|13th Maharana of Mewar|
Pratap Singh I in a painting by Raja Ravi Varma
|Maharana of Mewar|
|Reign||1 March 1572 – |
19 January 1597
|Predecessor||Udai Singh II|
|Successor||Amar Singh I|
|Born||9 May 1540|
(Present day:Kumbhal Fort, Rajsamand District, Rajasthan, India)
|Died||19 January 1597 (aged 56)|
(Present day:Chavand, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India)
|Spouse||Maharani Ajabde (consort)|
|Issue||Amar Singh I|
|Father||Udai Singh II|
|Mother||Maharani Jaiwanta Bai|
|Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II|
|Udai Singh I||(1468–1473)|
|Ratan Singh II||(1528–1531)|
|Udai Singh II||(1540–1572)|
|Pratap Singh I||(1572–1597)|
|Amar Singh I||(1597–1620)|
|Karan Singh II||(1620–1628)|
|Jagat Singh I||(1628–1652)|
|Raj Singh I||(1652–1680)|
|Amar Singh II||(1698–1710)|
|Sangram Singh II||(1710–1734)|
|Jagat Singh II||(1734–1751)|
|Pratap Singh II||(1751–1754)|
|Raj Singh II||(1754–1762)|
|Ari Singh II||(1762–1772)|
|Hamir Singh II||(1772–1778)|
Pratap Singh I (pronunciation (help·info)) (9 May 1540 – 19 January 1597), popularly known as Maharana Pratap, was the 13th king of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present-day state of Rajasthan.
Early life and accession
Maharana Pratap was born in a Hindu Rajput family. He was born to Udai Singh II and Jaiwanta Bai. His younger brothers were Shakti Singh, Vikram Singh and Jagmal Singh. Pratap also had 2 stepsisters: Chand Kanwar and Man Kanwar. He was married to Ajabde Punwar of Bijolia. He belonged to the Royal Family of Mewar.
After the death of Udai Singh in 1572, Rani Dheer Bai wanted her son Jagmal to succeed him but senior courtiers preferred Pratap, as the eldest son, to be their king. The desire of the nobles prevailed.
Battle of Haldighati
The bloody Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567-1568 had led to the loss of the fertile eastern belt of Mewar to the Mughals. However, the rest of the wooded and hilly kingdom in the Aravalli range was still under the control of the Rana. The Mughal emperor Akbar was intent on securing a stable route to Gujarat through Mewar; when Pratap Singh was crowned king (Rana) in 1572, Akbar sent a number of envoys entreating the Rana to become a vassal like many other Rajput leaders in the region. When the Rana refused to personally submit to Akbar, war became inevitable.
The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 between Maharana Pratap and Akbar's forces led by Man Singh I of Amer. The Mughals were victorious and inflicted significant casualties among the Mewaris but failed to capture Maharana. The site of the battle was a narrow mountain pass at Haldighati near Gogunda, modern day Rajsamand in Rajasthan. Maharana Pratap fielded a force of around 3000 cavalry and 400 Bhil archers. The Mughals were led by Man Singh of Amber, who commanded an army numbering around 5000-10,000 men. After a fierce battle lasting more than six hours, Maharana found himself wounded and the day lost. The mughal were unable to capture him. He managed to escape to the hills and lived to fight another day.
Haldighati was a futile victory for the Mughals, as they were unable to capture Maharana Pratap, or any of his close family members in Udaipur. As soon as the empire's focus shifted north-west, Pratap and his army came out of hiding and recaptured the western regions of his dominion. 
Reconquest of Mewar
Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579 following rebellions in Bengal and Bihar and Mirza Hakim's incursion into the Punjab. In 1582, Maharana Pratap attacked and occupied the Mughal post at Dewair (or Dawer). This led to the automatic liquidation of all 36 Mughal military outposts in Mewar. After this defeat, Akbar stopped his military campaigns against Mewar. The victory of Dewair was a crowning glory for Maharana Pratap, with James Tod describing it as the "Marathon of Mewar". In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for the next twelve years watching the situation in the north-west. No major Mughal expedition was sent to Mewar during this period. Taking advantage of the situation, Pratap recovered Western Mewar including Kumbhalgarh, Udaipur and Gogunda. During this period, he also built a new capital, Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.
Death and legacy
Historian Satish Chandra notes that
Rana Pratap's defiance of the mighty Mughal empire, almost alone and unaided by the other Rajput states, constitute a glorious saga of Rajput valour and the spirit of self sacrifice for cherished principles. Rana Pratap's methods of sporadic warfare was later elaborated further by Malik Ambar, the Deccani general, and by Shivaji Maharaj.
In popular culture
Film and Television
- 2012–2015: Jodha Akbar, broadcast on Zee TV, where he was played by Anurag Sharma
- 2013–2015: Bharat Ka Veer Putra – Maharana Pratap, broadcast by Sony Entertainment Television (India), where he was portrayed by Faisal Khan and Sharad Malhotra
- 2016: ABP News presented Bharatvarsha, in which episode 8 showcased the story of Maharana Pratap.
- 1946: Maharana Pratap
- 2012: Maharana Pratap: The First Freedom Fighter
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- Sarkar 1960, p. 77–79.
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- A. N. Bhattacharya (2000). Human geography of Mewar. Himanshu. p. 71.
- Chandra 2005, p. 122.
- Sharma, Sri Ram (2005). Maharana Pratap. p. 91. ISBN 978-8-17871-003-7.
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- "Maharana Pratap - Mewar". www.chittorgarh.com. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- Chandra, Satish (2000). Medieval India. New Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training. p. 164.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (2014). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. p. 615. ISBN 978-1-135-94318-9. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
- Sarkar, Jadunath (1960). Military History of India. Orient Longmans. pp. 75–81.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India (Part Two): From Sultanat to the Mughals. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124110669.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Rana, Dr. Bhawan Singh (2004), Maharana Pratap, Diamond Pocket Books, ISBN 9788128808258
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Maharana PratapBorn: 9 May 1540 Died: 19 January 1597
Udai Singh II
| Sisodia Rajput Ruler
Amar Singh I