Maharana Pratap

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Maharana Pratap
12th Maharana of Mewar
RajaRaviVarma MaharanaPratap.jpg
Pratap Singh I in a painting by Raja Ravi Verma
Maharana of Mewar
Reign1 March 1572 –
19 January 1597[1]
PredecessorUdai Singh II
SuccessorAmar Singh I
MinistersBhamashah
Born9 May 1540
Kumbhalgarh Fort, Mewar[1][2]
Died19 January 1597 (aged 56) [1]
Chavand, Mewar [1]
SpouseMaharani Ajabde (consort)
IssueAmar Singh I
Bhagwan Das
DynastySisodia Rajput
FatherUdai Singh II
MotherJaivanta Bai
ReligionHinduism
Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar II
(1326–1884)
Hammir Singh (1326–1364)
Kshetra Singh (1364–1382)
Lakha Singh (1382–1421)
Mokal Singh (1421–1433)
Rana Kumbha (1433–1468)
Udai Singh I (1468–1473)
Rana Raimal (1473–1508)
Rana Sanga (1508–1527)
Ratan Singh II (1528–1531)
Vikramaditya Singh (1531–1536)
Vanvir Singh (1536–1540)
Udai Singh II (1540–1572)
Pratap Singh I (1572–1597)
Amar Singh I (1597–1620)
Karan Singh II (1620–1628)
Jagat Singh I (1628–1652)
Raj Singh I (1652–1680)
Jai Singh (1680–1698)
Amar Singh II (1698–1710)
Sangram Singh II (1710–1734)
Jagat Singh II (1734–1751)
Pratap Singh II (1751–1754)
Raj Singh II (1754–1762)
Ari Singh II (1762–1772)
Hamir Singh II (1772–1778)
Bhim Singh (1778–1828)
Jawan Singh (1828–1838)
Sardar Singh (1828–1842)
Swarup Singh (1842–1861)
Shambhu Singh (1861–1874)
Sajjan Singh (1874–1884)
Fateh Singh (1884–1930)
Bhupal Singh (1930—1955)

Pratap Singh I (About this soundpronunciation ) (9 May 1540 – 19 January 1597) popularly known as Maharana Pratap, was the Rajput king of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan.

Biography[edit]

Early life and accession[edit]

Maharana Pratap was born in a Rajput family. He was born to Udai Singh II and Jaiwanta Bai. [3][4][5] His younger brothers were Shakti Singh, Vikram Singh and Jagmal Singh. Pratap also had 2 stepsisters: Chand Kanwar and Man Kanwar. He was married to Ajabde Punwar of Bijolia.[citation needed] He belonged to the Royal Family of Mewar which was also related to the Royal Family of Saurashtra, Gujarat.[6]

After the death of Udai Singh in 1572, Rani Dheer Bai wanted her son Jagmal to succeed him[7] but senior courtiers preferred Pratap, as the eldest son, to be their king. The desire of the nobles prevailed.

Battle of Haldighati[edit]

The grim Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568 had led to the loss of the fertile eastern belt of Mewar to the Mughals. However, the rest of the wooded and hilly kingdom was still under the control of the Rana. The Mughal emperor Akbar was intent on securing a stable route to Gujarat through Mewar; when Pratap Singh was crowned king (Rana) in 1572, Akbar sent a number of envoys entreating the Rana to become a vassal like many other Rajput leaders in the region. When the Rana refused to personally submit to Akbar, war became inevitable.[8][9]

The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 between Maharana Pratap and Akbar's forces led by Man Singh I of Amer. The Mughals were victorious and inflicted significant casualties among the Mewaris but failed to capture Pratap, who escaped. The site of the battle was a narrow mountain pass at Haldighati near Gogunda, modern day Rajsamand in Rajasthan. Maharana Pratap fielded a force of around 3,000 cavalry and 400 Bhil archers. The Mughals were led by Raja Man Singh of Amber, who commanded an army numbering around 5,000–10,000 men. After a fierce battle lasting more than three hours, Pratap found himself wounded and the day lost. While a few of his men bought him time, he managed to make an escape to the hills and lived to fight another day. The casualties for Mewar numbered around 1600 men. The Mughal army lost 150 men, with another 350 wounded.[10]

Haldighati was a futile victory for the Mughals, as they were unable to capture Maharana Pratap. While they were able to capture whole of Mewar, they were unable to hold onto them for long. As soon as the empire's focus shifted north-west, Pratap and his army came out of hiding and recaptured the western regions of his dominion.[11]

Resurgence[edit]

Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579 following rebellions in Bengal and Bihar and Mirza Hakim's incursion into the Punjab. In 1582, Maharana Pratap attacked and occupied the Mughal post at Dewair (or Dawer).[12] In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for the next twelve years watching the situation in the north-west. No major Mughal expedition was sent to Mewar during this period. Taking advantage of the situation, Pratap recovered Western Mewar including Kumbhalgarh, Udaipur and Gogunda. During this period, he also built a new capital, Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.[13]

Death[edit]

Reportedly, Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident[14] at Chavand[13]on 19 January 1597,[1] aged 56.[15][16] He was succeeded by his eldest son, Amar Singh I.

Historian Satish Chandra notes that

Rana Pratap's defiance of the mighty Mughal empire, almost alone and unaided by the other Rajput states, constitute a glorious saga of Rajput valour and the spirit of self sacrifice for cherished principles. Rana Pratap's methods of sporadic warfare was later elaborated further by Malik Ambar, the Deccani general, and by Shivaji.[17]

Television depictions[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Rana Pratap Singh - Indian ruler". Encyclopedia Brittanica.
  2. ^ Köpping, Klaus-Peter; Leistle, Bernhard; Rudolph, Michael, eds. (2006). Ritual and Identity: Performative Practices as Effective Transformations of Social Reality. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 286. ISBN 978-3-82588-042-2.
  3. ^ Rana 2004, pp. 28, 105.
  4. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1994). A History of Jaipur. p. 48. ISBN 978-8-12500-333-5.
  5. ^ Daryanani, Mohan B. (1999). Who's who on Indian Stamps. p. 302. ISBN 978-8-49311-010-9.
  6. ^ Sharma, Gopi Nath; Mathur, M. N. Maharana Pratap & his times. Udaipur State: Maharana Pratap Smarak Samiti. p. 29.
  7. ^ Lal, Muni (1980). Akbar. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-70691-076-6.
  8. ^ Sarkar 1960, p. 75.
  9. ^ Chandra 2005, pp. 119–120.
  10. ^ Sarkar 1960, p. 77–79.
  11. ^ Chandra 2005, pp. 121–122.
  12. ^ A. N. Bhattacharya (2000). Human geography of Mewar. Himanshu. p. 71.
  13. ^ a b Chandra 2005, p. 122.
  14. ^ Sharma, Sri Ram (2005). Maharana Pratap. p. 91. ISBN 978-8-17871-003-7.
  15. ^ Gupta, R.K.; Bakshi, S.R. (2008). Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages The Heritage of Rajputs (Set Of 5 Vols.). p. 46. ISBN 978-8-17625-841-8.
  16. ^ "Maharana Pratap - Mewar". www.chittorgarh.com.
  17. ^ Chandra, Satish (2000). Medieval India. New Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training. p. 164.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Maharana Pratap
Born: 9 May 1540 Died: 19 January 1597
Preceded by
Udai Singh II
Sisodia Rajput Ruler
1572–1597
Succeeded by
Amar Singh I