Major women's sport leagues in North America
|Part of a series on|
|Women in society|
This article needs to be updated.(October 2017)
Major women's sport leagues in North America represent the top level competitions of team sports for women athletes. Currently, top women's leagues include Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) and the National Women's Soccer League (NWSL), Liga MX Femenil, National Pro Fastpitch (NPF), Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL), National Women's Hockey League (NWHL), Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA), and the National Ringette League (NRL). In addition, there are numerous championships in American and Canadian collegiate athletics.
Some individual sports featuring women are also popular in North America, including tennis and golf. The LPGA Tour and WTA Tour were both founded in the United States and host events around the world.
- 1 Overview of professional leagues
- 2 History
- 3 Attendance
- 4 Women's basketball leagues
- 5 Women's ice hockey leagues
- 6 Women's soccer leagues
- 7 Women's softball leagues
- 8 Other women's sports leagues
- 9 See also
- 10 Further reading
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Overview of professional leagues
Several women's sports leagues in North America are professional — i.e., the athletes are paid to play the sport.
|League||Sport||Began play||Teams||Avg. Attendance||Ref|
|Canadian Women's Hockey League||Ice hockey||2007||6|||
|Liga MX Femenil||Football / Soccer||2016||18|||
|National Pro Fastpitch||Fastpitch||2004||5|||
|National Women's Hockey League||Ice hockey||2015||5|||
|National Women's Soccer League||Soccer / Football||2013||9||6,024|||
|Women's National Basketball Association||Basketball||1997||12||7,716|||
One of the major important events in the development of women's sports leagues in the United States was Title IX. Title IX has proven to have had a huge impact on female collegiate sports. "Sports participation among college women has risen from 372 percent over that time, from 32,000 to more than 150,000 women
Record attendances by women's sports leagues have been dominated by the Liga MX Femenil, NWSL, WNBA and WPS:
- Liga MX Femenil final (second leg) between C.F. Monterrey and Tigres on April 27, 2018: 51,211
- Liga MX Femenil final (first leg) between C.F. Monterrey and Tigres on May 5, 2018: 38,230
- Liga MX Femenil match between C.F. Pachuca and Chivas on November 20, 2017: 28,955
- Liga MX Femenil match between Club León and Chivas on September 11, 2017: 25,000
- National Women's Soccer League (NWSL) game between Orlando Pride and Houston Dash at the Citrus Bowl (now Camping World Stadium) in Orlando, Florida, on April 23, 2016: 23,403.
- Liga MX Femenil match between Pachuca and Club América on August 28, 2017 at Estadio Hidalgo: 23,185
- Portland Thorns FC has averaged more than 13,000 attendance at Providence Park in each of the NWSL's first five seasons, with an all-time high of 17,653 in the 2017 season.
- 2000 WNBA All-Star, in Phoenix on July 17, 2000. A crowd of 17,717 supporters. The West All-Stars defeated the East All-Stars 73-61.
- WNBA 2011 Finals in Target Center at Minneapolis, on October 2, 2011: 15,258 supporters, Minnesota Lynx 88 - 74 Atlanta Dream.
- The 2017 WNBA All-Star Game, on July 22, 2017 at Key Arena in Seattle, had a crowd of 15,221 fans. The West All-Stars defeated the East All-Stars 130-121.
- WNBA 2011 Finals in Target Center, Minneapolis, on October 5, 2011: 15,124 supporters. Minnesota Lynx 101- 95 Atlanta Dream.
- 2009 WPS Inaugural match at the Home Depot Center (now StubHub Center), Carson, California, on March 29, 2009: 14,832 supporters. Los Angeles Sol 2 - 0 Washington Freedom.
- 2011 WPS Championship game at Sahlen's Stadium (now Marina Auto Stadium) in Rochester, on August 27, 2011: 10,461 supporters. Western New York Flash a 5-4 victory over the Philadelphia Independence.
As of November 2017[update], Liga MX Femenil, Women's National Basketball Association, National Women's Soccer League, National Pro Fastpitch, National Women's Hockey League, Canadian Women's Hockey League and Women's Flat Track Derby Association have television broadcasting contracts.
Since 2003, ESPN has aired all 63 games of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women's basketball tournament. In addition, the 2004 championship game was the second-most viewed basketball game—men or women, college or professional—in the network’s history. Some leagues (especially in university as NCAA and Canada's U Sports) broadcast their matches via Web (because of the offer much more limited by the TV networks).
Historically, the overall amount of women's sports coverage has been small compared to that received by comparable men’s sports, although some women’s sports have received mainstream coverage with various degrees of success.
Each of the leagues represents the highest competition in their respective sports. These major women's sports leagues are considered as the main platoon, not only in the quality of the talents, but also at the play level. The best players of these leagues are icons in their respective sports. Soccer stars include Marta, Abby Wambach and Christine Sinclair. Women’s ice hockey features Caroline Ouellette. Kim St-Pierre, and Angela Ruggiero, while basketball includes Sue Bird, Lauren Jackson, Candace Parker, and Seimone Augustus.
Despite often claiming professional status, only a few women's leagues pay their players, such as the Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL), National Women's Hockey League (NWHL), National Women's Soccer League (NWSL), and Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Many of the professional leagues pay less than a livable wage, while also offering other incentives in order to claim the professional status.
In the WNBA, the maximum salary for a player with three years of experience is $51,000 (based on 2009 figures), while that for a player with six years of experience is fixed at $99,500. The minimum salary for a rookie is $35,190.
The annual average salary in the Women's Professional Soccer (WPS) was $32,000 in 2009. Players salaries can vary (i.e. Marta would have received a salary of $400,000 during the last three seasons 2009–2011).
The NWHL was established in 2015 in order to be the first professional women's hockey league to pay players a salary. In 2015, the salaries started at a minimum of $10,000 per season, however, the salaries were reduced up to 50% in 2016. The CWHL began as a professional league in name only, giving other benefits to its players, but started paying salaries in 2017 with a minimum of $2,000 and up to $10,000 per season.
Generally, all major sports leagues possess an amateur system for the development of young players development. Certain women's leagues develop links privileged with minor league amateurs of lower and junior levels. With the growth of women's sports at the NCAA and Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) levels in the last decades, athletes are more likely to choose a university education (along with competing at the university level), and then proceed to compete in a top-level major league.
Women's basketball leagues
Professional women's basketball has been played in the United States since 1978. The first professional league was the Women's Pro Basketball League. The league played three seasons from the fall of 1978 to the spring of 1981.
The second women's professional league to be created in the United States was the Women's Basketball Association. The league played three seasons (from 1993 to 1995) with plans to play as a 12-team league in 1997 but disbanded before 1997 season. In 1996, two professional women's leagues were started in the United States: American Basketball League and WNBA. The American Basketball League was founded in 1996 during an increase in the interest in the sport following the 1996 Summer Olympics. The league played two full season (1996–97 and 1997–98) and started a third (1998–99) before it folded on December 1998.
Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)
This section needs to be updated.(October 2017)
The Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) is the top competition in women's basketball. The WNBA was formed in 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association, and league play began in 1997. The WNBA regular season runs June to September (Northern Hemisphere spring and summer), which is directly opposite to the traditional basketball season throughout the world. Most WNBA teams play at the same venue as their NBA counterparts. Most team names are also very similar to those of NBA teams in the same market, such as the Washington Wizards and Washington Mystics, the Minnesota Timberwolves and Minnesota Lynx.
The league's attendance has fluctuated over the last several seasons. It had an average per-game attendance of 8,039 in 2009 and 7,834 in 2010. Total attendance was 1,598,160 in 2010. In 2007, the league signed a television deal with ESPN that would run from 2009-2016. This deal is the first to ever pay rights fees to women's teams. In 2009 it had a total television viewership of 413,000 in combined cable and broadcast television.
In 2009, 23 million American professional basketball fans, 92.3% of those fans were the audience of the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the remaining 7.7% attended WNBA games. Mark J. Perry found from the Center for Feminist Research of University of Southern California’s “Gender in Televised Sports” found that in 2009 the media coverage for the NBA was 77.8% and WNBA was 22.2%. Although the coverage of NBA is more than three times greater than that of the WNBA, the NBA was still “under-reported,” the proportionality between WNBA attendance and coverage is greater than that of the NBA attendance and their coverage. While the WNBA is receiving a fair amount of media coverage, its fan base is much smaller than that of the NBA.
U.S. collegiate women's basketball
The first basketball competition involving only collegiate women was the tournament sponsored by the Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW), which was held from 1969 to 1971. The CIAW tournament was followed by the AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, which was held from 1972 to 1982. The AIAW tournament was discontinued after the NCAA began sponsoring a women's collegiate basketball tournament in 1982. (In 1982, both the AIAW and NCAA sponsored competing tournaments.)
Even before 1969, the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) began conducting United States championship tournaments for women's amateur teams in 1926. On 28 occasions, small college teams won the AAU women's basketball championship.
Women's ice hockey leagues
This section needs to be updated.(May 2018)
Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing 350 percent in the last 10 years.[when?] In 2012, Canada had 85,827 women players and the United States had 65,609.
Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL)
The Canadian Women's Hockey League (CHWL) is a women's hockey league in Canada for top female hockey players. The CWHL helped women’s professional hockey rebound from the demise of the original National Women's Hockey League (NWHL) in 2007. As of the 2017–18 season, the CWHL has seven teams: two in the Greater Toronto Area, Les Canadiennes de Montreal, the Calgary Inferno, the Boston Blades, and two in Shenzhen, China. The Chinese teams serve to jump-start that nation's development in women's hockey, as the country is set to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.
The CWHL allows elite level players to play after college and continue to work toward Olympic and national team success. Prior to the 2017–18 season, the players were not salaried and only received incentives. Apart from ice rink time, hotels, transportation (mostly by bus), and some items covered by the league, players must pay for all other expenses related to playing at this level (equipment, training, insurance, health services, etc.), and all staff (coaches, general managers, communications workers) serve as volunteers. As a result, most players and personnel have jobs outside of hockey. In 2017, the league began paying the players a salary up to $10,000 per season, reportedly coming from the increased revenue through the China expansion.
In 2010, the Toronto Star reported that the cost of running the league was about $1.7 million. For the 2010–11 season, income was $800,000. The league profits are redistributed among the teams. If the players are not paid, it is because there is not enough money to pay to them a salary once the acquitted operations expenses.
League attendance is very low in the regular season, but increases during the playoffs. In March 27, 2011, the Championship Final game drew 2,300 fans at Barrie Molson Centre in Barrie, Ontario. Several CWHL matches are broadcast online and TSN broadcasts the Clarkson Cup championship match.
National Women's Hockey League (NWHL)
In 2015, a new National Women's Hockey League (NWHL) was established with the purpose of being the first professional women's hockey league in North American that paid its players. The league launched its inaugural season in 2015–16 with four teams in the Northeastern United States: the Boston Pride, Buffalo Beauts, Connecticut Whale, and New York Riveters, with all franchises owned by the league. The league initially had a $10,000 minimum salary per season for the players, however, the player's salaries were reduced up to 50% part-way through the league's second season.
In October 2017, the NWHL team's began partnering with established National Hockey League (NHL) teams with an branding agreement between the New York Riveters and the New Jersey Devils. In December 2017, the Buffalo Beauts' franchise was purchased by the NHL's Buffalo Sabres ownership, Pegula Sports and Entertainment, and became the first NWHL franchise to not be owned by the league. The NWHL expanded for the first time in 2018 when it acquired the Minnesota Whitecaps, a former member of the Western Women's Hockey League (WWHL) that had been operating independently since 2011.
National Collegiate Women's Ice Hockey Championship (NCAA)
NCAA Division I women's ice hockey
The NCAA first sanctioned a women's hockey championship in the 2000–01 academic year. As of the most recent 2016–17 season, 35 teams competed for the Division I championship; one of these schools (North Dakota) stopped sponsoring the sport after that season. While most of the competing schools are members of Division I, the highest of the NCAA's three tiers, the competition also features some schools that are members of Divisions II and III. The divisions differ in the number of scholarships their members are allowed to offer. Division I schools are typically the largest NCAA schools, and can award the maximum number of scholarships allowed for each sport. Division II schools are typically smaller institutions that have lower scholarship limits. However, because the NCAA does not sponsor a Division II championship in women's hockey, Division II members are allowed to grant the same number of hockey scholarships as Division I members. Division III schools, usually the smallest NCAA member schools, are generally not allowed to award athletic scholarships, although three schools benefit from a special NCAA rule that allows their women's hockey programs to award athletic scholarships.
Currently, NCAA Division I women's hockey is organized in four conferences. College Hockey America (CHA), a conference that now sponsors only women's hockey, is the smallest. It has operated with six teams since the 2012–13 season, and first received an automatic berth in the championship tournament in 2015. ECAC Hockey is the largest conference, with 12 members. It is the only NCAA Division I hockey conference whose members all field men's and women's varsity teams. Hockey East features nine women's teams, along with 12 men's teams. The Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA) has seven women's teams (the aforementioned North Dakota had been a WCHA member as well) plus 10 men's teams. As of the most recently completed season of 2016–17, all but two NCAA women's hockey championships have been won by a WCHA team; the only exceptions came in the 2013–14 and 2016–17 seasons, both won by the ECAC's Clarkson. In addition, one school competes as an independent, outside of a conference. While men's ice hockey underwent a major conference realignment for the 2013–14 season, women's ice hockey was essentially unaffected.
NCAA women’s hockey has a 30+ game schedule, competing for conference and national championships.
NCAA Division III women's ice hockey
As of the 2011-2012 season, there were 49 teams competing in NCAA Division III women's ice hockey. The women'ice hockey championship possesses 5 conferences for the Division III: Eastern College Athletic Conference East, Eastern College Athletic Conference West, Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, New England Small College Athletic Conference and Northern Collegiate Hockey Association. Many NCAA Division III schools are smaller than NCAA Division 1 colleges, though size is not the determining factor. There is a mix of private colleges and public colleges (and universities) among the NCAA Division III schools.
Some women student-athletes play two sports in NCAA Division III, though it remains a challenge to mix hockey and another sport because as a winter sport, hockey will still overlap with a fall or spring sport. NCAA Division III women's ice hockey may begin formal practice on October 15 and are limited to 25 games in the regular season.
U Sports women's ice hockey championship
U Sports is the governing body for all Canadian university sports, including women's ice hockey. The U Sports women's ice hockey championship is composed of 30 teams from four conferences – Atlantic University Sport (AUS), Canada West, Ontario University Athletics (OUA) and Réseau du sport étudiant du Québec (RSEQ). All teams play between 20 and 30 games per year, including regular-season and postseason play. Each conference has its own schedule and determines its respective champion. Once conference champions are declared, they advance to the U Sports National Championship Tournament. The majority of games are played on weekends. This accommodates the academic responsibilities of student athletes.
Women's soccer leagues
Women's soccer is especially developed in the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada. The United States women's national soccer team was established in 1985, the Canada women's national soccer team in 1986, the first continental women's league in 1995, then a professional league in 2001. Of 900 000 in 1980, the number of women' players passes in 1,5 millions in 1985 then 2 millions in 1990, to peak in 3 millions in 1995 to fall again in 2,7 millions in 2000. The success of the women's American national team has not translated into consistent success for women's professional soccer in the United States; the current top professional league, the National Women's Soccer League, is the country's third (and longest-lasting) attempt to establish such a competition.
National Women's Soccer League (NWSL)
The National Women's Soccer League (NWSL) is the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States. It began play in spring 2013 with eight teams; four of them were former members of Women's Professional Soccer (WPS), which had been the top women's league in the United States soccer pyramid before its folding in 2012.
Fox Sports had a deal to broadcast nine games in 2013, six in the regular season and the three from the playoffs. ESPN2 and ESPN3 had a similar deal for the 2014 season. Prior to the 2017 season, the NWSL and A&E Networks signed a three-year deal which calls for A&E's Lifetime network to broadcast a weekly Saturday afternoon game; the deal also saw A&E take an ownership stake in the league.
The league expanded to a maximum of 10 teams in 2016 and 2017 before dropping to 9 for the 2018 season. It became the first women's professional league to play a fourth season in 2016.
Women's Premier Soccer League (WPSL)
The Women's Premier Soccer League (WPSL) is a national women's soccer league in the United States and Puerto Rico, and is on the 2nd level of women's soccer in the United States soccer pyramid, alongside United Women's Soccer.
There are both "professional"/senior teams and amateur teams in the WPSL. An organization has to choose to be one or the other due to NCAA regulations, since collegiate players cannot play on "pro" teams.
The WPSL started as the Western Division of the W-League, before breaking away to form its own league in 1997. The league is sanctioned by the United States Adult Soccer Association as an affiliate of the United States Soccer Federation (USSF).
United Women's Soccer (UWS)
United Women's Soccer, variously abbreviated as UWS and UWoSo, shares second-level status with the WPSL. The league was formed in 2015 as a response to turmoil within the WPSL and the folding of the USL W-League. The first season in 2016 saw 11 teams participate, all in the U.S.; two Canadian teams initially planned to play that season but were not approved by the country's national federation. Three of the original 11 teams did not return for the league's second season, but UWS still nearly doubled in size for that season, with one Canadian team and 12 U.S. teams entering the league. UWS defines itself as a "pro-am" organization.
Defunct soccer leagues
Women's Professional Soccer (WPS)
Women's Professional Soccer (WPS) was the top level professional women's soccer league in the United States. It began play on March 29, 2009. The league was composed of seven teams for its first two seasons and fielded 6 teams for the 2011 season. The league hoped to have ten teams for the 2012 season, most of the new groups potentially coming from the western half of the country, but ultimately no ownership groups were ready to join in time. The beginning of the league's was marked by two things: low attendance (2009: 4,684, 2010: 3,588  and 2011: 3,518  ), problems with (ex-Freedom) magicJack owner Dan Borislow,.
Former WPS commissioner Tonya Antonucci said that unlike WUSA, which had higher expectations and employed a top-down model, WPS would take "a slow and steady growth type of approach", citing WUSA's losses of close to $100 million. She said the new league would have a closer relationship with Major League Soccer, the top men's professional league in the United States, to cut costs on staff and facilities, and for marketing. The team budgets for the inaugural season was $2.5 million.
Fox Soccer Channel and Fox Sports en Español with Samuel Jacobo and Jorge Caamaño will air weekly Sunday night matches & the WPS All-Star Game with Fox Sports Net to air the semifinal and league championship contests. The national television contract will be in effect through the 2011 season with an option for 2012.
On January 30, 2012, the WPS announced suspension of operations for the 2012 season, citing several internal organization struggles as the primary cause. Some of these issues included an ongoing legal battle with magicJack owner Dan Borislow and the lack of resources invested into the league.
WPSL Elite League
The WPSL Elite League is a defunct league that was established in 2012 by the Women's Premier Soccer League (WPSL), responding both to an increased interest in professionalism by existing WPSL teams and the desire of WPS teams for a continuing competitive outlet. The league defined itself as semi-professional, but five of its eight charter teams were to be fully professional. Three of these—the Boston Breakers, Chicago Red Stars, and Western New York Flash—previously played in WPS.
The defunct USL W-League was a North American women’s soccer developmental organization. It was an open league, giving college players the opportunity to play alongside established international players while maintaining their collegiate eligibility. The league was administered by the United Soccer Leagues system (the USL), which also oversees the men's United Soccer League and Premier Development League
U Sports Women's Soccer Championship
As of the 2016 season, 47 teams from Canadian universities are divided into four conferences, drawing from the four regional associations of U Sports: Canada West Universities Athletic Association, Ontario University Athletics, Réseau du sport étudiant du Québec, and Atlantic University Sport. After interconference playoffs have been played, eight teams compete for the Gladys Bean Memorial Trophy, awarded to the U Sports Women's Soccer Championship team.
The regular season is eight to nine weeks long, depending on the conference, and, as of 2016, opens on the Labour Day weekend. Teams play between 13 and 16 regular season games, depending on conference or division, with teams typically playing a home-and-home series with every other team in their conference or division. All regular season games are in-conference. After the regular season, single elimination playoff games are held between the top teams in each conference to determine conference champions.
Women's softball leagues
National Pro Fastpitch (NPF)
National Pro Fastpitch (NPF) revived the league in 2004. NPF is an official development partner of Major League Baseball in the women’s fastpitch softball. In 2004 a new season began within six markets: Stockton, California; Tucson, Arizona; Houston, Texas; Akron, Ohio; Lowell, Massachusetts; Montclair, New Jersey. Having more teams allowed the league to participate in more games with 178 league-wide games, involving 96 female softball players. In 2006, the Philadelphia Force, the Connecticut Brakettes, the Chicago Bandits, and the New England Riptide joined the league, expanding the season, and competition.
In 2009, after winning a silver medal, several Olympians returned to the NPF: Monica Abbott for Washington, Jennie Finch for Chicago, and Cat Osterman for Rockford. There are now[when?] four teams that participate in 50 regular season games: Akron Racers, Chicago Bandits, Florida Pride and Tennessee Diamonds.
The 2011 highlights of the NPF, the USSSA Florida Pride took the Ringer Cup Title with a league record of 30-9, and Colwes Cup was won by the Chicago Bandits. Over 500,000 household viewers watched this game on ESPN2. For the second year in a row the NPF All-Stars performed a tour playing 19 college teams across the United States. The NPF played against the 2009 NCAA Champions the Washington Huskies to a crowd of 3,000 at the home of the Seattle Mariners, in a game which ended in a 1-0 score.[clarification needed] This was the first fastpitch game to be held at a Major League Baseball stadium. 2011 also marked the Akron Racers' tenth university.[clarification needed]
Defunct softball leagues
“LPGA tour member Janie Blaylock, softball legend Joan Joyce, and tennis icon Billie Jean King were the founders of the International Women’s Professional Softball Associations (IWPSA) in 1976.” There were ten teams in the league from Meriden, Connecticut, to San Jose, California; the first season the teams would play 120 games in a schedule season. This league ran for four years, and was closed due to lack of funds, and high travel and facility costs. The NCAA began the Women’s College World Series in 1982, which led to an increasing participation in the women’s sports.
In 1986 and 1987 the USA Softball Women’s National Team won gold medals in Pan American Games. College teams also benefited because of rule changed in 1987 to increase the offensive game, making the sport more popular.
Cowlens formulated a plan for the women’s professional softball league and in February 1989 she showed her parents, John and Sage Cowles, owners of Cowles Media Company the ideas who agreed to help with the financial make up of the league. Eight years later, 1997, the Cowles family and AT&T Wireless Services launched the Women’s Pro Fastpitch (WPF) and after one full year, two seasons of play the name was changed to WPSL. Which are four teams located in Eastern United States in 2000, the Akron Racers, Florida Wahoos, Ohio Pride and Tampa Bay FireStrix.
The Women's Professional Softball League (WPSL) was founded in 1997 and ran until 2001, lasting four seasons before lack of funds, high travel costs and inadequate facilities led to its closure.
In 2001, the “Tour of Fastpitch Champions” enabled the WPSL to expand. From this the league traveled around to eleven different cities to find different candidate for the WPSL teams to play. They played against All-Star teams and Canada teams; they televised many of them on ESPN2 or ESPN. After all these games they decided to suspend the 2002 season so they could get organized and have more time to find other teams to be able to play. Even though the league was suspended the WPSL All-Star team competed against the Tennessee All-Star team, as well as put together two clinics. Once again in 2002 the WPSL changed their name to the National Pro Fastpitch and the Major League Baseball partnered with them to continue the MBL’s efforts to connect with female athletes.
U.S. collegiate women's softball
The first fast-pitch women's collegiate softball tournament was held in 1969, sponsored by the Amateur Softball Association, and known as the Women's College World Series. From 1973 to 1982, the tournament was administered by the AIAW.
In 1982, the NCAA began to sanction its own NCAA Division I Softball Championship, the final round of which is now known as the Women's College World Series. (In 1982 the AIAW and NCAA sponsored competing tournaments). There has been a growing number of teams within the NCAA Division I Softball Championship brackets, expanded from 16 teams in 1982 to 64 teams in 2003. There are 64 teams that are selected to participate in the NCAA Division I Softball Championship; 30 teams received automatic qualification to the tournament by winning their conference titles. The other 34 teams are selected at-large basis. The only way to be seeded or ranked in the brackets is to be in the top 16.
The highest attended game was in the 2012 Woman's college world series in Oklahoma City with 6,804 fans watched against Alabama and Oklahoma, where Alabama defeated Oklahoma 5-4 in the third game. As well, a record of 75,960 fans walked through the doors of the entire 2012 Women's College World Series.
Other women's sports leagues
Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA)
The Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA) is an association of women's flat track roller derby leagues in the United States. The organization was founded in April 2004 as the United Leagues Coalition (ULC) but was renamed in November 2005.,.
The WFTDA Championships are the leading competition for roller derby leagues. The Championships are organised by the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA). They originated in 2006 as the National WFTDA Championship. Full WFTDA members are eligible for ranking in one of the association's four regions. Each region holds a tournament contested by its top ten leagues: the Eastern, North Central, South Central and Western Regional Tournaments. The top three leagues from each of these four tournaments qualify for the Championships. Together, the qualifying tournaments and Championships are termed the "Big 5". Since 2008, the winner of the National Championships has been awarded the Hydra Trophy.
In January 2009, Montreal Roller Derby became the first Canadian league admitted as a member. The league was WFTDA's 66th member, and was placed in the East region. In June 2010, the WFTDA announced the first round of Apprentice league graduates, and formed two new regions ( Canada and Europe) outside of the United States (Leagues in those regions will compete in the closest US region until they develop more fully).
National Ringette League (NRL)
Ringette is a Canadian sport that was first introduced in 1963 at North Bay, Ontario. Developed originally for girls, ringette is a fast-paced team sport on ice in which players use a straight stick to pass, carry, and shoot a rubber ring to score goals. For ten years, play centered in Ontario and Quebec, however the sport quickly spread across Canada and is now played by 50,000 girls across Canada.
The creation of the National Ringette League (NRL) is following the success of the 2002 Ringuette world championships at Edmonton where Canada took gained the golden medal. The first NRL season is thrown in November 2004 with 17 teams. In 2011-12 season, the NRL enters its eighth season with 19 teams playing in two conferences across Canada – a Western Conference with 6 teams and an Eastern Conference with 13 teams.
In 2008, the budget of each NRL team of the oscillates between $15 000 and $20 000. The teams and the league contribute to cover all the transport spending, accommodation and rent of arenas. The players however have to find their own financiers to pay their equipment and their personal spending and aren't paid for play. The audience in the matches for several NRL teams is limited to some supporters' hundreds. The LNR benefits from a cover broadcast thanks to a partnership with Webchannel SSN-Canada and the championship final game is broadcast on Rogers TV.
In 2010-11 season, a NRL Championship Tournament replaces the Championship qualifying rounds, this tournament takes place in just one city. This allows to create a media event and to hold attention. From March 27 till April 2, 2011, the NRL Championship Tournament takes place to Cambridge, Ontario. In Final game, the Edmonton WAM! triumph over the Cambridge Turbos
The NRL maintains a collaboration with the lower Ringette leagues as regards the development of the young girls players: So several teams of the NRL have affiliated development's teams Under 19 year and Under 16 year. The Canadians Championship U16 and U19 (usually in April) take place in the same place as the NRL playoff tournament eliminating · .
Women's championships in U.S. college athletics
U Sports women's championships (Canadian university athletics)
U Sports is the national governing body for university sports, while the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association governs college sports (equivalent to junior or community colleges in the U.S.). A factor which affects athletic participation levels in U Sports member institutions is the U Sports restriction that scholarships cover tuition only, drawing many of Canada's best student athletes to the United States where organizations such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) allow "full ride" scholarships which include tuition, books, housing, and travel.
- History of Women in Sports Timeline
- Women's sports
- Women's professional sports
- List of professional sports teams in the United States and Canada
- Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act (Title IX)
- Women's Sports Foundation
- Famous Women Athletes
- M. Ann Hall, Immodest and Sensational: 150 Years of Canadian Women in Sport, James Lorimer & Company Ltd. Toronto 2008. 96 pages. ISBN 978-1-55277-021-4
- Eileen McDonagh, Laura Pappano, Playing with the boys: why separate is not equal in sports, Oxford University Press, 2008. 349 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-538677-6.
- Rachel Elyachar, Lauren Moag, The Growth of Women’s Sports, December 2002.
- "Canadian Women's Hockey League will begin paying its players". The Globe and Mail. 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- "Women's soccer league takes shape in Mexico with backing of Liga MX". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- "Pitcher Monica Abbott signs $1 million contract with National Pro Fastpitch expansion team". espnW. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- "NWHL, first paid women's pro hockey league, drops puck on first season". CBSSports.com. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- "2016 NWSL Attendance", September 11, 2016.
- "With 20th season ahead, league sees attendance, ratings drop", September 21, 2015.
- Eileen McDonagh and Laura Pappano, Playing with the boys: why separate is not equal in sports, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-538677-6. Page 108
- "Femenil final shows women's football is thriving in Mexico". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- "Pero la gente no va a partidos de Liga MX Femenil". ESPN.com.mx. 2018-04-30. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
- [-ventaja-sobre-chivas-en-final-de-la-liga-femenil-mx "Pachuca toma ventaja sobre Chivas en final de la Liga Femenil MX"] Check
|url=value (help). Bi Noticias. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- "Duelo entre León y Chivas Femenil registró mejor entrada que cada partido del Ascenso MX". SDPnoticias.com (in Spanish). 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- 🇫🇷, #FIFAWWC (11 September 2017). "Well done @clubleonfemenil who drew 25,000 fans on Monday in the @LIGAMXFemenil's first season - What a year it has been for #WomensFootballhttps://twitter.com/clubleonfemenil/status/907453549549899776 …". Twitter. Retrieved 2017-10-23. External link in
- "Orlando Pride rolls to 3-1 win before record crowd in home debut". OrlandoSentinel.com. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
- "Pachuca vs América Femenil Apertura 2017". Football-Lineups. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- Goldberg, Jamie (November 16, 2016). "National Women's Soccer League once again saw rising attendance numbers in 2016". The Oregonian. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "History of the WNBA". Wnba.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Target Center, Minneapolis, MN (2011-10-02). "ESPN Recap". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- "Seattle shines as host for WNBA All-Star Game". The Seattle Times. 2017-07-22. Retrieved 2017-10-23.
- Target Center, Minneapolis, MN (2011-10-05). "Box score". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- QPA 2009 Schedule
- THORNS FC DEFEAT DASH, 1-0, IN FRONT OF RECORD CROWD Archived 2014-08-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- "FOX Sports Latin America adquiere los derechos de transmisión de seis equipos de la Liga MX Femenil | FOX Sports". FOX Sports (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- "ESPN To Broadcast 16 Regular-Season WNBA Games, Entire Postseason - WNBA.com - Official Site of the WNBA". WNBA.com - Official Site of the WNBA. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- "A+E Networks, National Women's Soccer League Ink Major Deal". Variety. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Fox Sports broadcast the league's inaugural season, while ESPN did it in 2014. Both were one-year contracts. The league's current broadcast contract with A&E Networks, effective in 2017, calls for one weekly Saturday afternoon broadcast on A&E's Lifetime channel.
- "National Pro Fastpitch Reaches 16-Game Deal with ESPN: Six Games to Air on ESPN2; Additional 10 Games Streamed Live on ESPN3". www.profastpitch.com. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- "NWHL Announces First Television Deal with NESN". NWHL. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- "CWHL coverage coming to Sportsnet this season - Sportsnet.ca". Sportsnet.ca. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- "WFTDA Brings Roller Derby Back to Network Television, Signs Deal with ESPN2 to Televise 2017 WFTDA Championship Game – WFTDA". wftda.com. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
- Indiana University School of Journalism (2010-06-08). "Archive » Continued apathy by sports media toward women's sports a bigger problem than first meets the eye » National Sports Journalism Center". Sportsjournalism.org. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- "SSN Canada". Ssncanada.ca. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Hardin, Marie. "A Shrinking Sports Beat: Women's Teams, Athletes". Nieman.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- (Whiteside and Hardin, 2011). Women (not) watching women: Leisure time, television, and implications for televised coverage of women's sports. 
- "The NWHL Has Its Problems, But Not As A National Team Stepping Stone". Hartford Courant. January 7, 2018.
- Cleary, Martin (September 30, 2007). "Dreaming of a league of her own". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007.
- "WNBA Salary Scale". WomensBasketballOnline.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- "Women's National Basketball Association Collective Bargaining Agreement" (PDF). Womensbasketballonline.com. 2013-01-03. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Published February 16, 2009 (2009-02-16). "WPS sets salary cap, U.S. team guarantees". Sportsbusinessdaily.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- "Where will Marta Go? Salary may hinder her move". Lasoccernews.com. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Cimini, Kaitlin (September 30, 2015). "NWHL Release of Player Finances Raises Questions". Today's Slapshot. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015.
- "NWHL hit with bad news". The Fourth Period. November 18, 2016. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016.
- "Canadian Women's Hockey League will begin paying its players". The Globe and Mail. 1 September 2017.
- Porter, Karra (2006). Mad Seasons: The Story of the First Women's Professional Basketball League, 1978–1981. Bison Books. ISBN 0-8032-8789-5.
- "WNBA Attendance Down 2.5%, But Eight Clubs See Gains From '09". Sports Business Daily. August 24, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- "WNBA Closes Regular Season Up in Attendance, TV Ratings and Web Traffic". WNBA.com. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- "Sports Feminists vs. The Market". Mjperry.blogspot.com. 2010-08-12. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Mark J. Perry (2010-08-12). "Sports Feminists vs. The Market". Blog.american.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- "Industry Canada". Archived from the original on September 27, 2004. Retrieved December 4, 2005.
- "IIHF About Hockey Canada". Iihf.com. 1920-04-26. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- IIHF About USA Hockey
- About CHWL
- Sharing the hockey dream
- Players form new Canadian Women's Hockey League
- Women’s hockey league searches for recognition
- Women's pro league could help grow hockey: Power play
- (in French) Hockey féminin loin des millionnaires de la LNH
- "CWHL announces it will pay players in 2017-18". Sportsnet. 1 September 2017.
- Inside the CWHL
- La CWHL une ligue pas comme les autres
- (in French) La CWHL une ligue pas comme les autres
- Bleacher Report Possible NHL and CWHL Partnership in the Works
- League Attendance CWHL 2010-11
- League Attendance CWHL Playoffs 2011
- Montreal takes Clarkson Cup in style
- St-Pierre backstops Montreal to Clarkson Cup title
- "NWHL, first paid women's pro hockey league, drops puck on first season". CBSSports.com. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- "Behind the scenes on an NWHL road trip". SI.com. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- "NWHL hit with bad news". The Fourth Period. November 18, 2016. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016.
- "NWHL commissioner praises Devils-Riveters partnership". SI.com. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- "Terry and Kim Pegula Acquire Buffalo Beauts". National Women's Hockey League. December 21, 2017. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- "Finally, NWHL lands Minnesota Whitecaps as its first expansion team". ESPN. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- NCAA Division I manual
- Women's Soccer History in the USA: An Overview
- NWSL AND ESPN ANNOUNCE NATIONAL BROADCAST AGREEMENT Archived 2014-08-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Lifetime To Air National Women's Soccer League Games As A+E Networks Kicks In For Equity Stake". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- "More on the Independence playing at PPL Park". philly.com Sports. July 31, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Final WPS Attendance Numbers
- Taking attendance, the final chapter
- Bleak Finances for Women's Pro Sports
- "WPS Imposes Punishment on magicJack with Point Deduction, Loss of Draft Picks". allwhitekit.com. 12 May 2011.
- San Diego Union-Tribune, June 18, 2008
- "Fox Soccer Channel Nets WPS Pact: Multiyear Partnership Provides For Live Women's Game Of Week; Comcast Could Provide Regional Carriage". Multichannel News. 2008-08-06.
- WPS Suspends Play for 2012 Season Archived 2012-02-18 at the Wayback Machine.
- Jenna Pel, Onwards and Upwards: A Conversation With the W-League's Melanie Fitzgerald Part 1, http://www.allwhitekit.com/?p=746 , May 6, 2010
- "National Pro Fastpitch". Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "History and Fun Facts". Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "A Short History of the Sport of Roller Derby". Sin City Rollergirls. Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
- Later histories recall the original name as United Leagues Committee.
- WFTDA 2011 Big 5 Tournament Schedule Announced Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine.
- The Hydra Archived 2010-11-14 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Women's Flat Track Derby Association - Members". Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- History of Ringette
- About Ringette Archived 2012-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.
- (in French) Le Fusion de Gatineau lance sa saison inaugurale
- Edmonton WAM! capture Canadian ringette title
- 2011 Tim Hortons Canadian ringette championships underway in Cambridge
- Alberta U16, Quebec U19 and Edmonton WAM! golden at Canadian ringette championships
- The official site of Canadian Interuniversity Sport
- The official site of Canadian Women's Hockey League
- The official site of National Pro Fastpitch
- The official site of NCAA Division I women ice hockey
- The official site of NCAA Division III women ice hockey
- The official site of Ringette Canada
- The official site of National Ringette League
- The official website of Women's National Basketball Association
- Women's Basketball Online
- The official website of Women's Flat Track Derby Association
- Fiveonfive - The official Magazine of the Women’s Flat Track Derby Association
- The official site of National Women's Soccer League
- The official site of W-League
- The official site of Women's Premier Soccer League
- Four keys to advancing women's pro sports leagues by Val Ackerman, ESPN-W, October 13, 2011
- Professional Women's Sports, Iowa State University
- Women's Soccer History in the USA: An Overview by Dave Litterer, American Soccer History Archives, August 17, 2011
- Equality in sports? Women aren't there yet by Mike Beamish, Vancouver Sun, March 7, 2011.
- Take Back the Sports Page by Christina Hoff Sommers, The American, August 12, 2010