Majority

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This article is about the mathematical concept of majority and its applications. For other uses, see Majority (disambiguation).

A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total. It is a subset of a set consisting of more than half of the set's elements.

"Majority" can be used to specify the voting requirement, as in a "majority vote". A majority vote is more than half of the votes cast.

A majority can be compared to a plurality, which is a subset larger than any other subset considered. A plurality is not necessarily a majority as the largest subset considered may consist of less than half the set's elements. This can occur when there are three or more possible choices.

In British English the term majority is also alternatively used to refer to the winning margin, i.e. the number of votes separating the first-place finisher from the second-place finisher.

Other related terms containing the word "majority" have their own meanings, which may sometimes be inconsistent in usage.

Explanation[edit]

A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.[1] For example, say a group consists of 20 individuals. In this case, a majority would be 11 or more individuals. For this group, having 10 or fewer individuals would not constitute a majority.

Majority vote[edit]

In parliamentary procedure, the term "majority" simply means "more than half."[2] As it relates to a vote, a majority vote is more than half of the votes cast.[3] Abstentions or blanks are excluded in calculating a majority vote.[4] Also, the totals do not include votes cast by someone not entitled to vote or improper multiple votes by a single member.[5]

Depending on the parliamentary authority used, there may be a difference in the total that is used to calculate a majority vote due to "illegal votes". Illegal votes are votes which are cast for unidentifiable or ineligible candidates or choices.[5] In this definition, "illegal" refers to the choices made on the ballot and does not refer to the persons who cast the votes (i.e. the persons are eligible to vote).

In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (abbreviated RONR), illegal votes are counted as votes cast, but are not credited to any candidate.[5]

In The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (abbreviated TSC), illegal votes are not included in the total and a majority vote is defined as being more than half of all eligible votes cast.[6]

The issue of "illegal votes" does not exist when only two options are possible (e.g. "yes" or "no"), such as when a majority vote is required to adopt a proposal (motion). In this context, a majority vote is more "yes" votes than "no" votes.[7]

A majority vote is not the same as a vote of a "majority of the members present" or a vote of a "majority of the entire membership".

Examples[edit]

For example, assume that votes are cast for three people for an office: Alice, Bob, and Carol.

Scenario 1[edit]

Candidate Votes
Alice 14
Bob 4
Carol 2
Total 20

In Scenario 1, Alice received a majority vote. There were 20 votes cast and Alice received more than half of them.

Scenario 2[edit]

Candidate Votes
Alice 10
Bob 6
Carol 4
Total 20

In Scenario 2, assume all three candidates are eligible. In this case, no one received a majority vote. This example also illustrates that half the votes cast is not a majority vote.

Scenario 3[edit]

Candidate Votes
Alice 10
Bob 6
Carol (ineligible) 4
Total 20

In Scenario 3, assume that Alice and Bob are eligible candidates, but Carol is not. Using Robert's Rules of Order, no one received a majority vote, which is the same as Scenario 2. In this case, the 4 votes for Carol are counted in the total, but are not credited to Carol (which precludes the possibility of an ineligible candidate being credited with receiving a majority vote).

However, using The Standard Code, Alice received a majority vote since only votes for eligible candidates are counted using this book. In this case, there are 16 votes for eligible candidates and Alice received more than half of those 16 votes.

Comparison to plurality[edit]

In all three scenarios, Alice received a plurality, or the most votes among the candidates.[8] However, only in Scenario 1 did Alice receive a majority vote using Robert's Rules of Order.

Related terms[edit]

Other related terms containing the word "majority" have their own meanings, which may sometimes be inconsistent in usage.[9]

A majority may sometimes be called a "simple majority" to contrast with other terms using "majority".[9] A "simple majority" may also mean a "relative majority", or a plurality.[10] These two definitions would conflict when a "simple majority" (i.e. plurality) is not a "majority" (also see the disambiguation page for simple majority).

An "absolute majority" may mean a majority of all electors, not just those who voted.[9][11] This usage would be equivalent to a "majority of the entire membership". However, the definition for "absolute majority" is not consistent, as it could also mean the same as "majority" or "simple majority".[9][12][13][14] The meanings for "absolute majority" and "simple majority" would have to be determined from the context in which these terms are used.

A "supermajority", or a "qualified majority", is a specified higher threshold than one half.[9] A common use of a supermajority is a "two-thirds vote", which is sometimes referred to as a "two-thirds majority".

In parliamentary systems, an "overall majority" is the difference of legislators between the government and its opposition.[15] In this context, the term "majority" could be also alternatively used to refer to the winning margin, i.e. the number of votes separating the first-place finisher from the second-place finisher.[1][15]

A "double majority" is a voting system which requires a majority of votes according to two separate criteria.[9]

Temporary majority[edit]

A temporary majority exists when the positions of the members present and voting in a meeting of a deliberative assembly on a subject are not representative of the membership as a whole. Parliamentary procedure contains some provisions designed to protect against a temporary majority violating the rights of absentees. For instance, previous notice is required to rescind, repeal or annul or amend something previously adopted by a majority vote; if previous notice has not been given, a two-thirds vote is required.[16] However, in this and many other cases, previous notice is not required if a majority of the entire membership votes in favor, because that indicates that it is clearly not a temporary majority. Another protection against a decision being made by a temporary majority is the motion to reconsider and enter on the minutes, by which two members can suspend action on a measure until it is called up at a meeting on another day.[17]

Application in other voting requirements[edit]

"Majority" could be specified with respect to the voting body.

"Majority of the entire membership" and "majority of the fixed membership"[edit]

A "majority of the entire membership" means more than half of all the members of a body.[18] A "majority of the fixed membership" means more than half of all the seats of a body.[18] A majority of the entire membership is different from a majority of the fixed membership when there are vacancies.[18]

For example, say a board has 12 seats. If the board has the maximum number of members, or 12 members, a majority of the entire membership and a majority of the fixed membership would be 7 members. However, if there are two vacancies (so that there are only 10 members on the board), then a majority of the entire membership would be 6 members (more than half of 10), but a majority of the fixed membership would still be 7 members.[18]

"Majority of the members present"[edit]

A "majority of the members present" means more than half of the members at the meeting.[18] If 30 members were at a meeting, a majority of the members present would be 16. In any situation which specifies such a requirement for a vote, an abstention would have the same effect as a "no" vote.[4]

A vote of a "majority of the members present" is not the same as a "majority vote". When unqualified, a "majority vote" is taken to mean more than half of the votes cast.[3] If 30 members were at a meeting, but only 20 votes were cast, a majority vote would be 11 votes.[18]

Erroneous definitions[edit]

Erroneous definitions of majority include "50% +1" and "51%".[2]

"50% + 1"[edit]

For example, say a board has 7 members. A majority would be 4 (more than half of 7). If "50% +1" is used, the number calculated would be 4.5, and thus majority may be mistaken as 5.[2] This confusion would exist for all odd numbers using the erroneous definition of "50%+1".

"51%"[edit]

In another example, say a convention has 1000 delegates. Using the erroneous definition of 51% would result in a majority being mistaken as 510 instead of 501.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b See dictionary definitions of "majority" at Merriam-Webster, dictionary.com, Oxford English Dictionary, thefreedictionary.com, and Cambridge English Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b c "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 4)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Retrieved 2015-12-29. 
  3. ^ a b Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5. The word majority means "more than half"; and when the term majority vote is used without qualification—as in the case of the basic requirement—it means more than half of the votes cast by persons entitled to vote, excluding blanks or abstentions, at a regular or properly called meeting. 
  4. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 6)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Retrieved 2015-12-29. 
  5. ^ a b c Robert 2011, p. 416
  6. ^ The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, 4th edition, 2001, pp. 134, 158-9
  7. ^ Robert 2011, p. 405
  8. ^ Robert 2011, pp. 404–405: "A plurality vote is the largest number of votes to be given any candidate or proposition when three or more choices are possible; the candidate or proposition receiving the largest number of votes has a plurality."
  9. ^ a b c d e f Schermers, Henry G.; Blokker, Niels M. (2011). International Institutional Law: Unity Within Diversity (Fifth Revised ed.). Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 561–563. ISBN 978-90-04-18798-6. 
  10. ^ See dictionary definition of "simple majority" at dictionary.com.
  11. ^ See dictionary definitions of "simple majority", "absolute majority", and "qualified majority" at EUabc.com.
  12. ^ See dictionary definition of "absolute majority" at dictionary.com.
  13. ^ "Definition of absolute majority noun from Cambridge Dictionary Online". 
  14. ^ "With three-cornered contests as common as they now are, we may have occasion to find a convenient single word for what we used to call an absolute majority... In America the word majority itself has that meaning while a poll greater than that of any other candidate, but less than half the votes cast is called a plurality. It might be useful to borrow this distinction..." (Fowler, H.W. 1965 A Dictionary of Modern English Usage)
  15. ^ a b "Overall Majority". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longmans. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  16. ^ Robert 2011, p. 306
  17. ^ Robert 2011, p. 332
  18. ^ a b c d e f Robert 2011, p. 403