From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alternative namesMakůwki, mohnpielen, mákos guba
TypeSweetened yeast bread
Region or stateCentral Europe; Poland, Germany, Hungary and Silesia
Main ingredientsFlour, yeast, butter, milk, salt, sugar, honey, poppy seeds
VariationsDried fruit (such as the figs, raisins, apricots, dates), cinnamon, rum, nuts

Makówki (Silesian: Makůwki / Makōwki, Lower Silesian: Mohn Kließla, German: Mohnpielen, Hungarian: Mákos guba) is a sweet poppy seed-based bread dessert from Central Europe. The dish is considered traditional in Silesia (southwestern Poland), where it is served almost exclusively on Christmas Eve. It is also popular in other parts of Poland as well as in eastern Germany, Slovakia and in Hungary.

Outside Silesia[edit]

Makówki are also well known in Brandenburg and Berlin under the name Mohnpielen.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Theodor Fontane in his travels through the Margraviate of Brandenburg wrote about Mohnpielen[9] and other dishes.

A similar dish made with slices of Kifli (Kipferl) in Hungary is called mákos guba.

In Poland, outside of the Silesia region, the dish is widely known as makiełki. This is particularly common in Poznań and in Łódź (Lodz), where Silesian migrants settled during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.[10][11]


The main ingredients are sweet white bread and finely ground poppy seeds boiled in milk with butter. Other important ingredients include dried fruit (figs, raisins, apricots, dates, etc.), almonds and other kinds of nuts (the choice of nuts and dried fruit varies). It is flavoured with sugar, honey, vanilla, cinnamon and rum.

The bread is cut into thin slices and layered in a clay pot or more often a glass or crystal bowl. After each layer, the sauce of the boiled poppy seeds, with flavouring and nuts, is poured so that the bread is well soaked. The top is decorated with some extra nuts and fruit. The dish is served cold, at least several hours after preparation.

Significance in Silesia[edit]

Silesian cuisine can be very conservative. The tradition of serving makówki/mohnkließla/mohnpielen is well maintained among Silesian peoples and it is difficult to imagine a Silesian Christmas without the dish. By the elders, it would be considered unorthodox to prepare it outside the Christmas—New Year period. Preparing makówki outside Silesia can be difficult due to the unavailability of finely ground poppy seed (a special mill is usually required). In the United States, canned poppy paste is sometimes commercially available and can be used.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mohnpielen in books by 1900
  2. ^ Book from 1836, Mark Brandenburg, Mohnpielen
  3. ^ 1862 book: Northern Germany, Germanic Mythology, to eat seeded foods (particularly Mohnpielen) to ward off bad spirits during twelve days frost
  4. ^ Brandenburg Mohnpielen, 1868 book
  5. ^ 1885 book: Mohnpielen], Die Familie Buchholz, Julius Stinde
  6. ^ 1899 book, Mohnpielen Brandenburg Heimatkunde –Regional history
  7. ^ Mark Brandenburg Mohnpielen Georg, Rietschel, 1902 book
  8. ^ Paul Drechsler, Sitten und Braeuche in Schlesien, in Brandenburg, Mohnpielen 1903 book
  9. ^ Theodor Fontane, Mohnpielen and other dishes
  10. ^ "Idą Godne święta".
  11. ^ Słownik gwary miejskiej Poznania

External links[edit]