Maila Elizabeth Niemi
December 11, 1922
|Died||January 10, 2008 (aged 85)|
|Resting place||Hollywood Forever Cemetery|
|Other names||Maila Niemi Nurmi|
Maila Elizabeth Nurmimioni
The daughter of a Finnish immigrant, Nurmi was raised in Oregon and relocated to Los Angeles in 1940 with hopes of being an actress. After several minor film roles, she found success in the Vampira character, television's first horror host. Nurmi hosted her own series, The Vampira Show, from 1954 to 1955 on KABC-TV.
After the show's cancellation, she appeared in the 1959 cult film Plan 9 from Outer Space, directed by Ed Wood. She is also billed as Vampira in the 1959 film The Beat Generation, where she appears out of character and instead plays a beatnik poet. Nurmi also appeared in the 1959 crime film The Big Operator. She was portrayed by Lisa Marie in Tim Burton's 1994 biopic Ed Wood.
Maila Nurmi was born Maila Elizabeth Niemi in 1922 to Onni Niemi (earlier Syrjäniemi), a Finnish immigrant, and Sophia Peterson, an American of Finnish descent. Her place of birth is disputed: according to biographer W. Scott Poole in Vampira: Dark Goddess of Horror (2014), Nurmi was born in Gloucester, Massachusetts. However, during her career, Nurmi claimed to have been born in Petsamo, Finland, claiming she was the niece of Finnish athlete Paavo Nurmi, who began setting long-distance running world records in 1921, the year before her birth. Public U.S. immigration records show her father's immigration at Ellis Island in 1910. Additionally, Dana Gould claimed in a 2014 public interview that he had seen Nurmi's birth certificate, which listed her birthplace as Gloucester, Massachusetts. In her personal diary, Nurmi admitted that the Petsamo story was a fiction.
During her childhood, Nurmi relocated with her family from Massachusetts to Ashtabula, Ohio, before settling in Astoria, Oregon, a city on the Oregon Coast with a large Finnish community. Her father worked as a lecturer and editor, and her mother also worked as a part-time journalist and translator to support the family. She graduated from Astoria High School in 1940.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2017)
In 1940, Nurmi relocated to Los Angeles, California to pursue an acting career, and later in New York City. She modeled for Alberto Vargas, Bernard of Hollywood, and Man Ray, gaining a foothold in the film industry with an uncredited role in Victor Saville's 1947 film, If Winter Comes.
On Broadway, she gained much attention after appearing in the horror-themed midnight show Spook Scandals, in which she screamed, fainted, lay in a coffin, and seductively lurked about a mock cemetery. She also worked as a showgirl for the Earl Carroll Theatre and as a high-kicking chorus line dancer at the Florentine Gardens along with stripper Lili St. Cyr. In the 1950s, she supported herself mainly by posing for pin-up photos in men's magazines such as Famous Models, Gala and Glamorous Models. Before landing her role as Vampira, she was working as a hat-check girl in a cloakroom on Hollywood's Sunset Strip.
Origin of Vampira
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The idea for the Vampira character was born in 1953 when Nurmi attended choreographer Lester Horton's annual Bal Caribe Masquerade in a costume inspired by Morticia Addams in The New Yorker cartoons of Charles Addams. Her appearance with pale white skin and tight black dress caught the attention of television producer Hunt Stromberg, Jr., who wanted to hire her to host horror movies on the Los Angeles television station KABC-TV, but Stromberg had no idea how to contact her. He finally got her phone number from Rudi Gernreich, later the designer of the topless swimsuit. The name Vampira was the invention of Nurmi's husband, Dean Riesner. Nurmi's characterization was influenced by the Dragon Lady from the comic strip Terry and the Pirates and the evil queen from Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
On April 30, 1954, KABC-TV aired a preview, Dig Me Later, Vampira, at 11:00 p.m. The Vampira Show premiered on the following night, May 1, 1954. For the first four weeks, the show aired at midnight, moving to 11:00 p.m. on May 29. Ten months later, the series aired at 10:30 p.m., beginning March 5, 1955. Each show opened with Vampira gliding down a dark corridor flooded with dry-ice fog. At the end of her trance-like walk, the camera zoomed in on her face as she let out a piercing scream. She would then introduce (and mock) that evening's film while reclining barefoot on a skull-encrusted Victorian couch. Her horror-related comedy antics included ghoulish puns such as encouraging viewers to write for epitaphs instead of autographs and talking to her pet spider Rollo.
She also ran as a candidate for Night Mayor of Hollywood with a platform of "dead issues". In another publicity stunt, KABC had her cruise around Hollywood in the back of a chauffeur-driven 1932 Packard touring car with the top down, where she sat, as Vampira, holding a black parasol. The show was an immediate hit, and in June 1954 she appeared as Vampira in a horror-themed comedy skit on The Red Skelton Show along with Béla Lugosi, and Lon Chaney, Jr.. That same week Life magazine ran an article on her, including a photo-spread of her show-opening entrance and scream. A kinescope of her The Red Skelton Show appearance was discovered in 2014. It is available as part of the Shout Factory DVD box set Red Skelton: The Early Years.
When her KABC series was cancelled in 1955, Nurmi retained rights to the character of Vampira and took the show to a competing Los Angeles television station, KHJ-TV. Several episode scripts and a single promotional kinescope of Nurmi re-creating some of her macabre comedy segments are held by private collectors. Several clips from the rare kinescope are included in the documentaries American Scary and Vampira: The Movie. The entire KABC kinescope, plus selections of the KABC pitchman who introduced the clips, is available in the 2012 documentary Vampira and Me.
Vampira and Me also features extensive clips from two previously unknown 16mm kinescopes of Nurmi as Vampira on national TV shows, including her starring guest spot on the April 2, 1955 episode of The George Gobel Show, a top 10 hit. The Vampira and Me restoration of the Gobel kinescope was documented in a 2013 short film entitled Restoring Vampira.
Examination of Nurmi's diaries in 2014 by filmmaker and journalist R. H. Greene verified longtime rumors that in 1956 she was the model for Maleficent, the evil witch in the Disney conception of the classic fairy tale "Sleeping Beauty." A Disney archivist subsequently confirmed these findings.
In 2007, the kinescope film of Nurmi in character was restored by Rerunmedia, whose restorations include The Ed Sullivan Show and Dark Shadows. The restoration utilized the groundbreaking LiveFeed Video Imaging process developed exclusively for the restoration of kinescopes. The restoration was funded by Spectropia Wunderhaus and Coffin Case.
A reconstructed episode of The Vampira Show was released on DVD by the Vampira's Attic web site in October 2007. The release imitated a complete episode by using existing footage of the show combined with vintage commercials believed to have been directed by Ed Wood and the full-length 1932 feature film The Thirteenth Guest.
Nurmi made television history as the first horror movie hostess. In 1957, Screen Gems released a syndicated package of 52 horror movies, mostly from Universal Pictures, under the program title Shock Theater. Independent stations in major cities all over the U.S. began showing these films, adding their own ghoulish host or hostess (including Vampira II and other lookalikes) to attract more viewers.
Nominated for a Los Angeles area Emmy Award for Most Outstanding Female Personality in 1954, she returned to films with Too Much, Too Soon in 1958, followed by The Big Operator and The Beat Generation. Her best known film appearance was in Ed Wood's camp classic, Plan 9 from Outer Space, as a Vampira-like zombie (filmed in 1956, but released in 1959). In 1960 she appeared in I Passed for White and Sex Kittens Go to College, followed by 1962's The Magic Sword. The classic clip from Plan 9 from Outer Space featuring Vampira walking out of the woods with her hands pointing straight out was used to start the original opening sequence of WPIX Channel 11 New York's Chiller Theatre in the 1960s.
In the early 1960s, Nurmi opened Vampira's Attic, an antiques boutique on Melrose Avenue. She also sold handmade jewelry and clothing. She made items for several celebrities, including Grace Slick of the music group Jefferson Airplane and the Zappa family.
In 1981, Nurmi was asked by KHJ-TV to revive her Vampira character for television. She worked closely with the producers of the new show and was to get an executive producer credit, but Nurmi eventually left the project over creative differences. According to Nurmi, this was because the station cast comedic actress Cassandra Peterson in the part without consulting her. "They eventually called me in to sign a contract and she was there", Nurmi told Bizarre magazine in 2005. "They had hired her without asking me."
Nurmi worked on the project for a short time, but quit when the producers would not hire Lola Falana to play Vampira. The station sent out a casting call, and Peterson auditioned and won the role.
Unable to continue using the name Vampira, the show was abruptly renamed Elvira's Movie Macabre with Peterson playing the titular host. Nurmi soon filed a lawsuit against Peterson. The court eventually ruled in favor of Peterson, holding that "likeness means actual representation of another person's appearance, and not simply close resemblance." Peterson claimed that Elvira was nothing like Vampira aside from the basic design of the black dress and black hair. Nurmi claimed that the entire Elvira persona, which included comedic dialogue and intentionally bad graveyard puns, infringed on her creation's "distinctive dark dress, horror movie props, and...special personality." Nurmi herself claimed that Vampira's image was in part based on the Charles Addams The New Yorker cartoon character Morticia Addams, though she told Boxoffice magazine in 1994 that she had intentionally deviated from Addams' mute and flat-chested creation, making her own TV character "campier and sexier" to avoid plagiarizing Addams' idea.
In 1986, she appeared alongside Tomata du Plenty of The Screamers in Rene Daalder's punk rock musical Population: 1, which was released on DVD in October 2008. According to a Daalder interview on the 2 disc special edition of Population: 1, "There was a wild lady living out in back in a shed. Tomata befriended her and found out she had played Vampira".
In 1987, she recorded two seven-inch singles on Living Eye records with the band Satan's Cheerleaders. The singles, entitled "I Am Damned" and "Genocide Utopia," were both released on colored vinyl, the second one with a swastika on the label, and are extremely rare collector's items.
In 2001, Nurmi opened an official website and began selling autographed memorabilia and original pieces of art on eBay. Until her death, Nurmi lived in a small North Hollywood apartment.
Unlike Elvira, Nurmi authorized very few merchandising contracts for her Vampira character, though the name and likeness have been used unofficially by various companies since the 1950s. In 1994, Nurmi authorized a Vampira model kit for Artomic Creations, and a pre-painted figurine from Bowen Designs in 2001, both sculpted by Thomas Kuntz. In 2004, she authorized merchandising of the Vampira character by Coffin Case, for the limited purpose of selling skate boards and guitar cases.
In the early 1950s, Nurmi was close friends with James Dean, and they spent time together at Googie's coffee shop on the corner of Crescent Heights and Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. She explained their friendship by saying, "We have the same neuroses."
As Hedda Hopper related in a 1962 memoir that included a chapter on Dean: "We discussed the thin-cheeked actress who calls herself Vampira on television (and cashed in, after Jimmy died, on the publicity she got from knowing him and claimed she could talk to him 'through the veil'). He said: 'I had studied The Golden Bough and the Marquis de Sade, and I was interested in finding out if this girl was obsessed by a satanic force. She knew absolutely nothing. I found her void of any true interest except her Vampira make-up. She has no absolute.'"
The 2010 public radio documentary Vampira and Me by author/director R. H. Greene took issue with Hopper's depiction of the Nurmi/Dean relationship, pointing to an extant photo of Dean and Vampira sidekick Jack Simmons in full Boris Karloff Frankenstein make-up as evidence of Nurmi and Dean's friendship. The documentary also described a production memo in the Warner Bros. archive citing a set visit from "Vampira" while Dean was making Rebel Without a Cause.
The Warner Bros memo was first mentioned in the 2006 book Live Fast, Die Young: The Making of Rebel Without a Cause by Lawrence Frascella and Al Weisel, who were given access to the Rebel production files. An interview Frascella and Weisel conducted with actress Shelley Winters also uncovered an instance where Dean interrupted an argument with director Nicholas Ray and Winters so he could watch The Vampira Show on TV.
In Vampira and Me, Nurmi can be heard telling Greene that Dean once appeared in a live bit on The Vampira Show in which Vampira, dressed as a librarian, rapped his knuckles with a ruler because "he was a very naughty boy."
On June 20, 1955, a man forced his way into her apartment and terrorized her for almost four hours. Nurmi escaped and called the police, with help from a local shop owner.
She married her first husband, Dean Riesner, in 1949, a former child actor in silent films and later the screenwriter of Dirty Harry, Charley Varrick, Play Misty for Me, and numerous other movies and TV episodes.
She married her second husband, younger actor John Brinkley, on March 10, 1958.
|1947||If Winter Comes||Guest||Uncredited|
|1948||Romance on the High Seas||Passenger||Uncredited|
|1952||My Hero||Letitia||Episode: "Lady Mortician"|
|1954||The Red Skelton Hour||Vampira||Episode: "Dial 'B' for Brush"|
|1954||The Vampira Show||Vampira||Numerous|
|1957||Playhouse 90||Vampira||Episode: "The Jet Propelled Couch"|
|1959||Too Much, Too Soon||N/A||Uncredited|
|1959||The Beat Generation||beatnik poetess||As Vampira|
|1959||Plan 9 from Outer Space||Vampire Girl||As Vampira|
|1959||The Big Operator||Gina||As Vampira|
|1960||I Passed for White||Girl Poet||Uncredited|
|1960||Sex Kittens Go to College||Edna Toodie||Uncredited|
|1962||The Magic Sword||The Hag / Sorceress|
|1992||Flying Saucers Over Hollywood||As Herself||Plan 9 Documentary|
|1995||Horror Kung-Fu Theatre||Vampira||Episode: "Honorary Cast Members of HKFT"|
|1996||Dry||Vanha nainen||Short film|
|1998||I Woke Up Early the Day I Died||Woman in Hotel Lobby|
|2000||No Way In||Woman at Bar||Short film|
- Being the originator of the Television Horror Host subgenre of movie shows, Maila Nurmi and The Vampira Show received a special citation at a ceremony on the event of the 50th Anniversary of the television Emmy Awards.
- Nurmi was inducted posthumously into the Monster Kid Hall of Fame at the Rondo Hatton Classic Horror Awards. Vampira: The Movie won a Rondo for Best Independent Production as a tribute to Nurmi.
Films and documentaries
- Ed Wood (1994), Tim Burton's biopic features actress-model Lisa Marie as Maila Nurmi. The film recreates parts of The Vampira Show.
- About Death, Sex and Taxes (1995), a Finnish documentary about Nurmi by Mika J. Ripatti.
- The Haunted World of Edward D. Wood, Jr. This 1995 Brett Thompson documentary about the life and films of Ed Wood also includes a recreation of The Vampira Show.
- Schlock! The Secret History of American Movies (2001), Ray Greene's documentary about the American exploitation and sexploitation films of the 1950s and 1960s features Nurmi alongside cult filmmakers Roger Corman, Doris Wishman, David F. Friedman, and others.
- Vampira: The Movie (2006), Kevin Sean Michael's documentary about Nurmi, which won the 2007 Rondo Award for Best Independent Feature. Alpha Video distributed it on DVD in 2007.
- American Scary (2006) a documentary about local late-night horror movie hosts includes an interview with Nurmi.
- Pretty Bloody: The Women of Horror (2009), TV documentary on scream queens and other women in the horror industry.
- Vampira and Me (2010), radio documentary/podcast about Nurmi by her friend R. H. Greene. First broadcast by KPCC 89.3 FM, a Southern California NPR affiliate. In addition to previously unheard interview clips with Nurmi about her life and career, interviews with friends from Nurmi's declining years are also included. The program is available as a free download through the KPCC website.
- Vampira and Me (2012), feature documentary by R.H. Greene. Notable for uncovering and restoring two previously unknown kinescopes of Vampira appearing on network television in the 1950s, and for the inclusion of restored and previously unheard audio clips of Nurmi attempting to dictate her autobiography in 1966. Includes the first Vampira-related interviews ever conducted with Satan's Cheerleaders, the punk band Nurmi recorded with (as Vampira) in the mid-1980s and an extended interview with "Voluptua" (Nurmi's TV rival at KABC—TV) along with a vocal re-enactment of the Voluptua character by actress Gloria Pall.
- According to W. Scott Poole, Nurmi was in fact born in Gloucester, Massachusetts despite her claims of being born in Petsamo, Finland. Poole states the claim was made in order to "strengthen" her purported relation to Finnish Olympian runner Paavo Nurmi, a claim he also says is false (see Poole 2014, pp. 32–33).
- Maila Elizabeth Nurmimioni [sic], Social Security Death Index
- Anderson, Kristin (October 29, 2015). "Vampira: An Appreciation of the Undersung Proto-Goth Goddess". Vogue. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- Stewart, Jocelyn Y. (January 16, 2008). "Actress, TV horror film hostess Vampira". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 27, 2015.
- Maltin 1997, p. 92.
- Poole 2014, pp. 33–34.
- Poole 2014, p. 32.
- Cotter 2016, p. 150.
- Poole 2014, p. 34.
- "Live from San Francisco 2014". Risk Podcast (Interview). Interviewed by Dana Gould. Event occurs at from 30:16. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- Frilander, Aino (February 28, 2021). "Vampira". Helsingin Sanomat (book review) (in Finnish). pp. C 1–3.
- Poole 2014, p. 36.
- Poole 2014, pp. 34–36.
- Poole 2014, p. 46.
- Wilson, Elleda (October 31, 2014). "In One Ear: She's still haunting us". The Daily Astorian. Archived from the original on April 25, 2015.
- Poole 2014, p. 48.
- Poole 2014, pp. 50–53.
- Scheib, Ronnie (November 15, 2012). "Vampira and Me". Variety. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Filmfax #13, December 1988.
- Keesey 1997, p. 71.
- FILMFAXplus, April/June 2007
- Life, June 14, 1954, pp. 107-10
- Green, R.H. (February 15, 2014). "The real Maleficent: The surprising human face behind the "Sleeping Beauty" villain". Salon. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014.
- Coates, Paul (April 17, 1962). "Vampira and Voluptua, the Chill and Charm Girls, Try a New Life". Los Angeles Times. p. A6.
- "Vampira Interview". Bizarre. January 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012.
- Court document, "Maila Nurmi v. Cassandra Peterson"
- Greene, Ray (1994). "Viva, Vampira!". Box Office Magazine. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013.
- "Population: 1 DVD". Population: 1. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Vampira, Hollywood’s original Goth, emerges from the shadows in a new biography, by Scott Bradfield, in the Los Angeles Times; published January 12, 2021; retrieved January 17, 2021
- Martinetti 1995, p. 117.
- Hopper 1962, p. 171.
- Vampira and Me (2010). KPCC 89.3 FM, radio documentary
- Frascella & Weisel 2005, p. 93.
- Skal 1993, p. 245.
- "Maila Nurmi - The Private Life and Times of Maila Nurmi. Maila Nurmi Pictures". Glamour Girls Of The Silver Screen. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Ancestry.com, California Marriage Index, 1960–1985 [database on-line], Provo, Utah, U.S.: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007.
- "Maila 'Vampira' Nurmi dies". Variety. January 14, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2009.
- Cotter, Robert (December 29, 2016). Vampira and Her Daughters: Women Horror Movie Hosts from the 1950s into the Internet Era. McFarland. ISBN 978-1476664347. OCLC 952390197.
- Frascella, Lawrence; Weisel, Al (September 20, 2005). Live Fast, Die Young: The Making of Rebel Without a Cause. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-743-26082-4. OCLC 60856229.
- Hopper, Hedda (1962). The Whole Truth and Nothing But. Doubleday.
- Keesey, Pam (1997). Vamps: An Illustrated History of the Femme Fatale. San Francisco: Cleis Press. ISBN 1-57344-026-4. OCLC 475044131.
- Maltin, Leonard (1997). Leonard Maltin's 1998 Movie and Video Guide. Signet Books. ISBN 0-451-19288-5. OCLC 940890187.
- Martinetti, Ronald (1995). The James Dean Story – A Myth-Shattering Biography of an Icon. Michael O'Mara Books. ISBN 978-1-559-72270-4. OCLC 476878785.
- Poole, W. Scott (2014). Vampira: Dark Goddess of Horror. Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1-593-76543-9. OCLC 896385109.
- Skal, David J. (1993). The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. Penguin. OCLC 701106336.
- Niemi, Sandra (2021). Glamour Ghoul: The Passions and Pain of the Real Vampira, Maila Nurmi. Los Angeles: Feral House. ISBN 978-1-62731-100-7.