Major adverse cardiovascular events

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Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, or major adverse cardiac events) is a composite endpoint frequently used in cardiovascular research, comparable to the composite endpoint all-cause mortality. Despite widespread use of the term in clinical trials, the definitions of MACE can differ, which makes comparison of similar studies difficult.[1]

The so-called "classical 3-point MACE" is defined as a composite of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death.[2] But another study defines MACE as "CVD events, admission for HF, ischemic cardiovascular events, cardiac death, or MACE".[3]


  1. ^ Kip KE, Hollabaugh K, Marroquin OC, Williams DO (2008). "The problem with composite end points in cardiovascular studies: the story of major adverse cardiac events and percutaneous coronary intervention". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 51 (7): 701–707. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.034. PMID 18279733.
  2. ^ de Jong M, van der Worp HB, van der Graaf Y, Visseren FL, Westerink J (2017). "Pioglitazone and the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 16 (1): 134. doi:10.1186/s12933-017-0617-4. PMC 5644073. PMID 29037211.
  3. ^ Heianza Y, Ma W, Manson JE, Rexrode KM, Qi L (2017). "Gut Microbiota Metabolites and Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Disease Events and Death: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies". Journal of the American Heart Association. 6 (7): e004947. doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.004947. PMC 5586261. PMID 28663251.