Mahmud Ahmed

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Mahmud Ahmed
Director General of the Inter-Services Intelligence
In office
20 October 1999 – 7 October 2001
Preceded by Gen. Ziauddin Butt
Succeeded by Lt-Gen. Ehsan ul Haq
President of the National Defence University
In office
1998–1999
Personal details
Born Mahmud Ahmed
c. 1944 (age 73–74)
Ludhiana, Punjab, British India
(Present-day in Punjab in India)
Military service
Allegiance  Pakistan
Service/branch  Pakistan Army
Years of service 1964–2001
Rank OF-8 PakistanArmy.svgUS-O9 insignia.svgLieutenant-General
Unit Pakistan Army Artillery Corps
(PA-7710)
Commands Corps of Artillery
X Corps in Rawalpindi
DG Military Intelligence
23rd Infantry Division in Jhelum
Battles/wars Indo-Pakistan War of 1965
Indo-Pakistan War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1999
India-Pakistan standoff 2001
War in Afghanistan in 2001
Awards Crescent of Excellence Hilal-e-Imtiaz.pngHilal-e-Imtiaz (military)

Lieutenant-General Mahmud Ahmed (Urdu: محمود احمد‎; b. 1944) HI(M), is a retired three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence from 1999 until being terminated, following the terrorists attacks in the United States in 2001.[1]:157[2]

He played a crucial role in sponsorship of armed insurgency in Indian Kashmir when he commanded the X Corps against the Indian Army in Kargil, and was identified as one the four army generals who helped initiate the military turnover of the civilian government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, also in 1999.[3] As the DG ISI, Mahmud actively supported the sponsorship of the Islamic fundamentalism by endorsing the Talibans in Afghanistan under its Emir Mohammed Omar in 2000.[4]

Despite being responsible of stabilizing Gen. Pervez Musharraf's control over the civilian government and later his presidency, Lt-Gen. Ahmad was notably forced to retire from his commission when his involvement surfaced in alleged financing of Hamburg cell led by Mohamed Atta, an al-Qaeda operative in 2000-01.[1][5]

Biography[edit]

Mahmud Ahmed was born in 1944 in Ludhiana, Punjab in India, and joined the Pakistan Army in 1964 where he did his combat duty, first participating in second war with India in 1965.:177[2] His family emigrated from India to Pakistan after India's partition on 14/15 August 1947.:contents[6] He secured his graduation from the Lawrence College in Murree before attending Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul in 1965.:227:227[7]

He passed out from the PMA Kakul in 1966 where he gained commissioned as 2nd-Lt in the 16th Self-Propelled (SP) in the Corps of Artillery. Lieutenant Ahmed was the regimental colleague of then army Captain Pervez Musharraf.[8] He participated in the third war with India on the western front, and he was very critical of defence spending took place by Ayub administration after 1965.:15[9]

In the 1980s–90s, Ahmed served in the ISI where he worked under Lt-Gen. Hamid Gul.:contents[10]

In 1994–95, Major-General Ahmed commanded the 23rd Infantry Division as its GOC, stationed in Jhelum in Punjab, Pakistan.:227[7]

His career in the military is mostly spent in the military intelligence and became the Director-General of the Military Intelligence (DG MI), when he took it over from then-Maj-Gen. Ali Kuli Khan in October 1995.:82[11] In June 1998, Maj-Gen. Ahmed was promoted to three-star rank, Lieutenant-General and was moved the President of the National Defence University (NDU) in Islamabad by then-Chairman joint chiefs Gen. Jehangir Karamat.:179[2]

X Corps and Kargil war with India[edit]

In October 1998, -Chairman joint chiefs Gen. Pervez Musharraf appointed Lt-Gen. Ahmed as the field commander of the X Corps, and as soon as he was appointed to command the X Corps the planning of the covert infiltration in Indian Kashmir begin to implemented under Lt-Gen. Aziz Khan, the CGS under Gen. Musharraf in Rawalpindi.:309–310[12] In the military, Lt-Gen. Ahmad was described as ultraconservative, arrogant, and control minded with very short-tempered.:179[2]

Lt-Gen. Ahmed greatly aided in providing the tactical support of mass troop infiltration, starting first by closely and micromanaging the troop deployment near the LoC.:310[12] In July 1999, he provided the briefing to Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif over the troop deployments, eventually giving a go-ahead for the military operation.:Contents[13]:412[14]

After the Kargil war, the Pakistani Investigative journalist news reports identified that there were four army generals who were in much control of the area contingency plans in Kargil including Lt-Gen. Aziz Khan, the CGS under Gen. Musharraf, Lt-Gen. Shahid Aziz of ISI's Analysis Wing, and Lt-Gen. Jan Orakzai, commanding the XI Corps, besides Lt-Gen. Mahmud.:101[15][3] There were no official military inquiries into this incident nor there were any subsequent evidence that led to the punishments of those responsible for such incidents.[16]

On 12 October 1999, Lt-Gen. Ahmed refused to accept to follow the orders of new chain of command set up by then-army chief Gen. Ziauddin Butt and ordered his X Corps to seize the control of the Prime Minister's Secretariat while Lt-Gen. Aziz Khan, the CGS under Gen. Musharraf, took control of the Jinnah Terminal in Karachi.:contents[17]

Director ISI (1999–2001)[edit]

U.S. visit, 9/11 attacks, and removal[edit]

9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001: Gen. Mahmud is thought to be reportedly wired $100,000 to ring leader Mohamed Atta through Omar Sheikh, a British national.:74–75[18]

After the martial law in 1999, Lt-Gen. Ahmed subsequently appointed as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and his tenureship is marked with alleged terror financing of al-Qaeda and sponsoring the Talibans in Afghanistan.:contents[19]:contents[20] On 17 March 2001, Lt-Gen. Ahmad was appointed as the Colonel commandant of the Corps of Artillery at the Artillery Regimental Center on 17 March 2001.[21] Mahmud was later replaced by Lt General Khalid Kidwai as the colonel commandant on 13 October 2004.[22]

In 2001, Lt-Gen. Ahmad regularly visited the United States where he consulted with The Pentagon and CIA officials in the Bush administration in the weeks before and after terrorist attacks took place in New York on 11 September 2001.[23] In fact, he was with U.S. Republican Congressman Porter Goss and U.S. Democratic Senator Bob Graham in Washington D.C., discussing Osama bin Laden over breakfast, when the attacks of September 11, 2001 took place in New York, United States.[24][25]

He was immediately called into meetings with senior American politicians where the demands of Pakistani cooperation were made and he was told to convey this to the Musharraf's administration. Joe Biden recalled the meeting: "I met with him to deliver a message, that if he didn't, didn't stop supporting the Taliban we would take him out."[26]

On 9 October 2001, the Pakitani and the U.S. news media reported that "U.S. authorities sought his removal after confirming the fact that $100,000 were wired to WTC hijacker Mohamed Atta from Pakistan by Ahmad Umar Sheikh at the insistence of Lt-Gen. Mahmud."[27][28]

Despite his loyalty and backing Pres. Pervez Musharraf, Lt-Gen. Ahmed was immediately removed from the directorship of the ISI, when President Musharraf terminated his commissioned under the U.S. pressure, and was replaced by Lt-Gen. Ehsan ul Haq.[29][30]

Post-retirement and Islamic missionary activity[edit]

After this termination, Ahmed publicly came out against President Pervez Musharraf's policy on siding with the United States, without effectively addressing the issue of containing the terrorists organizations.:184[31]

He viewed the American attack on Afghanistan with great suspicion, and had held sympathetic views towards the Talibans in Afghanistan.:184[2] He later regretted his role in playing his part in bringing to help stabilize Gen. Pervez Musharraf's role against the civilian government when he joined the Alliance for Restoration of Democracy that viewed to removing Musharraf's administration.:184[2] Ahmed opposed the US invasion of Afghanistan.:184[2]

He is now a member of Tablighi Jamaat and preaching the teaching of Islam.:contents[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Harding, Luke (9 October 2001). "Musharraf dismisses two Islamist generals". the Guardian. Islamabad: The Guardian, Pakistan Bureau. the Guardian. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Joshi, P. C. (2008). Main Intelligence Outfits Of Pakistan (snippet view). Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited. p. 435. ISBN 9788126135509. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  3. ^ a b et.al., PTI (5 November 2013). "Nawaz Sharif shakes hands with army general linked to the 1999 coup". The Economic Times. The Economic Times, PTI. The Economic Times. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  4. ^ Tariq Ali, The Duel, 2008 Simon & Schuster
  5. ^ Abbas, Hasan (26 September 2006). "Inside Story of Musharraf-Mahmood Tussle | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs". www.belfercenter.org. Harvard University: Dr. H. Abbas, Kennedy School of International Affairs. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  6. ^ Kiessling, Hein (2016). "(§The ISI under Pervez Musharraf)". Faith, Unity, Discipline: The Inter-Service-Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan (google books) (2nd ed.). Karachi University: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849048637. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  7. ^ a b Bhattacharya, Brigadier Samir (2014). NOTHING BUT!. Partridge Publishing. p. 580. ISBN 9781482817874. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  8. ^ Shegal, Maj. Ikram (9 October 2001). "Choosing Merit over Friendship - Media Monitors Network (MMN)". Media Monitors Network (MMN). Media Monitors Network (MMN). Retrieved 16 February 2018. 
  9. ^ Fair, C. Christine (2014). "§Can Strategic Culture explain's Pakistan Army's Persistent Revisionism?". Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Army's Way of War (google books). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780199892716. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  10. ^ Sehri, Inam (2012). Judges and Generals of Pakistan Volume - I. Grosvenor House Publishing. ISBN 9781781480434. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  11. ^ Verma, Ashok Kalyan (2002). Kargil, Blood on the Snow: Tactical Victory, Strategic Failure : a Critical Analysis of the War. Manohar. p. 227. ISBN 9788173044113. Retrieved 25 February 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Khan, Feroz (2012). "§A Shaky beginning: Kargil and its Aftermath". Eating Grass: The Making of the Pakistani Bomb (google books) (1st ed.). Palo Alto, CA, U.S.: Stanford University Press. p. 410. ISBN 9780804784801. Retrieved 25 February 2018. 
  13. ^ Rathore, Azad Singh (2016). Kargil: The Heights of Bravery. Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482887563. Retrieved 25 February 2018. 
  14. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (2008). Descent Into Chaos: The US and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. Penguin. ISBN 9780670019700. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  15. ^ Jones, Owen Bennett (2003). "§Kashmir". Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (1st ed.). New York, US: Yale University Press. p. 310. ISBN 0300101473. Retrieved 17 February 2018. 
  16. ^ Raman, B. (18 September 2000). "Pakistan: Mullahs' blue-eyed general". www.thehindubusinessline.com. Islamabad: Work written by B. Raman, Additional Secretary, Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India.). The Hindu. Retrieved 17 February 2018. 
  17. ^ Sehri, Inam (2012). Judges and Generals of Pakistan Volume - I. Grosvenor House Publishing. ISBN 9781781480434. Retrieved 17 February 2018. 
  18. ^ Jan, Abid Ullah (2006). "ISI and Operation 911". From BCCI to ISI: The Saga of Entrapment Continues. Lulu.com. ISBN 9780973368765. Retrieved 27 February 2018. 
  19. ^ Jan, Abid Ullah (2006). From BCCI to ISI: The Saga of Entrapment Continues. Lulu.com. ISBN 9780973368765. 
  20. ^ Gupta, Amit (2016). Strategic Stability in Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781351897556. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  21. ^ "Ceremony for Colonel Commandant of the Corps of Artillery" Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine. President of Pakistan Press Release, 17 March 2001
  22. ^ "President Address on the occasion of installation ceremony of Lieutenant General Khalid Ahmed Kidwai as the Colonel Commandant" Archived 2008-08-19 at Archive.is President of Pakistan Press Release, 13 October 2004
  23. ^ Abbas, Hassan. "Inside Story of Musharraf-Mahmood Tussle | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs". www.belfercenter.org. H. Abbas, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  24. ^ Richard Leiby. A Cloak But No Dagger The Washington Post, 18 May 2002
  25. ^ "TIMELINE ENTRIES ABOUT ISI DIRECTOR LT. GEN. MAHMOOD AHMED". 911timeline.s3.amazonaws.com. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  26. ^ WeAreChange (18 June 2007). CHANGE confronts Democrats. YouTube. 
  27. ^ "India helped FBI trace ISI-terrorist links - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  28. ^ Meacher, Michael (2004-07-21). "Michael Meacher: The Pakistan connection". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  29. ^ "General Mahmoud Ahmad dismissed - 911myths". www.911myths.com. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  30. ^ "Dangerous game of state-sponsored terror that threatens nuclear conflict", 25 May 2002
  31. ^ Joshi, P. C. (2008). Main Intelligence Outfits Of Pakistan. Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited. ISBN 9788126135509. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  32. ^ Abbas, Hassan (2014). The Taliban Revival: Violence and Extremism on the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300183696. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Ziauddin Butt
Director General of the Inter-Services Intelligence
1999 – 2001
Succeeded by
Ehsan ul Haq