Maithil Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin community from the Mithila region of the Indian subcontinent that lies in northern and eastern Bihar of India and Province No. 2 of Nepal. They are one of the five Pancha-Gauda Brahmin communities.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Maithil Brahmins became politically significant in Bihar. Binodanand Jha and Lalit Narayan Mishra emerged as prominent political leaders of the community. Under the Chief Ministry of Jagannath Mishra many Maithil Brahmins assumed important political positions in Bihar.
According to the Vedic Sanghita, Maithil Brahmins are divided into the Bachasnai and the Chhandog and each group is strictly exogamous. They are also further classified by four main Mulgrams, the Strotiyas, the Yogs, the Panjis and the Jaiwars. They are all expected to be endogamous however these days this is no longer enforced strictly.
Panjis or Panji Prabandh are extensive genealogical records maintained among Maithil Brahmins similar to the Hindu genealogy registers at Haridwar. They are used mainly when fixing marriages and delineate the last 14 generations of the bride and grooms family.
- Vidyapati- also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet cuckoo of Maithili), was a Maithili poet and a Sanskrit writer
- Sanjay Jha – Motorola Mobility 
- Vācaspati Miśra – founder of the Bhāmatī school of Advaita Vedanta philosophy
- Maṇḍana Miśra – was a Hindu philosopher, who wrote on the Mīmāmsā and Advaita systems of thought.
- Udit Narayan Jha - is an Indian playback singer of mixed Indian and Nepalese ancestry, whose songs have been featured mainly in Bollywood movies of Hindi language.
- Amarnath Jha - was the Vice Chancellor (VC) of University of Allahabad and Banaras Hindu University
- Durgananda Jha-was Nepalese democratic fighter who attempted to assassinate King Mahendra of Nepal in January 1962 in Janakpur in southeastern Nepal.
- Binodanand Jha-Former Chief Minister of Bihar
- Parmanand Jha-is a Nepali politician who served as the first Vice President of Nepal from 23 July 2008 to 31 October 2015.
- Jagannath Mishra- is an Indian politician who has been Chief Minister of Bihar and a minister in the Union cabinet.
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