Maithil Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin community from the Mithila region that lies in northern and eastern Bihar of India and Province No. 2 of Nepal. They are one of the five Pancha-Gauda Brahmin communities.
Maithil Brahmins have been influential in the Mithila with many of the dynasties belong to the community such as the Oinwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga, both whom were noted for there patronisation of Maithil culture and Maithili literature.Raj Banaili was also controlled by Maithil Brahmins.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Maithil Brahmins became politically significant in Bihar. Binodanand Jha, Lalit Narayan Mishra, and Jagannath Mishra emerged as prominent political leaders of the community. Under the Chief Ministry of Jagannath Mishra, many Maithil Brahmins assumed important political positions in Bihar. Parmanand Jha is a Nepalese politician who served as the Vice President of Nepal from 23 July 2008 to 31 October 2015. Durgananda Jha was Nepalese democratic fighter.
According to the Vedic Sanghita, Maithil Brahmins are divided into the Bachasnai and the Chhandog and each group is strictly exogamous. They are also further classified by four main Mulgrams, the Strotiyas, the Yogs, the Panjis and the Jaiwars. They are all expected to be endogamous however these days this is no longer enforced strictly.
Panjis or Panji Prabandh are extensive genealogical records maintained among Maithil Brahmins similar to the Hindu genealogy registers at Haridwar. They are used mainly when fixing marriages and delineate the last 14 generations of the bride and grooms family.
- Durgananda Jha – Nepalese man who attempted to assassinate King Mahendra
- Jagannath Mishra – former Chief Minister of Bihar
- Vācaspati Miśra – founder of the Bhāmatī school of Advaita Vedanta philosophy
- James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. Rosen. pp. 490–491. ISBN 9780823931804.
- D. Shyam Babu and Ravindra S. Khare, ed. (2011). Caste in Life: Experiencing Inequalities. Pearson Education India. p. 168. ISBN 9788131754399.
- "Civilizational Regions of Mithila & Mahakoshal". p. 64. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- "Madhubani, through the ages: a regional history of Madhubani". p. 55. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Verma, Ravindra Kumar (May 1991). "Caste and Bihar Politics". Economic and Political Weekly. Sameeksha Trust. 26 (18): 1142–4. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective". p. 32. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- Makhan Jha (1 January 1997). Anthropology of Ancient Hindu Kingdoms: A Study in Civilizational Perspective. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-81-7533-034-4.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
- Singh, R. S. N. (2010). The Unmaking of Nepal. Lancer Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-935501-28-2.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe; Kumar, Sanjay (2012). Rise of the Plebeians?: The Changing Face of the Indian Legislative Assemblies. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-136-51661-0.
- Bagchi, Jhunu (1 January 1993). The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar: Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-7017-301-4.