Mahmoud Darwish

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Mahmoud Darwish
محمود درويش
MahmoudDarwish.jpg
Mahmoud Darwish at Bethlehem University, (2006).
Born 13 March 1941
al-Birwa, British Mandate of Palestine
Died 9 August 2008(2008-08-09) (aged 67)
Houston, Texas, United States
Occupation Poet and writer
Nationality Palestinian
Period 1964–2008
Genres Poetry

Mahmoud Darwish (Arabic: محمود درويش‎, 13 March 1941 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who won numerous awards for his literary output and was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.[1] In his work, Palestine became a metaphor for the loss of Eden, birth and resurrection, and the anguish of dispossession and exile.[2][3] He has been described as incarnating and reflecting "the tradition of the political poet in Islam, the man of action whose action is poetry".[4]

Biography[edit]

Mahmoud Darwish was born in the village of al-Birwa in the Western Galilee.[5] He was the second child of Salim and Houreyyah Darwish. His family were landowners. His mother was illiterate, but his grandfather taught him to read.[3] After Israeli forces assaulted his village of al-Birwa in June 1948 the family fled to Lebanon, first to Jezzin and then Damour.[6] The village was then razed and destroyed by the Israeli army[7][8][9] to prevent its inhabitants from returning to their homes inside the new Jewish state.[10][11] A year later, Darwish's family returned to the Acre area, which was now part of Israel, and settled in Deir al-Asad.[12] Darwish attended high school in Kafr Yasif, two kilometers north of Jadeidi. He eventually moved to Haifa.

He published his first book of poetry, Asafir bila ajniha or Wingless Birds, at the age of nineteen. He initially published his poems in Al Jadid, the literary periodical of the Israeli Communist Party, eventually becoming its editor. Later, he was Assistant Editor of Al Fajr, a literary periodical published by the Israeli Workers Party (Mapam).[13] Darwish was impressed by the Arab poets Abed al-Wahab al Bayati and Bader Shaker al-Sayab.

Darwish left Israel in 1970 to study in the USSR.[14] He attended the University of Moscow for one year,[3] before moving to Egypt and Lebanon.[15] When he joined the PLO in 1973, he was banned from reentering Israel.[3] In 1995, he returned to attend the funeral of his colleague, Emile Habibi and received a permit to remain in Haifa for four days.[16] Darwish was allowed to settle in Ramallah in 1995,[16] although he said he felt he was living in exile there, and did not consider the West Bank his "private homeland."[14]

Darwish was twice married and divorced. His first wife was the writer Rana Kabbani. In the mid-1980s, he married an Egyptian translator, Hayat Heeni. He had no children.[3] The "Rita" of Darwish's poems was a Jewish woman that he was in love with when he was living in Haifa. The relationship was he subject of the film, "Write Down, I Am an Arab," by the filmmaker Ibtisam Mara'ana Menuhin, an Arab muslim woman who is married to a Jewish man. While such relationships are rare today, they were more common during the Mandate period, and among communists, who were united by class struggle.[17][18][19]

Darwish had a history of heart disease, suffering a heart attack in 1984, followed by two heart operations, in 1984 and 1998.[3]

His final visit to Israel was on 15 July 2007, to attend a poetry recital at Mt. Carmel Auditorium in Haifa,[20] in which he criticized the factional violence between Fatah and Hamas as a "suicide attempt in the streets".[21]

Literary career[edit]

Darwish published over thirty volumes of poetry and eight books of prose. He was editor of Al-Jadid, Al-Fajr, Shu'un Filistiniyya and Al-Karmel (1981). On 1 May 1965 when the young Darwish read his poem "Bitaqat huwiyya" [Identity Card] to a crowd in a Nazareth movie house, there was a tumultuous reaction. Within days the poem had spread throughout the country and the Arab world.[22] Published in his second volume "Leaves of Olives" (Haifa 1964), the six stanzas of the poem repeat the cry “Write down: I am an Arab.”[23]

In the 1970s, “Darwish, as a Palestinian poet of the Resistance committed himself to the . . . objective of nurturing the vision of defeat and disaster (after the June War of 1967), so much so that it would ‘gnaw at the hearts’ of the forthcoming generations.”[24]

Palestinian poetry often addresses the Nakba and the resultant tragedies. The mid 1980s saw the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and preceded the outbreak of the first Intifada (uprising) on the West Bank and Gaza Strip in December 1987. Mahmoud Darwish addressed these and other issues in Ward aqall [Fewer Roses] (1986), and more specifically in one poem, "Sa-ya'ti barabira akharun" [Other Barbarians Will Come"].[25]

Darwish's work won numerous awards, and has been published in 20 languages.[26] A central theme in Darwish's poetry is the concept of watan or homeland. The poet Naomi Shihab Nye wrote that Darwish "is the essential breath of the Palestinian people, the eloquent witness of exile and belonging...."[27]

Writing style[edit]

Darwish's early writings are in the classical Arabic style. He wrote monorhymed poems adhering to the metrics of traditional Arabic poetry. In the 1970s he began to stray from these precepts and adopted a "free-verse" technique that did not abide strictly by classical poetic norms. The quasi-Romantic diction of his early works gave way to a more personal, flexible language, and the slogans and declarative language that characterized his early poetry were replaced by indirect and ostensibly apolitical statements, although politics was never far away. [28]

Literary influences[edit]

Darwish was impressed by the Iraqi poets Abd al-Wahhab Al-Bayati and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab.[6] He cited Rimbaud and Ginsberg as literary influences.[3] Darwish admired the Hebrew poet Yehuda Amichai, but described his poetry as a "challenge to me, because we write about the same place. He wants to use the landscape and history for his own benefit, based on my destroyed identity. So we have a competition: who is the owner of the language of this land? Who loves it more? Who writes it better?"[3]

Attitude toward Israel[edit]

Darwish is widely perceived as a Palestinian symbol[14] and a spokesman for Arab opposition to Israel. He rejected accusations of antisemitism: "The accusation is that I hate Jews. It's not comfortable that they show me as a devil and an enemy of Israel. I am not a lover of Israel, of course. I have no reason to be. But I don't hate Jews."[29] Darwish wrote in Arabic, but spoke English, French and Hebrew. According to Israeli author Haim Gouri, who knew him personally, Darwish's Hebrew was excellent.[30] Four volumes of his poetry were translated into Hebrew by Muhammad Hamza Ghaneim: Bed of a Stranger (2000), Why Did You Leave the Horse Alone? (2000), State of Siege (2003) and Mural (2006).[14] Salman Masalha, a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew writer, translated his book Memory for Forgetfulness into Hebrew.[14] In March 2000, Yossi Sarid, the Israeli education minister, proposed that two of Darwish's poems be included in the Israeli high school curriculum. Prime Minister Ehud Barak rejected the proposal on the grounds that Israel was "not ready."[31] It has been suggested that the incident had more to do with internal Israeli politics in trying to damage Prime Minister Ehud Barak's government than poetry.[32] With the death of Darwish the debate about including his poetry in the Israeli school curriculum has been re-opened.[33]

"Although it is now technically possible for Jewish students to study Darwish, his writing is still banned from Arab schools. The curriculum used in Arab education is one agreed in 1981 by a committee whose sole Jewish member vetoed any works he thought might 'create an ill spirit'"."[34]

Darwish described Hebrew as a "language of love."[4] He considered himself to be also a part of the Jewish civilization that existed in Palestine and hoped for a reconciliation between the Palestinians and the Jews. When this happens, "the Jew will not be ashamed to find an Arab element in himself, and the Arab will not be ashamed to declare that he incorporates Jewish elements."[35]

Political activism[edit]

Yasser Arafat, Mahmoud Darwish & George Habash (pictured in 1980)

Darwish was a member of Rakah, the Israeli communist party, before joining the Palestine Liberation Organization in Beirut.[36] In 1970 he left for Moscow. Later, he moved to Cairo in 1971 where he worked for al-Ahram daily newspaper. In Beirut, in 1973, he edited the monthly Shu'un Filistiniyya (Palestinian Affairs) and worked as a director in the Palestinian Research Center of the PLO and joined the organisation. In the wake of the Lebanon War, Darwish wrote the political poems Qasidat Bayrut (1982) and Madih al-zill al'ali(1983). Darwish was elected to the PLO Executive Committee in 1987. In 1988 he wrote a manifesto intended as the Palestinian people's declaration of independence. In 1993, after the Oslo accords, Darwish resigned from the PLO Executive Committee.[37]

Views on the peace process[edit]

Darwish consistently demanded a "tough and fair" stand in negotiations with Israel.[38]

Despite his criticism of both Israel and the Palestinian leadership, Darwish believed that peace was attainable. "I do not despair," he told the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. "I am patient and am waiting for a profound revolution in the consciousness of the Israelis. The Arabs are ready to accept a strong Israel with nuclear arms – all it has to do is open the gates of its fortress and make peace."[15]

1988 poem controversy[edit]

In 1988, one of his poems, "Passers Between the Passing Words", was cited in the Knesset by Yitzhak Shamir.[3] He was accused of demanding that the Jews leave Israel, although he claimed he meant the West Bank and Gaza:[39] "So leave our land/Our shore, our sea/Our wheat, our salt, our wound." A specialist on Darwish's poetry Adel Usta, said the poem was misunderstood and mistranslated,[40] while poet and translator Ammiel Alcalay wrote that "the hysterical overreaction to the poem simply serves as a remarkably accurate litmus test of the Israeli psyche ... (the poem) is an adamant refusal to accept the language of the occupation and the terms under which the land is defined".[41]

Views on Hamas[edit]

In 2005, outdoor music and dance performances in Qalqiliya were suddenly banned by the Hamas-led municipality, for the reason that such events would be forbidden by Islam. The municipality also ordered that music no longer be played in the Qalqiliya zoo.[42][43] In response, Darwish warned that "There are Taliban-type elements in our society, and this is a very dangerous sign".[42][43][44][45]

In July 2007, Darwish returned to Ramallah and visited Haifa for a festive event held in his honor sponsored by Masharaf magazine and the Israeli Hadash party.[30] To a crowd of some 2,000 people who turned out for the event, he voiced his criticism of the Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip: "We woke up from a coma to see a monocolored flag (of Hamas) do away with the four-color flag (of Palestine)."[46]

Music and film[edit]

Many of Darwish's poems were set to music most notably "Rita and the Rifle", "Birds of Galilee" and "I Yearn for my Mother's Bread" and have become anthems for at least two generations of Arabs, by Arab composers, among them Marcel Khalife,[47] Majida El Roumi and Ahmad Qa'abour.[16] In the 1980s, Sabreen, a Palestinian group in Israel, recorded an album including versions of Darwish's poems "On Man" and "On Wishes".[48] Khalife was accused of blasphemy and insulting religious values because a song entitled "I am Yusuf, oh my father" based on Darwish's lyrics, cited a verse from the Qur'an.[49] In this poem, Darwish shared the pain of Yusuf (Joseph) who was rejected by his brothers, who fear him because he is too handsome and kind. "Oh my father, I am Yusuf / Oh father, my brothers neither love me nor want me in their midst". The story of Joseph is an allegory for the rejection of the Palestinians.

Tamar Muskal, an Israeli-American composer incorporated Dawish's "I Am From There" into her composition "The Yellow Wind," which combines a full orchestra, Arabic flute, Arab and Israeli poetry, and themes from David Grossman's book The Yellow Wind.[50]

In 2002, Swiss composer Klaus Huber completed a large work entitled Die Seele muss vom Reittier Steigen…, a chamber concerto for cello, baritone and countertenor that incorporates Darwish's "The Soul Must Descend from its Mount and Walk on its Silken Feet".

In 1997, a documentary entitled Mahmoud Darwish was produced by French TV, directed by French-Israeli director Simone Bitton.[51]

Darwish appeared as himself in Jean-Luc Godard's Notre Musique (2004).

In 2008, Mohammed Fairouz set selections from State of Siege to music.

In 2008 Darwish starred in the five-screen film id – Identity of the Soul from Arts Alliance Productions, in which he narrates his poem "A Soldier Dreams of White Lilies" along with Ibsen's poem "Terje Vigen". Id was his final performance and premiered in Palestine in October 2008, with audiences of tens of thousands, and currently (2010) continues its worldwide screening tour.

Awards[edit]

Death[edit]

Mahmoud Darwish died on 9 August 2008 at the age of 67, three days after heart surgery at Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas. Before surgery, Darwish had signed a document asking not to be resuscitated in the event of brain death.[53]

Early reports of his death in the Arabic press indicated that Darwish had asked in his will to be buried in Palestine. Three locations were originally suggested; his home village of al-Birwa, the neighboring village Jadeida, where some of Darwish's family still resides or in the West Bank city of Ramallah. Ramallah Mayor Janet Mikhail announced later that Darwish would be buried next to Ramallah's Palace of Culture, at the summit of a hill overlooking Jerusalem on the southwestern outskirts of Ramallah, and a shrine would be erected in his honor.[36] Ahmed Darwish said "Mahmoud doesn't just belong to a family or a town, but to all the Palestinians, and he should be buried in a place where all Palestinians can come and visit him."[54]

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas declared three days of mourning to honor Darwish and he was accorded the equivalent of a State funeral.[36][55] A set of four postage stamps commemorating Darwish was issued in August 2008 by the PA.[56][57]

Arrangements for flying the body in from Texas delayed the funeral for a day.[58] Darwish's body was then flown from Amman, Jordan for the burial in Ramallah. The first eulogy was delivered by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to an orderly gathering of thousands. Several left-wing Knessets members attended the official ceremony; Mohammed Barakeh (Hadash) and Ahmed Tibi (United Arab List-Ta'al) stood with the family, and Dov Khenin (Hadash) and Jamal Zahalka (Balad) were in the hall at the Mukataa. Also present was the former French prime minister Dominique de Villepin.[59] After the ceremony, Darwish's coffin was taken in a cortege at walking pace from the Mukataa to the Palace of Culture, gathering thousands of followers along the way.

Published work[edit]

Poetry[edit]

  • Asafir bila ajniha (Wingless birds), 1960
  • Awraq Al-Zaytun (Leaves of olives), 1964
  • Ashiq min filastin (A lover from Palestine), 1966
  • Akhir al-layl (The end of the night), 1967
  • Yawmiyyat jurh filastini (Diary of a Palestinian wound), 1969
  • Habibati tanhad min nawmiha (My beloved awakens), 1969
  • al-Kitabah 'ala dhaw'e al-bonduqiyah (Writing in the light of the gun), 1970
  • al-'Asafir tamut fi al-jalil (Birds are Dying in Galilee), 1970
  • Mahmoud Darwish works, 1971. Two volumes
  • Mattar na'em fi kharif ba'eed (Light rain in a distant autumn) 1971
  • Uhibbuki aw la uhibbuki (I love you, I love you not), 1972
  • Jondiyyun yahlum bi-al-zanabiq al-baidaa' (A soldier dreaming of white lilies), 1973
  • Complete Works, 1973. Now al-A'amal al-jadida (2004) and al-A'amal al-oula (2005).
  • Muhawalah raqm 7 (Attempt number 7), 1974
  • Tilka suratuha wa-hadha intihar al-ashiq (That's her image, and that's the suicide of her lover), 1975
  • Ahmad al-za'tar, 1976
  • A'ras (Weddings), 1977
  • al-Nasheed al-jasadi (The bodily anthem), 1980. Joint work
  • The Music of Human Flesh, Heinemann 1980, Poems of the Palestinian struggle selected and translated by Denys Johnson-Davies
  • Qasidat Bayrut (Ode to Beirut), 1982
  • Madih al-zill al-'ali (A eulogy for the tall shadow), 1983
  • Hissar li-mada'eh al-bahr (A siege for the sea eulogies), 1984
  • Victims of a Map, 1984. Joint work with Samih al-Qasim and Adonis in English.
  • Sand and Other Poems, 1986
  • Hiya ughniyah, hiya ughniyah (It's a song, it's a song), 1985
  • Ward aqal (Fewer roses), 1985
  • Ma'asat al-narjis, malhat al-fidda (Tragedy of daffodils, comedy of silver), 1989
  • Ara ma oreed (I see what I want), 1990
  • Ahad 'asher kaukaban (Eleven planets), 1992
  • Limaza tarakt al-hissan wahidan (Why Did You Leave the Horse Alone?), 1995. English translation 2006 by Jeffrey Sacks (Archipelago Books) (ISBN 0-9763950-1-0)
  • Psalms, 1995. A selection from Uhibbuki aw la uhibbuki, translation by Ben Bennani
  • Sareer El-Ghariba (Bed of a stranger), 1998
  • Then Palestine, 1999 (with Larry Towell, photographer, and Rene Backmann)
  • Jidariyya (Mural), 2000
  • The Adam of Two Edens: Selected Poems, 2000 (Syracuse University Press and Jusoor) (edited by Munir Akash and Carolyn Forche)
  • Halat Hissar (State of siege), 2002
  • La ta'tazer 'amma fa'alt (Don't apologize for what you did), 2003
  • Unfortunately, It Was Paradise: Selected Poems, 2003. Translations by Munir Akash, Caroyln Forché and others
  • al-A'amal al-jadida (The new works), 2004. A selection of Darwish's recent works
  • al-A'amal al-oula (The early works), 2005. Three volumes, a selection of Darwish's early works
  • Ka-zahr el-lawz aw ab'ad (almond blossoms and beyond), 2005
  • The Butterfly's Burden, 2007 (Copper Canyon Press) (translation by Fady Joudah)

Prose[edit]

  • Shai'on 'an al-wattan (Something about the homeland), 1971
  • Wada'an ayatuha al-harb, wada'an ayuha al-salaam (Farewell, war, farewell, peace), 1974
  • Yawmiyyat al-hozn al-'aadi (Diary of the usual sadness), 1973 (Turkish translation, 2009 by Hakan Özkan)[60]
  • Dhakirah li-al-nisyan (Memory for Forgetfulness), 1987. English translation 1995 by Ibrahim Muhawi
  • Fi wasf halatina (Describing our condition), 1987
  • al-Rasa'il (The Letters), 1990. Joint work with Samih al-Qasim
  • Aabiroon fi kalamen 'aaber (Bypassers in bypassing words), 1991
  • Memory for Forgetfulness, 1995 (University of California Press) (translated by Ibrahim Muhawi)
  • Fi hadrat al-ghiyab (In the presence of absence), 2006
  • Athar alfarasha (A River Dies of Thirst: journals), 2009 (Archipelago Books) (translated by Catherine Cobham)

Quotations[edit]

Why are we always told that we cannot solve our problem without solving the existential anxiety of the Israelis and their supporters who have ignored our very existence for decades in our own homeland?[61]

We have triumphed over the plan to expel us from history.[62]

"I thought poetry could change everything, could change history and could humanize, and I think that the illusion is very necessary to push poets to be involved and to believe, but now I think that poetry changes only the poet."[63][64]

"We should not justify suicide bombers. We are against the suicide bombers, but we must understand what drives these young people to such actions. They want to liberate themselves from such a dark life. It is not ideological, it is despair."

"We have to understand – not justify – what gives rise to this tragedy. It's not because they're looking for beautiful virgins in heaven, as Orientalists portray it. Palestinian people are in love with life. If we give them hope – a political solution – they'll stop killing themselves."[3]

"Sarcasm helps me overcome the harshness of the reality we live, eases the pain of scars and makes people smile. The sarcasm is not only related to today's reality but also to history. History laughs at both the victim and the aggressor."[5]

"I will continue to humanise even the enemy... The first teacher who taught me Hebrew was a Jew. The first love affair in my life was with a Jewish girl. The first judge who sent me to prison was a Jewish woman. So from the beginning, I didn't see Jews as devils or angels but as human beings." Several poems are to Jewish lovers. "These poems take the side of love not war,"[3]

"When he thought about hope he felt weary and bored, and constructed a mirage and said:"How shall I evaluate my mirage?" He searched in his desk drawers for the person he was before asking this question, but found no notes containing thoughtless or destructive urges. Nor did he find a document confirming he had stood in the rain for no reason. When he thought about hope, the gap widened between a body that was no longer agile and a heart that acquired wisdom. He did not repeat a question "Who am I?" because he was so upset by the smell of lilies and the neighbours' loud music He opened the window on what remained of a horizon and saw two cats playing with a puppy in the narrow street, and a dove building a nest in a chimney, and he said:" Hope is not the opposite of despair. Perhaps it is the faith that springs from divine indifference which has left us dependent on our own special talents to make sense of the fog surrounding us." He said: "Hope is neither something tangible nor an idea. It's a talent." He took a beta blocker, putting the question of hope aside, and for some obscure reason felt quite happy." Translated from ..A Talent for Hope.

Legacy[edit]

The Mahmoud Darwish Foundation was established on 4 October 2008 as a Palestinian non-profit foundation that "seeks to safeguard Mahmoud Darwish’s cultural, literary and intellectual legacy".[65] The foundation administers the annual "Mahmoud Darwish Award for Creativity" granted to intellectuals from Palestine and elsewhere.[66] The inaugural winner of the prize, in 2010, was Ahdaf Soueif.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Palestinian 'national poet' dies", BBC News, 9 August 2008.
  2. ^ Adam Shatz, "A Poet's Palestine as a Metaphor", New York Times, 22 December 2001.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Maya Jaggi, "Profile: Mahmoud Darwish – Poet of the Arab world", The Guardian, 8 June 2002.
  4. ^ a b Prince of Poets
  5. ^ a b "Death defeats Darwish", Saudi Gazette, 10 August 2008.
  6. ^ a b Peter Clark, "Mahmoud Darwish", The Guardian, 11 August 2008.
  7. ^ Azar, George Baramki (1991). Palestine: a photographic journey. University of California Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-520-07544-3. "He was born in al-Birwa, a village east of Acre, in 1941. In 1948 his family fled to Lebanon to escape the fighting between the Arab and Israeli armies. When they returned to their village, they found it had been razed by Israeli troops." 
  8. ^ "al-Birwa...had been razed by the Israeli army". Mattar, Philip (2005). Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 115. ISBN 0-8160-5764-8. 
  9. ^ Taha, Ibrahim (2002). The Palestinian Novel: a communication study. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7007-1271-7. "al-Birwa (the village where the well-known Mahmud Darwish was born), which was destroyed by the Israeli army in 1948." 
  10. ^ Jonathan Cook (21 August 2008). "A poet for the people". New Statesman. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  11. ^ Jonathan Cook. "The National". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  12. ^ GeoCities Mahmoud Darwish Biography by Sameh Al-Natour.
  13. ^ "Web Site of the Israeli Labor Party". Tnuathaavoda.info. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 
  14. ^ a b c d e http://web.archive.org/web/20080918015557/http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1019886.html
  15. ^ a b Diaa Hadid, "Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish dead at 67", Seattle Times, 9 August 2008.
  16. ^ a b c Joel Greenberg, "Ramallah Journal; Suitcase No Longer His Homeland, a Poet Returns", New York Times, 10 May 1996.
  17. ^ Alona Ferber, "When the Palestinian national poet fell in love with a Jew: The love letters between Mahmoud Darwish and 'Rita' intrigued Israeli-Arab filmmaker Ibtisam Mara’ana Menuhin for her own, very personal reasons" Haaretz, 4 June 2014
  18. ^ Robyn Creswell (February 2009). "Unbeliever in the impossible : the poetry of Mahmoud Darwish". Harper's 318 (1905): 69–74. 
  19. ^ Hala Khamis Nassar and Najat Rahman (eds), Mahmoud Darwish, Exile's Poet: Critical Essays. Northampton, MA: Interlink Books, 2008 link
  20. ^ Yoav Stern, "Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish to attend event in Haifa", Ha'aretz.
  21. ^ "Palestinian poet derides factions", BBC News, 16 July 2007.
  22. ^ Snir, Reuven. "'Other Barbarians Will Come': Intertextuality, Meta-Poetry, and Meta-Myth in Mahmud Darwish's Poetry": Conclusion: "The Poet Cannot Be But a Poet" in Hala Khamis Nassar and Najat Rahman (eds), Mahmoud Darwish, Exile’s Poet: Critical Essays. Northampton, MA: Interlink Books, 2008, pp.123–66.
  23. ^ Wedde, Ian and Tuqan, Fawwaz (introduction and translation), Selected Poems: Mahmoud Darwish. Cheshire: Carcanet Press, 1973:24.
  24. ^ Butt, Aviva. “Mahmud Darwish, Mysticism and Qasidat al-Raml [The Poem of the Sand]." Poets from a War Torn World. SBPRA, 2012: 8–15 (9).
  25. ^ Snir, Reuven. Op.cit.: 124-5.
  26. ^ Fencemag.com
  27. ^ Poets.org from the Academy of American Poets
  28. ^ Passing in passing words
  29. ^ Susan Sachs, "Ramallah Journal; Poetry of Arab Pain: Are Israeli Students Ready?", New York Times, 7 March 2000.
  30. ^ a b http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1011812.html
  31. ^ BBC News 7 March 2000 Poetry sends Israel into political storm
  32. ^ Susan Sontag, "Barak Survives 2 No-Confidence Motions", New York Times, 14 March 2000.
  33. ^ Ehud Zion Waldoks, "Should Darwish's poetry be taught in schools?" Jerusalem Post, 10 August 2008.
  34. ^ Susan Nathan (2005), The Other Side of Israel: Crossing The Jewish-Arab Divide.
  35. ^ Behar, Almog (2011). "Mahmoud Darwish: Poetry's State of Siege". Journal of Levantine Studies 1 (1). 
  36. ^ a b c Zvi Bar'el, "Palestinians: Mahmoud Darwish to be laid to rest in Israel", Ha'aretz, 10 August 2008.
  37. ^ Youseff M. Ibrahim, "Palestinian Critics Accuse Arafat Of Secret Concessions to Israelis", New York Times, 25 August 1993, p. 2.
  38. ^ "kirjasto.sci.fi/darwish". Kirjasto.sci.fi. 9 August 2008. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  39. ^ "Palestinian's Poem Unnerves Israelis", New York Times, 5 April 1988.
  40. ^ "Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish dies", CBC, 9 August 2008.
  41. ^ Alcalay, Ammiel (7 August 1988). "Who's Afraid of Mahmoud Darwish?". News from Within IV (8): 14–16. 
  42. ^ a b "Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music". The World Forum on Music and Censorship. Freemuse.org. 17 August 2005. 
  43. ^ a b Zvi Bar'el, "Afghanistan in Palestine", Haaretz, 26.07.05
  44. ^ "Palestinians Debate Whether Future State Will be Theocracy or Democracy". Associated Press, 13 July 2005.
  45. ^ "Gaza Taliban?" by Editorial Staff, The New Humanist, Vol. 121, Issue 1, January/February 2006.
  46. ^ "Famed Palestinian poet Mahmud Darwish dies: hospital", AFP, 9 August 2008.
  47. ^ I am Yusuf, oh my father[dead link]
  48. ^ "(Sabreen Group)". Sabreen.org. Retrieved 2011-03-27. 
  49. ^ Marcel Khalife's website "In Defence of Freedom and Creativity" by Mahmoud Darwish
  50. ^ Felicia R. Lee, "Letting Music Speak of Mideast Pain", New York Times, 14 May 2005.
  51. ^ "Official Mahmoud Darwish website". Mahmouddarwish.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  52. ^ Silverstein, Richard (14 August 2008). "The poetry of loss". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  53. ^ "Palestinian poet Darwish dies", al Jazeera.net 10 August 2008.
  54. ^ "PA may request Galilee burial for poet", Associated Press. Jpost 10 August 2008.
  55. ^ Mohammed Assadi, "Palestinians plan big funeral for poet Darwish", Washington Post, 10 August 2008.
  56. ^ Tobias Zywietz (15 March 2009). "The Stamps of Palestine 2008". Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  57. ^ "Mahmoud Darwish postal stamp released". Ma'an News Agency. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  58. ^ "Mahmoud Darwish funeral postponed till Wednesday", Gulfnews.com 11 August 2008.
  59. ^ Avi Issacharoff and Jack Khoury, "Mahmoud Darwish – The death of a Palestinian cultural symbol", Ha'aretz, 14 August 2008.
  60. ^ "Hakan Özkan " Book: Turkish Translation of Mahmoud Darwish’s يوميات الحزن العادي". exoriente. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  61. ^ "Waiting, Forever, for Mr. Arafat", New York Times, 19 September 1988.
  62. ^ Joel Greenberg, Mideast Turmoil: "In Jerusalem; Israeli Police In a Clash With Arabs", New York Times, 15 May 1998.
  63. ^ Nathalie Handal, "Mahmoud Darwish: Palestine's Poet of Exile", The Progressive', May 2002.
  64. ^ Richard Silverstein, "Mahmoud Darwish, Palestine’s Greatest Poet, Dies", Tikun Olam, 10 August 2008.
  65. ^ Mahmoud Darwish Foundation.
  66. ^ "Mahmoud Darwish Award for Creativity".

Further reading[edit]

  • Robyn Creswell (February 2009). "Unbeliever in the impossible : the poetry of Mahmoud Darwish". Harper's 318 (1905): 69–74. 

External links[edit]