Maithil Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin community from the Mithila region that lies in northern and eastern Bihar of India and Province No. 2 of Nepal. They are one of the five Pancha-Gauda Brahmin communities.
Maithil Brahmins have been influential in the Mithila with many of the dynasties belong to the community such as the Oinwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga, both whom were noted for there patronisation of Maithil culture and Maithili literature.Raj Banaili was also controlled by Maithil Brahmins.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Maithil Brahmins became politically significant in Bihar. Binodanand Jha, Lalit Narayan Mishra, and Jagannath Mishra emerged as prominent political leaders of the community. Under the Chief Ministry of Jagannath Mishra, many Maithil Brahmins assumed important political positions in Bihar. Parmanand Jha is a Nepalese politician who served as the Vice President of Nepal from 23 July 2008 to 31 October 2015. Durgananda Jha was Nepalese democratic fighter.
According to the Vedic Sanghita, Maithil Brahmins are divided into the Bachasnai and the Chhandog and each group is strictly exogamous. They are also further classified by four main Mulgrams, the Strotiyas, the Yogs, the Panjis and the Jaiwars. They are all expected to be endogamous however these days this is no longer enforced strictly.
Panjis or Panji Prabandh are extensive genealogical records maintained among Maithil Brahmins similar to the Hindu genealogy registers at Haridwar. They are used mainly when fixing marriages and delineate the last 14 generations of the bride and grooms family.
- Durgananda Jha – Nepalese man who attempted to assassinate King Mahendra
- Jagannath Mishra – former Chief Minister of Bihar
- Vācaspati Miśra – founder of the Bhāmatī school of Advaita Vedanta philosophy
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