Mahmudiyah rape and killings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Mahmoudiyah Killings
Abeer Qassim Hamsa.jpg
Abeer Qassim Hamza at the age of seven
LocationYusufiyah, Iraq
Coordinates33°04′N 44°22′E / 33.067°N 44.367°E / 33.067; 44.367
DateMarch 12, 2006
TargetAbeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi
Attack type
War rape, mass murder
Perpetrators5 U.S. Army soldiers from Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 502d Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)

The Mahmudiyah rape and killings involved the gang-rape and killing of 14-year-old Iraqi girl Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi and the murder of her family by United States Army soldiers on March 12, 2006. It occurred in the family's house to the southwest of Yusufiyah, a village to the west of the town of Al-Mahmudiyah, Iraq. Others of al-Janabi's family killed included her 34-year-old mother Fakhriyah Taha Muhasen, 45-year-old father Qassim Hamza Raheem, and six-year-old sister Hadeel Qassim Hamza Al-Janabi.[1]

Charged with the crimes of rape and murder were five U.S. Army soldiers of the 502nd Infantry Regiment consisting of Sergeant Paul E. Cortez, Specialist James P. Barker, Private First Class Jesse V. Spielman, Private First Class Brian L. Howard, and Private First Class Steven D. Green.[2] Private Green was discharged from the U.S. Army for mental instability before the crimes were known by his command, whereas Cortez, Barker, Spielman and Howard were tried by U.S. Army General Courts Martial and convicted of the crimes and sentenced to prison.[2] Green was tried in a United States civilian court and convicted of rape and the four murders and also sentenced to life in prison.[3]


Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi (عبير قاسم حمزة الجنابي) (August 19, 1991 – March 12, 2006),[4][5] lived with her mother and father (Fakhriya Taha Muhasen, 34, and Qassim Hamza Raheem, 45, respectively) and their three other children: 6-year-old daughter Hadeel Qassim Hamza al-Janabi, 11-year-old son Mohammed, and his 9-year-old younger brother Ahmed. Their house was situated approximately 200 meters (220 yd) from a six-man U.S. traffic checkpoint,[6] southwest of the village of Yusufiyah, which lies west of the larger township of Al-Mahmudiyah (in the coalition-termed area "Triangle of Death").[7]

Prior to the crimes, five members of the platoon in which the soldiers were assigned, including their platoon leader, had been killed by Iraqi insurgents who planted improvised explosive devices as booby-traps along the roads used by the soldiers within a few months of their unit arrival in the area of Al-Mahmudiyah.[2] They were frustrated and angry that their friends and leaders had been killed without them ever seeing or fighting their enemy, who hid among the population. Fueled by alcohol confiscated from Iraqis, and talk of revenge against the Iraqi people, the soldiers planned the attack on the family who they believed to be supporting their enemies.

According to her neighbours, Abeer spent most of her days at home, as her parents would not allow her to go to school because of security concerns. From their checkpoint, the soldiers would often watch Abeer doing her chores and tending the garden. The neighbors had warned Abeer's father of this, but he replied it was not a problem as she was just a small girl.[7]

Abeer's brother Mohammed (who along with his younger brother was at school at the time of the killings and thus survived) recalls that the soldiers often searched the house. On one such occasion, Green ran his index finger down Abeer's cheek, an action which had terrified her.[8]

Abeer's mother told her relatives before the murders that, whenever she caught the soldiers staring at Abeer, they would give her the thumbs-up sign, point to her daughter and say "Very good, very good." Evidently this had concerned her and she made plans for Abeer to spend nights sleeping at her uncle's (Ahmad Qassim's) house.[8][9] According to an affidavit later filed by the FBI, Green discussed raping the girl in the days preceding the event.

Rape and killings[edit]

On March 12, 2006, the soldiers (from the 502nd Infantry Regiment) at the checkpoint had been illegally drinking alcohol and discussing plans to rape Abeer. Five soldiers of the six-man unit responsible for the checkpoint left their posts for the Qasim farmhouse.[10] The sixth, Sergeant Anthony W. Yribe, who continued to man the traffic control point was charged with dereliction of duty by failing to enforce the general order of no alcohol consumption by American soldiers, failing to keep the men at their assigned post, and not reporting the attack, and he was also charged with making a false official statement for his role in an initial cover-up of the crimes. Of the five, four of the soldiers directly participated in the crimes, while Private First Class Howard acted as lookout, but did not otherwise participate.[2]

In broad daylight, they walked to the house (not wearing their uniforms)[8] and separated Abeer and her family into two different rooms. Green then murdered her parents and younger sister, while two other soldiers raped Abeer. Green then emerged from the room saying "I just killed them, all are dead".[11] He, who later said the crime was "awesome",[12] then raped Abeer and shot her in the head. After the rape the lower part of Abeer’s body, from her stomach down to her feet, was set on fire. The fire eventually spread to the rest of the room and the smoke alerted neighbors, who were among the first to discover the scene.[2] One recalled "The poor girl, she was so beautiful. She lay there, one leg was stretched and the other bent and her dress was lifted up to her neck."[9] They ran to tell Abu Firas Janabi, Abeer’s uncle, that the farmhouse was on fire and that dead bodies could be seen inside the burning building. Janabi and his wife rushed to the farmhouse and doused some of the flames to get inside. Upon witnessing the scene inside, Janabi went to a checkpoint guarded by Iraqi soldiers to report the crime.

The Iraqi soldiers immediately went to examine the scene and thereafter went to an American checkpoint to report the incident. This checkpoint was different from the one manned by the perpetrators. After approximately an hour, some soldiers from the checkpoint went to the farmhouse. These soldiers were accompanied by at least one of the perpetrators.

Cover up[edit]

Green and the other soldiers who participated in the incident told the Iraqi Army soldiers who arrived on scene immediately after the incident that it had been perpetrated by Sunni insurgents. These Iraqi soldiers conveyed this information to Abeer's uncle, who viewed the bodies. This lie prevented the event from being recognized as a crime or widely reported amidst the widespread violence occurring in Iraq at that time.[8][13]

On June 16, a checkpoint manned by soldiers in the perpetrators' unit was attacked and overrun. Specialist David Babineau was killed and Privates First Class Thomas Lowell Tucker and Kristian Menchaca were captured, tortured, killed and their bodies mutilated.

Sergeant Yribe learned of their torture and he told Private First Class Justin Watt, a newly assigned soldier to Bravo Company, that Green was a murderer. Private Watt conducted a personal inquiry about this alarming act by a fellow soldier and coworker. He talked other members of his platoon who revealed to him that the gang-rape and murder had in fact occurred. Watt then reported what he believed to be true to another Non-Commissioned Officer in his platoon, Sergeant John Diem. Watt trusted Sergeant Diem; he told him that he knew a terrible crime had been committed and asked for his advice, knowing that if he reported the crime he would be considered a traitor to his unit and could possibly be killed by them. Sergeant Diem told him to be cautious, but that he had a duty as an honorable soldier to report the crimes to the proper authorities. Unfortunately, they did not trust their chain of command to protect them if they reported the war crime. So Private First Class Watt asked to speak with a mental health counselor, thereby bypassing the chain of command to report the crimes.[2] On June 22, 2006, the rape and the murders came to light when Watt revealed them during a mental health counseling session and on to Army criminal investigators.[14]

Before Watt reported the crimes, Green had previously been honorably discharged from the Army on May 16, 2006, before the crime was recognized, with "antisocial personality disorder".[15] The FBI assumed jurisdiction for the crime committed by Green under the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act[16] and charged him with the killings.[15]

Alleged 2006 retaliation[edit]

On July 10, the Mujahideen Shura Council (now a part of the Islamic State) released a graphic video showing the bodies of Pfcs. Tucker and Menchaca. This video was accompanied by a statement saying that the group carried out the killings as "revenge for our sister who was dishonored by a soldier of the same brigade."[17][18] The Washington Post reports that Charles Babineau and two other individuals from the same unit were captured and killed by militants a month after the rape.[19][20] Local Iraqi officials, and American officials, denied the killing of the GIs was an act of retaliation, because the GIs were killed days before the revelation leaked out that American soldiers had committed the rape and murder in Mahmudiyah. At the time of Menchaca and Tucker's abduction on June 16, 2006, only the perpetrators of the rape and murder, and a few soldiers in their unit engaged in covering up the crime, knew that it had been committed by American soldiers. The crime was revealed by Pfc Justin Watt on June 22, and American responsibility only became "public knowledge" in Iraq on July 4, days after which the video by the Mujahideen Shura Council was released. Also, the abduction occurred on June 16, nine days after the targeted killing of the Shura Council's leader, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, on June 7.[21][22]

The video from the Mujahideen Shura Council claimed that upon learning of the rape/murder, the group "kept their anger to themselves and didn't spread the news, but were determined to avenge their sister's honor". Locals may have been able to deduce the guilt of the US soldiers from the nearby check point, after the Americans and their Iraqi cohort unit provided the explanation, 'Sunni extremists did this'. A portion of locals served as auxiliary support for both for Al Qaeda in Iraq and the 1920s Revolutionary Brigade. Auxiliary support comprised both material aid and performing a human intelligence support function. Relaying the accusation of the local MNC-I unit to the insurgents, is a basic function of that support. The Sunni extremists were able to eliminate themselves as suspects and having an already low opinion of the US military, may have assumed the guilt of the 101st Airborne soldiers. From the perspective of the insurgency, whether or not they had evidence or confessions to prove the guilt of the US soldiers, the accusation alone was a propaganda victory.[citation needed] A statement issued along with the video stated that "God Almighty enabled them to capture two soldiers of the same brigade as this dirty crusader." Other militant groups also made various claims or statements announcing revenge campaigns after the killings were reported on July 4, when the American investigation into the incident was announced.[23][24]

On July 4, Jaysh al-Mujahidin claimed downing a U.S. Army AH-64 Apache "in retaliation for the child, Abir, whom U.S. soldiers raped in Al-Mahmudiyah, south of Baghdad."[25] On July 12, the Islamic Army in Iraq claimed responsibility for a suicide car bomb near the entrance to the Green Zone in Baghdad, in support of the "Abir operations" targeting the "evil den in the Green prison".[26]

Legal proceedings[edit]

Green was arrested as a civilian, and convicted by a civilian court, the U.S. District Court in Paducah, Kentucky.[27] The other four, all active-duty soldiers, were convicted through courts-martial.

Steven Dale Green[edit]

Green in December 2005.

Green was arrested in North Carolina while traveling home from Arlington, Virginia, where he had attended the funeral of a soldier. On June 30, 2006, the FBI arrested Green, who was held without bond and transferred to Louisville, Kentucky. On July 3, 2006, United States Federal Court prosecutors formally charged him with raping and killing Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi, and with killing her six-year-old sister Hadeel, her father, Qassim Hamza Rasheed, and her mother, Fakhriya Taha Muhasen in Mahmoudiyah, on March 12, 2006. On July 10, the U.S. Army charged four other active duty soldiers with the same crime. A sixth soldier, Sgt. Anthony Yribe, was charged with failing to report the attack, but not with having participated in the rape and the murders. On May 7, 2009, Green was found guilty by the federal court in Kentucky of rape and multiple counts of murder.[3] While prosecutors sought the death penalty in this case, jurors failed to agree unanimously and the death sentence could not be imposed.[28] On September 4, 2009, Green was formally sentenced to life in prison with no possibility of parole.[29] The decision to spare Green from the death penalty provoked outrage from the family's relatives, with Abeer's uncle describing the sentence as "a crime -- almost worse than the soldier's crime".[30] He was held in the United States Penitentiary in Tucson, Arizona, and died on February 15, 2014, from complications following an attempt at suicide by hanging.[31]


May 2009 booking photo, Mecklenberg County Sheriff's department

On July 6, 2006, Green entered a plea of not guilty through his public defenders. U.S. Magistrate Judge James Moyer set an arraignment date of August 8 in Paducah, Kentucky.[32] On July 11, 2006, his lawyers requested a gag order. "This case has received prominent and often sensational coverage in virtually all print, electronic and internet news media in the world." "Clearly, the publicity and public passions surrounding this case present the clear and imminent danger to the fair administration of justice," said the motion.[33] Prosecutors had until July 25 to file their response to the request.[34]

On August 31, 2006, a federal judge rejected a gag order. U.S. District Judge Thomas Russell said there is "no reason to believe" that Green's right to a fair trial would be in jeopardy. Furthermore, he added, "It is beyond question that the charges against Mr. Green are serious ones, and that some of the acts alleged in the complaint are considered unacceptable in our society."[35] In July 2007, federal prosecutors, led by Brian Skaret of the United States Department of Justice's Domestic Security Section, announced that they would seek the death penalty for Green, based upon the prosecutors' belief that the rape and killings were premeditated, and were committed using a firearm.[citation needed]

Opening arguments in Green's trial were heard on April 27, 2009.[36] The prosecution rested its case on May 4, 2009.[37] On May 7, 2009, a federal jury convicted Green of rape and murder, for which he could have received the death penalty.[38] However, on May 21, 2009, Green was spared the death penalty when the jury of nine men and three women could not come to unanimous agreement on a penalty; as a result, he received life without parole.[39] Formal sentencing took place on September 4, 2009.[29][40]

Green's defense attorneys argued against the death penalty, presenting military witnesses who testified that Green's unit suffered unusual stress and heavy casualties, and had insufficient Army leadership.[40] At the same time, Abeer's relatives were outraged at the punishment Green has been given, feeling that Green's sentence was insufficient; the story was featured in Al Jazeera News.[41]


Green challenged his convictions, claiming that the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act is unconstitutional and that he should face a military trial.[42] In his first interview since the murders, Green was quoted as saying "I didn't think of Iraqis as humans".[43] Green lost his appeal in August 2011.[44]


Green grew up in Seabrook, Texas, and moved with his family to Midland, when he was 14. According to school officials, he dropped out of high school in 2002 after completing the 10th grade and moved to Denver City, Texas, where he earned his high school equivalency diploma in 2003. Days after a January 2005 arrest for underage alcohol possession, Green enlisted in the U.S. Army. In doing so, he was granted a moral character waiver for prior alcohol and other drug related offenses that might have otherwise disqualified him. Green graduated from infantry training and was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), in Fort Campbell, Kentucky. According to a military spokesperson and a criminal complaint filed in connection with the charges, Green was honorably discharged from the military "due to antisocial personality disorder but before the military was aware of the incident."[45] Green was deployed to Iraq from September 2005 to April 2006 and discharged in May 2006.[46] He is the first man prosecuted under the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act, signed in 2000, which gives the federal government the power to pursue criminal cases against U.S. soldiers for acts committed in foreign lands.[47]

James P. Barker[edit]

On November 15, 2006, Specialist Barker pleaded guilty to rape and murder as part of a plea agreement requiring him to give evidence against the other soldiers to avoid the death penalty. He was sentenced to 90 years in prison and must serve 20 years before being considered for parole, followed by a dishonorable discharge. He wept during closing statements, and accepted responsibility for the rape and killings, saying the violence he had encountered in Iraq left him "angry and mean" toward Iraqis.[48] Despite this show of emotion during closing arguments, Barker showed no such emotion afterward. Journalists reported "he smoked a cigarette outside as a bailiff watched over him. He grinned but said nothing as reporters passed by."[49] He is currently held in the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.[50]

Paul E. Cortez[edit]

On January 22, 2007, Cortez pleaded guilty in a court martial to rape, conspiracy to rape, and four counts of murder as part of a plea deal to avoid the death penalty, and was sentenced to 100 years in prison followed by a dishonorable discharge.[51] He wept as he apologized for the crimes, saying he could not explain why he took part.[52] He is currently held in the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.[50]

Jesse V. Spielman[edit]

On August 3, 2007, Private First Class Jesse V. Spielman, 23, was sentenced by a court martial to 110 years in prison with the possibility of parole after 10 years, followed by a dishonorable discharge. He was convicted of rape, conspiracy to commit rape, housebreaking with intent to rape and four counts of felony murder. He had earlier pleaded guilty to lesser charges of conspiracy toward obstruction of justice, arson, necrophilia and drinking.[53] Spielman is currently held in the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.[50]

Bryan L. Howard[edit]

Private First Class Bryan L. Howard was sentenced by a court martial under a plea agreement to 27 months' imprisonment for obstruction of justice and being an accessory after the fact, followed by a dishonorable discharge. The court found that his involvement included hearing the others discussing the crime and lying to protect them, but not commission of the actual rape or murders.[54][55] Ultimately, Howard served a 27-month sentence and was dishonorably discharged.[50]

Anthony W. Yribe[edit]

Initially Sergeant Anthony W. Yribe was charged with obstructing the investigation, specifically, dereliction of duty and making a false statement. In exchange for his testimony against the other men, the government dropped the charges against him and he accepted an administrative discharge characterized as "other than honorable".[50][56][57]


Justin Watt[edit]

Private First Class Justin Watt, the whistleblower, received a medical discharge and is now running a computer business. He says that he received death threats after coming forward.[50] But starting in 2010, he was asked by the US Army Center for the Army Profession and Ethic (CAPE) at West Point, NY to be interviewed and speak before Army Profession audiences about his right decision to report the crimes in accordance with his moral obligation to uphold the Army Ethic. Mr. Watt and Sergeant Diem have both done so, including venues at which hundreds of senior Army leaders were present, for which their courageous acts were given standing ovations.[citation needed]


Muhammed and Ahmed Qassim Hamza al-Janabi, the surviving brothers of murder victim Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi, are being raised by an uncle,[2] according to testimony in the courts-martial of Cortez, Barker and Spielman.

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 2007 war film Redacted is loosely based upon the events at Mahmudiyah.
  • The incident and the ensuing investigations were described in the book Black Hearts by Jim Frederick, published in 2010.[58][59]
  • The play "9 Circles" by Bill Cain follows Daniel Reeves through the aftermath of Mahmudiyah and was performed in 2011 at the Bootleg Theatre in Los Angeles.[60]
  • The attacks are referenced in the 2017 episode “Fair Game”, of the television series Homeland.
  • The incident was covered extensively in March 2018, in Case 78 of Casefile True Crime Podcast.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Soldier: 'Death walk' drives troops 'nuts'". Aug 8, 2006. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Case 78: The Janabi Family - Casefile: True Crime Podcast". 17 March 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b "US ex-soldier guilty of Iraq rape". BBC News. 2009-05-07.
  4. ^ "Iraq girl in troops rape case just 14 - World". 2006-07-11. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  5. ^ "U.S. military names soldiers charged in rape, murder probe". Jul 10, 2006. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  6. ^ "FindLaw: U.S. v. Steven D. Green - Murder and Rape Charges against Former U.S. Army 101st Airborne Division Soldier From Ft. Campbell, Kentucky". 2006-06-30. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  7. ^ a b Akeel Hussein; Colin Freeman (2006-07-09). "Two dead soldiers, eight more to go, vow avengers of Iraqi girl's rape". Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  8. ^ a b c d Rawe, Julie (2006-07-09). "A Soldier's Shame". TIME. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  9. ^ a b Ewen MacAskill. "US soldier sentenced to 100 years for Iraq rape and murder". the Guardian.
  10. ^ Smith, Stephen (August 7, 2006). "Whiskey And Golf Before Rape-Murder?". CBS News. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  11. ^ "FindLaw: U.S. v. Steven D. Green - Murder and Rape Charges against Former U.S. Army 101st Airborne Division Soldier From Ft. Campbell, Kentucky". 2006-06-30. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  12. ^ "Ex-U.S. soldier found guilty in Iraqi rape, deaths". Reuters UK. May 8, 2009.
  13. ^ Iraqi Television Treatment of Reported Rape, Killing of Iraqi Girl Iraqi television stations on July 5, 2006
  14. ^ Zoroya, Gregg (September 13, 2006). "Whistle-blower in anguish". USA Today.
  15. ^ a b Federal court to try ex-soldier on Iraq charges Archived March 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. July 6, 2006.
  16. ^ "18 USC Chapter 212". Archived from the original on June 28, 2006.
  17. ^ "Beheading Desecration Video of Dead U.S. Soldiers Released on Internet by al Qaeda". The Jawa Report. 10 July 2006. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  18. ^ Mujahidin Shura Council Links US Soldiers Killing to 'Rape' of Iraqi Girl Islamic Renewal Organization website via, July 11, 2006.[dead link](subscription required)
  19. ^ Ellen Knickmeyer; Joshua Partlow (2006-07-10). "Capital Charges Filed In Rape-Slaying Case: U.S. Details Allegations Against GIs in Iraq". The Washington Post. p. A11. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  20. ^ Joshua Partlow; Saad Al-Izzi (2006-07-12). "From Baghdad Mosque, a Call to Arms". The Washington Post. p. A08. Retrieved 2009-05-23. The hand-held video shows two bodies -- one decapitated, the other face down on the ground as someone steps on his head. The video was posted on an insurgent Web site, accompanied by a statement from the Mujaheddin al-Shura Council, a collection of several insurgent groups including al-Qaeda in Iraq, asserting that the soldiers were killed in retaliation for the rape and murder of an Iraqi girl and the killings of three members of her family, allegedly by U.S. soldiers from the same unit in the nearby town of Mahmudiyah.
  21. ^ "Iraq Terror Chief Killed In Airstrike". CBS News. June 8, 2006.
  22. ^ Burns, John F. (8 June 2006). "Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Leader of Al Qaeda in Iraq, Is Killed in U.S. Airstrike". Retrieved 14 April 2018 – via
  23. ^ Salah al-Din Brigades Vows Revenge for Al-Mahmudiyah 'Rape' Case Islamic Renewal Organization (IRO) website in Arabic via, July 10, 2006
  24. ^ Al-Mujahidin Army Responds to Alleged Rape of Iraqi Girl by US Soldiers Baghdad al-Rashid forum in Arabic via, July 10, 2006
  25. ^ Doha Al-Jazirah Satellite Channel Television in Arabic via 1412 GMT Jul 04, 06
  26. ^ Islamic Army in Iraq: Green Zone Attack 'in Support of Abir, Gaza Operations' Al-Firdaws Jihadist Forums at on July 12, 2006
  27. ^ Detroit Free Press, page A18, May 8, 2009[full citation needed]
  28. ^ "US soldier spared death penalty". BBC News. 2009-05-21. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  29. ^ a b "Life for US soldier's Iraq crimes". BBC News. 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
  30. ^ "Iraqi relatives decry life for U.S. rape soldier". Reuters. May 22, 2009. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
  31. ^ Almasy, Steve. "Former soldier at center of murder of Iraqi family dies after suicide attempt",, February 18, 2014; retrieved February 19, 2014.
  32. ^ CNN. "Ex-soldier pleads not guilty to rape, murder: Former Army private accused of raping woman, killing family". Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-06.
  33. ^ "MOTION TO RESTRAIN PARTIES AND OTHER TRIAL PARTICIPANTS FROM MAKING EXTRAJUDICIAL STATEMENTS OF INFLAMMATORY OR PREJUDICIAL NATURE" (PDF). United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky. 2006-07-11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  34. ^ (2006-07-11). "Gag requested in Iraq rape-murder case". Retrieved 2006-10-20.
  35. ^ "Judge in Rape-Murder Case Denies Gag Order". Associated Press. 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
  36. ^ Barrouquere, Brett (2009-04-27). "Ex-soldier trial for rape, murder in Iraq opens". Mail Online. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  37. ^ "Prosecution rests in trial for Iraq crimes". Associated Press. 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  38. ^ "Ex-soldier could face death over Iraq murders, rape". CNN. 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  39. ^ Dao, James (2009-05-21). "Ex-Soldier Gets Life Sentence for Iraq Murders". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  40. ^ a b "US soldier escapes death penalty over Iraqi rape and murder". London, UK: The Daily Telegraph. 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  41. ^ AlJazeeraEnglish. "Iraqis outraged at US soldier's life sentence". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  42. ^ "Ex-soldier appealing sentences in Iraq deaths". Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  43. ^ Daily Mail: "'I didn't think of Iraqis as humans,' says U.S. soldier who raped 14-year-old girl before killing her and her family" December 21, 2010
  44. ^ "AFP: Ex-US soldier loses appeal of Iraq rape, murders". 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  45. ^ "Officials: Soldier was discharged for 'antisocial personality'". CNN. 2006-07-05. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-05.
  46. ^ Allen G. Breed (2006-07-05). "Ex-GI Accused in Iraq Rape Had Rocky Past". Fox News (AP). Retrieved 2009-06-29.
  47. ^ "Steven Dale Green: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  48. ^ "Iraq rape soldier given life sentence". London: Guardian Unlimited. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  49. ^ "Iraq rape soldier given life sentence". Associated Press/USA Today. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  50. ^ a b c d e f "Where are they now?". Louisville Courier Journal. 2009-04-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
  51. ^ "US soldier admits murdering girl". BBC News. 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
  52. ^ Hall, Tim (2007-02-25). "US soldier jailed for 100 years for rape". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
  53. ^ Lenz, Ryan (2007-08-04). "110-Year Sentence in Iraq Rape-Killing". ABC News. Archived from the original on November 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
  54. ^ Horswell, Cindy (2007-03-22). "Huffman soldier sentenced in Iraq atrocities". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  55. ^ "US prosecutors seek death penalty in Iraq murders". Reuters. 2007-07-03. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  56. ^ Von Zielbauer, Paul (2006-11-15). "Soldier to Plead Guilty in Iraq Rape and Killings". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
  57. ^ "Soldier testifies another soldier admitted to attack on family". International Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. July 31, 2007. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007.
  58. ^ Jim Frederick "BLACK HEARTS - One Platoon’s Descent Into Madness in Iraq’s Triangle of Death", publ. Harmony Books (2010) ISBN 9780230752948
  59. ^ Joshua Hammer. "Death Squad". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  60. ^ "Theater review: '9 Circles' at Bootleg Theater".

External links[edit]