Makah

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For other uses, see Makah (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Makaa people.
Makah
Kwih-dich-chuh-aht (Qʷidiččaʔa·tx̌)
MakahWoman.jpg
A Makah woman, circa 1900
Total population
(1,213)
Regions with significant populations
 United States (Washington)
Languages
English, Makah language (survives as a second language)
Related ethnic groups
Nuu-chah-nulth, Ditidaht

The Makah (/məˈkɑː/; Klallam: màq̓áʔa)[1] are an indigenous people living in Washington, in the Pacific Northwest of the continental United States. They are enrolled in the federally recognized Makah Indian Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation.

Linguistically and ethnographically, they are closely related to the Nuu-chah-nulth and Ditidaht peoples of the West Coast of Vancouver Island, who live across the Strait of Juan de Fuca in British Columbia, Canada.

Reservation[edit]

The Makah Indian Tribe own the Makah Indian Reservation on the northwest tip of the Olympic Peninsula; it includes Tatoosh Island. They live in and around the town of Neah Bay, Washington, a small fishing village along the Strait of Juan de Fuca where it meets the Pacific Ocean.

The Makah people refer to themselves as Kwih-dich-chuh-ahtx (Qʷidiččaʔa·tx̌) which translates as "the people who live by the rocks and seagulls".[1][2]

History[edit]

Pre-colonial[edit]

Archaeological research suggests that the Makah people have inhabited the area now known as Neah Bay for more than 3,800 years. The ancient Makah lived in villages, inhabiting large longhouses made from western red cedar. These longhouses had cedar-plank walls. The planks could be tilted or removed to provide ventilation or light. The cedar tree was of great value to the Makah, who also used its bark to make water-resistant clothing and hats. Cedar roots were used in basket making. Whole trees were carved out to make canoes to hunt seals, gray whales and humpback whales.

The Makah acquired much of their food from the ocean. Their diet consisted of whale, seal, fish, and a wide variety of shellfish. They would also hunt deer, elk, and bear from the surrounding forests. Women also gathered a wide variety of nuts, berries and edible plants and roots for their foods.

Much of what is known about the way of life of the ancient Makah is derived from their oral tradition. Abundant archeological evidence excavated at the Ozette village site (see below) has provided great insight into the lives of the Makah.

Ozette village[edit]

In the early 17th century, a mudslide engulfed part of a Makah village near Lake Ozette. The mudslide preserved several houses and their contents in a collapsed state until the 1970s, when they were excavated by Makahs and archaeologists from Washington State University. Over 55,000 artifacts were recovered, representing many activities of the Makah, from whale and seal hunting to salmon and halibut fishing. Artifacts included toys, games, and bows and arrows. The oral history of the Makah mentions a "great slide" which engulfed a portion of Ozette long ago.

Archaeological test pits were excavated at the Ozette site in 1966 and 1967 by Richard Daugherty.[3] However, it was not until 1970 that it became apparent what was buried there. After a storm in February 1970, tidal erosion exposed hundreds of well preserved wooden artifacts. The excavation of the Ozette site began shortly after. University students worked with the Makah under the direction of archaeologists using pressurized water to remove mud from six buried long houses. The excavation went on for 11 years.

It produced more than 55,000 artifacts, many of which are on display in the Makah Cultural and Research Center. Opened in 1979, the museum displays replicas of cedar long houses as well as whaling, fishing, and sealing canoes.[4]

Japanese castaways in 1834[edit]

In 1834, a dismasted, rudderless ship from Japan ran aground near Cape Flattery. The Makah took the three survivors of the broken ship and cared for them, holding them as slaves for several months before being taking them to Fort Vancouver. From there, the United States transported them by ship to London and eventually China, before they reached Japan again.[5][6]

Treaty of Neah Bay[edit]

A Makah settlement, circa 1900.

On January 31, 1855, the select Makah tribe representatives signed the Treaty of Neah Bay with the U.S. federal government, ceding much of their traditional lands. The treaty required the Makah lands to be restricted to the Makah Reservation (at 48°19′20″N 124°37′57″W / 48.32222°N 124.63250°W / 48.32222; -124.63250 in Clallam County) and preserved the Makah people's rights to hunt whales and seals in the region.[7] The Makah language was not used during the negotiation of the treaty, and the government used the Salish name for the tribe. Makah is an incorrect pronunciation of a Salish term meaning "generous with food".

Contemporary culture[edit]

In 1936, the Makah Tribe signed the Makah Constitution, accepting the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and establishing an elected tribal government. The constitution provided for a five-member Tribal Council. Each year the council elects a Tribal Chairperson. The Council develops and passes laws for the Makah Reservation.

Tribal census data from 1999 show that the Makah Tribe has 1,214 enrolled members; some 1,079 live on the reservation. The unemployment rate on the reservation is approximately 51%.

The Makah tribe hosts its annual major public gathering, Makah Days, in late August. It features a grand parade and street fair as well as canoe races, traditional games, singing, dancing, feasting, and fireworks.

Many Makah tribal members derive most of their income from fishing. Makah fish for salmon, halibut, Pacific whiting, and other marine fish.

Language[edit]

Main article: Makah language

The Makah language is the indigenous language spoken by the Makah people. Makah has been extinct as a first language since 2002, when its last fluent native speaker died. However, it survives as a second language. The Makah tribe is working to revive the language, and has established preschool classes to teach its children.[8][9] The endonymous name for Makah is qʷi·qʷi·diččaq.[10] The Makah tribe linguistically belongs to the Southern Nootkan branch of the Wakashan family of languages among North American indigenous peoples. The Makah language, also known as qʷi·qʷi·diččaq (qwiqwidicciat) is the only Wakashan language in the United States. Other tribes speaking Wakashan are located in British Columbia, Canada, immediately across the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and northwards as far as that province's Central Coast region. The article Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast contains more information on linguistic links.

Whaling[edit]

Makah oral history relates that their tradition of aboriginal whaling has been suspended and re-established several times. Most recently, the practice was suspended in the 1920s because the commercial whaling industry had depleted the stocks of humpback and gray whales; all hunting was called off.

After the gray whale was removed from the Endangered Species List, the Makah re-asserted their whaling rights. With the support and guidance of the United States government and the International Whaling Commission, the Makah successfully hunted a gray whale on May 17, 1999. According to federal law, the Makah are entitled to hunt and kill one baleen whale, typically a gray whale, each year. Archaeological records and oral history indicate a significant number of humpback whales were historically hunted as well.

Makah whalers, circa 1910.
Makah whalers stripping the flesh from a whale, circa 1910.

The Makah whaling technique is difficult and labor-intensive. The men hunt from cedar canoes, each seating six to nine people and more recently, from small fishing vessels. They take these into the Pacific Ocean adjacent to their reservation territory. Various traditional criteria are used to determine the best whale to harvest. By counting the whale's exhalations, the hunters determine when the whale is about to dive, and determine from this the best time to strike. Approaching the whale's left side, the hunter strikes when the whale is 3–4 feet deep, to avoid the force of the whale's tail. The harpoon is 16–18 feet long, composed of two pieces of yew wood spliced together. Historically, hunters used a mussel shell tip, in conjunction with barbs from elk horns.

Since the late 20th century, hunters have used a steel "yankee style" head, but they have retained the yew wood shaft because of its flexibility, water resistance, and strength. Held fast to the whale, the harpoon shaft comes loose, to be recovered later, and a line is thrown from the canoe with seal skin floats attached, to provide drag to weaken the whale. In the past, a series of smaller lances were used to repeatedly strike the whale, gradually weakening and killing it, often over a period of hours, and in some cases, days. Recently, hunters have adopted use of a big game rifle after the harpoon strike, to ensure a more efficient kill. The International Whaling Commission permits four cartridges in whaling: .458 Winchester Magnum, .460 Weatherby Magnum, .50 BMG, and the .577 Tyrannosaur, which the Makah fired in the 1999 hunt.[11]

Once the whale has been killed, a crew member called the "diver" jumps into the water and cuts a hole through the bottom and top of the whale's jaw, to which a tow line and float are attached. This holds the whale's mouth shut and prevents the carcass from filling with water and sinking. Hunters tow the whale to shore, where it is received by members of the village.

Traditional ceremonies and songs are performed to welcome the whale's spirit. Following this, the whale is divided in a precise and traditional fashion, with certain families having ownership of particular cuts. The "saddle piece" located midway between the center of the back and the tail is the property of the harpooner. It is taken to his home where a special ceremony is performed. The meat and oil are distributed to community members, and a great deal of it is consumed during a potlatch.

The Makah assert that their right to whaling is guaranteed in the 1855 Treaty of Neah Bay, which states in part: "The right of taking fish and of whaling or sealing at usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians in common with all citizens of the United States." [12]

On September, 2007, five members of the Makah tribe shot a gray whale using a .460 caliber rifle, similar to that used in hunting elephants, despite court-imposed regulations governing the Makah hunt. The whale died within 12 hours, sinking while heading out to sea after being confiscated and cut loose by the United States Coast Guard.[13] The tribal council denounced the killing and announced their intention to try the individuals in tribal court.[14]

Literary and cultural references[edit]

  • The book Never Trust a White Man by Arlyn Conly is a memoir by a white home economics teacher who worked at the Neah Bay High School in the late 1950s.
  • The final scene of Jim Jarmusch's 1995 film Dead Man takes place in a reconstructed Makah village. Many of the actors featured in the scene are Makah tribal members; dialogue is in the Makah language.
  • The young adult book Ghost Canoe (1998) by Will Hobbs takes place on and near the Makah reservation.
  • The non-fiction book Voices of a Thousand People (2002) by Patricia Peirce Erikson, with Helma Ward & Kirk Wachendorf, recounts the founding of The Makah Cultural and Research Center and the work to preserve their heritage.
  • French writer Frédéric Roux published a novel L'hiver indien (2007) (Indian Winter, éditions Grasset & Fasquelle). It takes place among the Makah People in northwestern Washington and explores the struggle between traditions and modernity.
  • The historical-adventure novel When Wolf Comes (2009) by John Pappas gives a detailed glimpse into the lives of the Makah people of 1801.
  • The children's book (Grades 4-7) Written in Stone (2014) by Rosanne Parry takes place in the 1920s in the Makah tribe. It features an orphan girl who works to preserve her people's culture.
  • The song "The Renegade" by Ian and Sylvia, recounts conflict in the life of the son of a "Makah mother who marries a white man."

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Renker, Ann M., and Gunther, Erna (1990). "Makah". In "Northwest Coast", ed. Wayne Suttles. Vol. 7 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 429
  2. ^ Makah Cultural and Research Center online museum: "Index" and "Introduction"
  3. ^ Ozette overview, Palomar College
  4. ^ Steury, Tim. "A Dialogue with the Past: Modern Archaeology in the Pacific Northwest and What We Are", Washington State Magazine.
  5. ^ Tate, Cassandra (2009-07-16). "HistoryLink: Makah tribal members join delegation from Japan in commemorating three shipwrecked Japanese sailors on September 29, 1997.". HistoryLink.org. 
  6. ^ History Link - Treaty of Neah Bay
  7. ^ Makah Language and the Makah Indian Tribe (Kweedishchaaht, Kweneecheeaht, Macaw, Classet, Klasset)
  8. ^ Our Language
  9. ^ Davidson, Matthew (2002). Studies in Southern Wakashan (Nootkan) Grammar. Ph.D. dissertation, SUNY Buffalo, p. 349
  10. ^ Humane Killing Paper
  11. ^ Makah Whale Hunt | NWR website, NOAA
  12. ^ Mapes, Lynda V.; Ervin, Keith (September 9, 2007). "Gray whale shot, killed in rogue tribal hunt". The Seattle Times. 
  13. ^ Statement by the Makah Tribal Council, Seattle Times, 2003

References[edit]

External links[edit]