Mahabad

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For other uses, see Mahabad (disambiguation).
Mahabad
Sablax
City in Iran
Mahabad is located in Iran
Mahabad
Mahabad
Coordinates: 36°45′47″N 45°43′20″E / 36.76306°N 45.72222°E / 36.76306; 45.72222Coordinates: 36°45′47″N 45°43′20″E / 36.76306°N 45.72222°E / 36.76306; 45.72222
Country  Iran
Province West Azerbaijan
County Mahabad
Bakhsh Central
Government
 • Parliament Osman Ahmadi [1]
Population (2012)
 • Total 140.000
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Area code(s) 0444
Website www.mohabad-ag.ir
Sauj Bulag (Sāūjbulākh) Kurdish rug, late 19th century

Mahabad (Persian: مهاباد‎‎; also Romanized as Mahābād & Piranshahr and Mehābād; formerly known as Piranshahr & Mahabad)[2] is a town in and the capital of Mahabad County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 140,324, in 31,000 families.[3]

The majority of the towns population is Kurdish, with the town lying south of Lake Urmia in a narrow valley 1,300 metres above sea level.[4][5]

Etymology[edit]

The town was founded in the Safavid period about 300 years ago, and its first name was Savoujbolagh. Savoujbolagh is a Turkic word meaning cold spring. Later, in the Qajarid period,[when?] the town was called Savoujbolagh Mokri, meaning Savoujbolagh of the Mukri tribe, due to the residence of the Mukri tribe in the town. This was the name of the town until 1936, when the town was named Mahabad.[6][7]

History[edit]

Murki Kurds participated in several wars between Safavid dynasty and Ottoman Empire, and gained more predominance. In 17th century AD, Mahabad became the seat of Mukri principality (known as Murkriyān in Kurdish and Morkriyān in Persian). Many believe Budaq Sultan Murki, who built Mahabad's Jameh Mosque is the founder of the current town.

Modern Kurdish State in Mahabad[edit]

Main article: Republic of Mahabad

Mahabad was the capital of the short-lived Republic of Mahabad, which was declared independent on January 1, 1946 under the leadership of Kurdish nationalist Qazi Muhammad.

The republic received strong support from the Soviet Union, which occupied Iran during the same era. It included the Kurdish towns of Piranshahr, Sardasht and Oshnavieh.[8]

After an agreement brokered by the United States, the Soviets agreed to leave Iran, and sovereignty was restored to the Shah in 1947. The Shah ordered an invasion of the Republic of Mahabad shortly afterwards, the leaders of the republic including Qazi Muhammad were arrested and executed.[9][10][11] Qazi Muhammad was hanged on 31 March 1947. At the behest of Archie Roosevelt, Jr., who argued that Qazi had been forced to work with the Soviets out of expediency, U.S. ambassador to Iran George V. Allen urged the Shah not to execute Qazi or his brother, only to be reassured: "Are you afraid I'm going to have them shot? If so, you can rest your mind. I am not." Roosevelt later recounted that the order to have the Qazis killed was likely issued "as soon as our ambassador had closed the door behind him," adding with regard to the Shah: "I never was one of his admirers."[12] [13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Account Suspended". o-ahmadi.ir. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  2. ^ Mahabad can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3073397" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11. 
  4. ^ S. J. Laizer, Martyrs, Traitors, and Patriots: Kurdistan after the Gulf War, Zed Books, 1996, ISBN 978-1-85649-396-3, p. 56.
  5. ^ Marion Farouk-Sluglett, Peter Sluglett, Iraq Since 1958: From Revolution to Dictatorship, .B.Tauris, 2001, ISBN 978-1-86064-622-5, p. 28.
  6. ^ Seebauer, Renate. Mosaik Europa: Diskussionsbeiträge zur ethnischen und sprachlichen Vielfalt. LIT Verlag Münster, 2006 (87)
  7. ^ The Supreme Muslim Council: Islam Under the British Mandate for Palestine - Uri M. Kupferschmidt - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  8. ^ McDowall, David (2004). " A modern history of the Kurds. I.B. Tauris. pp. 244–245. ISBN 1-85043-416-6. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  9. ^ McDowall, David, A Modern History of the Kurds, I. B. Tauris, 1996 (Current revision at May 14, 2004). ISBN 1-86064-185-7.
  10. ^ [1] Archived September 7, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ [2] Archived April 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Wilford, Hugh (2013). America's Great Game: The CIA's Secret Arabists and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Basic Books. p. 53. ISBN 9780465019656. 
  13. ^ "Riot Erupts in Iran's Kurdish Capital Over Woman's Death". The New York Times. 7 May 2015. 

External links[edit]