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 16-Oct-1987
200 Brigadier Manjit Singh 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 19-Oct-1987
201 Captain Arvind Singh 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 22-Jan-1988
202 Sqn Ldr Ajjamada B. Devaiah 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 26-Jan-1988
203 Sub Sansar Chand 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 26-Jan-1988
204 Lt Colonel Inder Bal Singh Bawa 1984 Operation Meghdoot, Siachen 02-Apr-1988
205 2nd Lt. Rajeev Sandhu 1987 Operation Pawan, Sri Lanka 19-Jul-1988
206 Captain Pratap Singh 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 26-Jan-1989
207 Colonel Vijay Kumar Bakshi 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 29-Mar-1989
208 Captain Anuj Nayyar 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 01-Jan-1999
209 Major Balwan Singh 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 01-Jan-1999
210 Major Rajesh Singh Adhikari 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 01-Jan-1999
211 Lt Colonel Sonam Wangchuk 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 01-Jan-1999
212 Captain Keishing Clifford Nongrun 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 01-Jan-1999
213 Nt Digendra Kumar 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 15-Aug-1999
214 Captain Neikezhakuo Kenguruse 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 15-Aug-1999
215 Major Padmapani Acharya 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 15-Aug-1999
216 Major Vivek Gupta 1999 Operation Vijay, Kargil 15-Aug-1999
217 Nt Imliakum Ao 1999 Operation Vijay – Kargil 26-Jan-2000
218 Captain Gurjinder Singh Suri 1999 Operation Vijay – Kargil 01-Jan-2001

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Maha Vir Chakra". Gallantry Awards. Indian Army. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Precedence Of Medals". Official Website of Indian Army. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  3. ^ "Mahavir Chakra in India". India9.com. 2005-06-07. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  4. ^ "Mahavir Chakra winners". the War Decorated Trust. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 

External links[edit]