Mahmud I

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Mahmud I
محمود اول
Ottoman Caliph
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
24th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign20 September 1730 – 13 December 1754
PredecessorAhmed III
SuccessorOsman III
Born2 August 1696
Edirne Palace, Edirne, Ottoman Empire
Died13 December 1754(1754-12-13) (aged 58)
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
New Mosque, Istanbul
ConsortsAlicenab Kadın
Mihrişah Kadın
Ayşe Kadın
Hatime Kadın
Verdinaz Kadın
Rami Kadın
Full name
Mahmud bin Mustafa
FatherMustafa II
MotherSaliha Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraMahmud I محمود اول's signature

Mahmud I (Ottoman Turkish: محمود اول‎, Turkish: I. Mahmud, 2 August 1696  – 13 December 1754), known as The hunchback, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1754.


He was born at Edirne Palace, the son of Mustafa II (1664–1703); his mother was Saliha Sabkati Valide Sultan. Mahmud I was the older brother of Osman III (1754–57). He developed a humped back.

On 28 September 1730, Patrona Halil with a small group of fellow Janissaries aroused some of the citizens of Constantinople who opposed the reforms of Ahmet III.[1] Sweeping up more soldiers Halil led the riot to the Topkapı Palace and demanded the death of the grand vizer, Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha and the abdication of Ahmet III. Ahmet III acceded to the demands, had İbrahim Pasha strangled, and agreed to his nephew, Mahmud, becoming sultan.[1]

Mahmud I was recognized as sultan by the mutineers as well as by court officials but for some weeks after his accession the empire was in the hands of the insurgents. Halil rode with the new sultan to the Mosque of Eyüb where the ceremony of girding Mahmud I with the Sword of Osman was performed; many of the chief officers were deposed and successors to them appointed at the dictation of the bold rebel who had served in the ranks of the Janissaries and who appeared before the sultan bare-legged and in his old uniform of a common soldier. A Greek butcher, named Yanaki, had formerly given credit to Halil and had lent him money during the three days of the insurrection. Halil showed his gratitude by compelling the Divan to make Yanaki Hospodar of Moldavia. However, Yanaki never took charge of this office.

The Khan of the Crimea assisted the Grand Vizier, the Mufti and the Aga of the Janissaries in putting down the rebellion. On 24 November 1731, Halil was strangled by the sultan's order[1] and in his presence, after a Divan in which Halil had dictated that war be declared against Russia. His Greek friend, Yanaki, and 7,000 of those who had supported him were also put to death.[citation needed] The jealousy which the officers of the Janissaries felt towards Halil, and their readiness to aid in his destruction, facilitated the exertions of Mahmud I's supporters in putting an end to the rebellion after it had lasted over a year.

The rest of Mahmud I's reign was dominated by wars in Persia, with the collapsing Safavid dynasty and the ascendance of Nader Shah. Mahmud also faced a notable war in Europe -- the Austro-Russian-Turkish War (1735-1739).

Mahmud I entrusted government to his viziers and spent much of his time composing poetry.

He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.

Relations with the Mughal Empire[edit]

Nader Shah's devastating campaign against the Mughal Empire, created a void in the western frontiers of Persia, which was effectively exploited by the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud I, who initiated the Ottoman–Persian War (1743–46), in which the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah closely cooperated with the Ottomans and their ambassador Haji Yusuf Agha, these relations between the two empires continued until Muhammad Shah's death in 1748.[2]


His consorts were:[a]

  • Alicenab Kadın alias El-Hace Ayşe, the principal consort;[3][4]
  • Mihrişah Kadın[5] (died March 1762), the second consort;[6]
  • Hace Ayşe Kadın [5] (died 1764, buried in Karacaahmet Cemetery, Istanbul), the third consort;[7][8]
  • Hatem Kadın (died 1770, buried in Ayazma Mosque, Istanbul), the fourth consort;[9]
  • Hace Verdinaz Kadın[5] (died 16 December 1804, buried in Şehzade Mosque, Istanbul), the fifth consort;[10][11]
  • Rami Kadın[12][13] alias Hatice (died 16 January 1780,[10] buried in Mahmudpaşa Mosque, Istanbul), the sixth consort.[14]


  1. ^ Mahmud had five consorts in 1741, and six consorts in 1754.[15] He had four Ikbals, who were actually Kalfas, and moreover were a not a part of family, but of servants of the household.[16][17]


  1. ^ a b c Shaw, Stanford J. and Shaw, Ezel Kural (1976) History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, volume 1: Empire of the Gazis: the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, p. 240, ISBN 0-521-21280-4
  2. ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. ASIN: B0006ETWB8. See Google Books search.
  3. ^ Sakaoğlu 2008, p. 451.
  4. ^ Uluçay 2011, p. 145.
  5. ^ a b c Necepoğlu 2002, p. 145.
  6. ^ Sakaoğlu 2008, p. 418.
  7. ^ Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2001). Yüzyıllar boyunca Üsküdar - Volume 2. Üsküdar Belediyesi. p. 734. ISBN 978-9-759-76060-1.
  8. ^ Sakaoğlu 2008, p. 549-50.
  9. ^ Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2001). Yüzyıllar boyunca Üsküdar - Volume 1. Üsküdar Belediyesi. p. 87. ISBN 978-9-759-76062-5.
  10. ^ a b Sakaoğlu 2008, p. 452.
  11. ^ Uluçay 2011, p. 145-6.
  12. ^ Uluçay 2011, p. 146.
  13. ^ Kal'a & Tabakoğlu 2003, p. 267.
  14. ^ Şapolyo 1961, p. 319.
  15. ^ Uluçay 2011, p. 145 n. 1.
  16. ^ Uluçay 2011, p. 145 n. 9.
  17. ^ Peirce 1993, p. 319 n. 143.


  • Incorporates text from History of Ottoman Turks (1878)
  • Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-08677-5.
  • Kal'a, Ahmet; Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (2003). İstanbul su külliyâtı: Vakıf su defterleri : Suyolcu 2 (1871-1921). İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. ISBN 978-9-758-21504-1.
  • Şapolyo, Enver Behnan (1961). Osmanlı sultanları tarihi. R. Zaimler Yayınevi.
  • Necepoğlu, Gülrü (1 January 2002). Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, Volume 19. BRILL. ISBN 978-9-004-12593-3.
  • Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6.
  • Uluçay, Mustafa Çağatay (2011). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Ankara, Ötüken.

Mahmud I
Born: 2 August 1696 Died: 13 December 1754[aged 58]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ahmed III
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
20 Sep 1730 – 13 Dec 1754
Succeeded by
Osman III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed III
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
20 Sep 1730 – 13 Dec 1754
Succeeded by
Osman III