|Director General of the Inter-Services Intelligence|
20 October 1999 – 7 October 2001
|Preceded by||Gen. Ziauddin Butt|
|Succeeded by||Lt-Gen. Ehsan ul Haq|
|President of the National Defence University|
c. 1944 (age 73–74)
Ludhiana, Punjab, British India
(Present-day in Punjab in India)
|Years of service||1964–2001|
Pakistan Army Artillery Corps|
Corps of Artillery|
X Corps in Rawalpindi
DG Military Intelligence
23rd Infantry Division in Jhelum
Indo-Pakistan War of 1965|
Indo-Pakistan War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1999
India-Pakistan standoff 2001
War in Afghanistan in 2001
Lieutenant-General Mahmud Ahmed (Urdu: محمود احمد; b. 1944) HI(M), is a retired three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence from 1999 until being terminated, following the terrorists attacks in the United States in 2001.:157
He played a crucial role in sponsorship of armed insurgency in Indian Kashmir when he commanded the X Corps against the Indian Army in Kargil, and was identified as one the four army generals who helped initiate the military turnover of the civilian government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, also in 1999. As the DG ISI, Mahmud actively supported the sponsorship of the Islamic fundamentalism by endorsing the Talibans in Afghanistan under its Emir Mohammad Omar in 2000.
Despite being responsible of stabilizing Gen. Pervez Musharraf's control over the civilian government and later his presidency, Lt-Gen. Ahmad was notably forced to retire from his commission when his involvement surfaced in alleged financing of Hamburg cell led by Mohamed Atta, an al-Qaeda operative in 2000-01.
Mahmud Ahmed was born in 1944 in Ludhiana, Punjab in India, and joined the Pakistan Army in 1964 where he did his combat duty, first participating in second war with India in 1965.:177 His family emigrated from India to Pakistan after India's partition on 14/15 August 1947.:contents He secured his graduation from the Lawrence College in Murree before attending Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul in 1965.:227:227
He passed out from the PMA Kakul in 1966 where he gained commissioned as 2nd-Lt in the 16th Self-Propelled (SP) in the Corps of Artillery. Lieutenant Ahmed was the regimental colleague of then army Captain Pervez Musharraf. He participated in the third war with India on the western front, and he was very critical of defence spending took place by Ayub administration after 1965.:15
His career in the military is mostly spent in the military intelligence and became the Director-General of the Military Intelligence (DG MI), when he took it over from then-Maj-Gen. Ali Kuli Khan in October 1995.:82 In June 1998, Maj-Gen. Ahmed was promoted to three-star rank, Lieutenant-General and was moved the President of the National Defence University (NDU) in Islamabad by then-Chairman joint chiefs Gen. Jehangir Karamat.:179
X Corps and Kargil war with India
In October 1998, -Chairman joint chiefs Gen. Pervez Musharraf appointed Lt-Gen. Ahmed as the field commander of the X Corps, and as soon as he was appointed to command the X Corps the planning of the covert infiltration in Indian Kashmir begin to implemented under Lt-Gen. Aziz Khan, the CGS under Gen. Musharraf in Rawalpindi.:309–310 In the military, Lt-Gen. Ahmad was described as ultraconservative, arrogant, and control minded with very short-tempered.:179
Lt-Gen. Ahmed greatly aided in providing the tactical support of mass troop infiltration, starting first by closely and micromanaging the troop deployment near the LoC.:310 In July 1999, he provided the briefing to Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif over the troop deployments, eventually giving a go-ahead for the military operation.:Contents:412
After the Kargil war, the Pakistani Investigative journalist news reports identified that there were four army generals who were in much control of the area contingency plans in Kargil including Lt-Gen. Aziz Khan, the CGS under Gen. Musharraf, Lt-Gen. Shahid Aziz of ISI's Analysis Wing, and Lt-Gen. Jan Orakzai, commanding the XI Corps, besides Lt-Gen. Mahmud.:101 There were no official military inquiries into this incident nor there were any subsequent evidence that led to the punishments of those responsible for such incidents.
On 12 October 1999, Lt-Gen. Ahmed refused to accept to follow the orders of new chain of command set up by then-army chief Gen. Ziauddin Butt and ordered his X Corps to seize the control of the Prime Minister's Secretariat while Lt-Gen. Aziz Khan, the CGS under Gen. Musharraf, took control of the Jinnah Terminal in Karachi.:contents
Director ISI (1999–2001)
U.S. visit, 9/11 attacks, and removal
After the martial law in 1999, Lt-Gen. Ahmed subsequently appointed as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), and his tenureship is marked with alleged terror financing of al-Qaeda and sponsoring the Talibans in Afghanistan.:contents:contents On 17 March 2001, Lt-Gen. Ahmad was appointed as the Colonel commandant of the Corps of Artillery at the Artillery Regimental Center on 17 March 2001. Mahmud was later replaced by Lt General Khalid Kidwai as the colonel commandant on 13 October 2004.
In 2001, Lt-Gen. Ahmad regularly visited the United States where he consulted with The Pentagon and CIA officials in the Bush administration in the weeks before and after terrorist attacks took place in New York on 11 September 2001. In fact, he was with U.S. Republican Congressman Porter Goss and U.S. Democratic Senator Bob Graham in Washington D.C., discussing Osama bin Laden over breakfast, when the attacks of September 11, 2001 took place in New York, United States.
He was immediately called into meetings with senior American politicians where the demands of Pakistani cooperation were made and he was told to convey this to the Musharraf's administration. Joe Biden recalled the meeting: "I met with him to deliver a message, that if he didn't, didn't stop supporting the Taliban we would take him out."
On 9 October 2001, the Pakitani and the U.S. news media reported that "U.S. authorities sought his removal after confirming the fact that $100,000 were wired to WTC hijacker Mohamed Atta from Pakistan by Ahmad Umar Sheikh at the insistence of Lt-Gen. Mahmud."
Despite his loyalty and backing Pres. Pervez Musharraf, Lt-Gen. Ahmed was immediately removed from the directorship of the ISI, when President Musharraf terminated his commissioned under the U.S. pressure, and was replaced by Lt-Gen. Ehsan ul Haq.
Post-retirement and Islamic missionary activity
After this termination, Ahmed publicly came out against President Pervez Musharraf's policy on siding with the United States, without effectively addressing the issue of containing the terrorists organizations.:184
He viewed the American attack on Afghanistan with great suspicion, and had held sympathetic views towards the Talibans in Afghanistan.:184 He later regretted his role in playing his part in bringing to help stabilize Gen. Pervez Musharraf's role against the civilian government when he joined the Alliance for Restoration of Democracy that viewed to removing Musharraf's administration.:184 Ahmed opposed the US invasion of Afghanistan.:184
- Gang of Four in Pakistan Army
- Pakistan Army and state-sponsored terrorism
- Anti-American sentiment in Pakistan
- ISI in Afghanistan
- State within a state
- Power and politics
- Islamic fundamentalism
- Blowback (intelligence)
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| Director General of the Inter-Services Intelligence
1999 – 2001
Ehsan ul Haq