Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur

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Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Marharaja of Bharatpur
Farzand Jung
Reign 28 March 1778– 6 December 1805
Coronation Gopal Bhavan, Deeg, 29 March 1778
Predecessor Keshri Singh
Successor Randhir Singh
Born 2 May 1745
Died 6 December 1805
Issue Randhir Singh
Baldeo Singh
Lachman Singh
House Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Father Suraj Mal
Mother Khet Kumari
Religion Hinduism

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (2 May 1745 – 6 December 1805) was the ruling Jat Maharaja of princely state (r.1778–1805) and successor of Maharaja Keshri Singh.

The rule[edit]

Maharaja Jawahar Singh ruled from 1763 to 1768. As he left no son, he was succeeded by his incapable, licentious and extravagant brother Maharaja Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh was ultimately killed by a juggler at Mathura. He succeeded his elder brother as Regent for his infant nephew, 11 August 1775. He was granted the title of Farzand Jang Bahadur, 24 January 1778. Keshri Singh died of smallpox in childhood, and was succeeded by his nephew on 20 March 1778.

In this period the American Revolution took place. In latter part of Ranjit Singh's reign, France partly recovered from its own, much bloodier revolution under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte who was thinking of colonising India. The British were also trying to do the same through the East India Company.

The French Governor of Pondicherry approached Captain Samru and Captain Madek to resign their service with the Jats who were considered friends of the British. According to the instructions from their Government, both the reliable and trustworthy commanders of Jats Force had to leave them, and take up their new assignment at Delhi under the Mughal Emperor.

War of Jats with Muslims[edit]

Taking advantage of their intimate knowledge of the weakness of Bharatpur State, Mirza Najaf Khan attacked Bharatpur and defeated Ranjit Singh at Hathras. Ranjit Singh was exiled from the State and Maharani Kishori was left with the territory of Kumher having a yearly income of Rs. 700,000. However, after the death of Mirza, the Mughals in defiance of his decision attempted to capture Kumbher. Ranjit Singh consolidated his strength during his period of exile, rallied against the Mughals, gave them a crushing defeat and returned to Bharatpur victoriously. He not only regained his lost territory but also annexed some Mughal territory .

Relationship of Jat ruler with Marathas[edit]

He was supported by Marathas on the condition of chauth (1/4 of war benefits). He cultivated diplomatic relations with the East India Company and gained more territory resulting in further amelioration of his position. After acquiring sufficient power, he discontinued the grant of Chauth to the Marathas, which resulted in strained relations between Marathas and Jats.

Relationship of Jat ruler with British[edit]

In 1802, in the war between the British and the Marathas, the latter were badly vanquished by the foreign forces under command of General Lord Lake. Ranjit signed a treaty of alliance with the East India Company, 29 September 1803 and fought against the Marathas with Lord Lake.

Yashwant Rao Holkar had attacked the British and chased Colonel Manson. He had attacked Delhi to free the Moghul Emperor from the British. Meanwhile he learnt that Colonel Mare and Colonel Wallace had attacked his kingdom. He retreated, and the Jats greeted him with open arms. Lord Lake advanced on Bharatpur in spite of the combined forces of Jats and Holkars. On 13 December 1804 war broke out; it lasted for 7 months. This war is compared with the Mahabharata war by Shri Harnam Singh. Due to heavy pressure from the enemy, the Jats had to evacuate Deeg to better defensive positions.The siege proving fruitless for both sides, a new treaty of protection was signed, 17 April 1805

Maharaja Ranjit Singh remained the friend of British rulers throughout his life. He fully followed the treaty with British.

Death and succession[edit]

He died at 6 December 1805. He had four sons, of which Maharaja Randhir Singh was the eldest and succeeded him.

Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur
Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Born: ? ? Died: 1805
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maharaja Keshri Singh
Maharaja of Bharatpur
28 March 1778– 6 December 1805
Succeeded by
Maharaja Randhir Singh