Makati

Coordinates: 14°33′24″N 121°01′17″E / 14.5567°N 121.0214°E / 14.5567; 121.0214
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Makati
Etymology: San Pedro [de] Macati
Nickname: 
Financial Capital of the Philippines
Motto(s): 
Makati, Mahalin Natin, Atin Ito.
("Makati, let us love it, it is ours.")
  • Map of Metro Manila with Makati highlighted
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Makati is located in Philippines
Makati
Makati
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°33′24″N 121°01′17″E / 14.5567°N 121.0214°E / 14.5567; 121.0214
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
Provincenone
District 1st and 2nd district
FoundedJune 1, 1670
RenamedFebruary 28, 1914 (as Makati)
CityhoodFebruary 4, 1995
Recent territorial changeNovember 9, 2023
Barangays23 (see Barangays)
Government
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorAbigail Binay (MKTZNU)
 • Vice MayorMonique Lagdameo (MKTZNU)
 • Representatives
 • City Council
Members
 • Electorate458,362 voters (2022)
Area
 • Total21.57 km2 (8.33 sq mi)
Elevation
32 m (105 ft)
Highest elevation
465 m (1,526 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total292,743
 • Density14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)
 • Households
186,381 (including Embo)
Demonym(s)Makiteño; Makatizen
Economy
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
0.28
% (2018)[4]
 • HDIIncrease 0.903 (Very High)
 • Revenue22,387,841,645.00 (2020)
 • Assets₱ 236,729 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 19,273 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 16,415 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1200–1213, 1219–1299
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)02
Native languagesTagalog
Major religionsRoman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Christianity
Feast dateDecember 12
Catholic dioceseRoman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
Patron saintNuestra Señora de la Rosa
Websitewww.makati.gov.ph

Makati (/məˈkɑːti/ mə-KAH-tee; Tagalog pronunciation: [maˈkati]), officially the City of Makati (Filipino: Lungsod ng Makati), is a highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines, known for being one of the leading financial center in the country. As of 2013, the city has the highest concentration of multinational and local corporations in the Philippines.[5] Major banks, corporations, department stores as well as foreign embassies are based in Makati. Makati is also known for being a major cultural and entertainment hub in Metro Manila.[6] According to the 2020 census, it had a population of 629,616 people,[3] making it as the 47th most populous city in the country and ranked as the 41st most densely populated city in the world with 19,336 inhabitants per square kilometer or 50,080 inhabitants per square mile. In 2023, ten eastern barangays were removed from Makati's jurisdiction as a result of the Makati–Taguig boundary dispute ruling, resulting in a reduction of the city's population to 292,743. Although its population was just above half a million, the daytime population of the city is estimated to be more than three million during a typical working day because of the large number of people who go to the city to work, shop, and do business.[7][8]

Etymology[edit]

The name of Makati originates from the Tagalog word kati, meaning "[of the] low tide" or "[of the] ebb tide", attributing to the tidal movements of the adjacent Pasig River. Alternatively, the word may also mean "itchy", attributed to the lipang kalabaw plant (Dendrocnide meyeniana) that once grew in the area.[9]

Previously, it was named San Pedro [de] Macati, a name stylized in Spanish.[10] The first part of the name is derived from Spanish for Saint Peter, the then-town's patron saint.[11][12]

History[edit]

California and Idaho troops at the San Pedro de Macati Cemetery (present-day Plaza Cristo Rey) during the 1899 Battle of Manila

Spanish colonial era[edit]

Parts of the city were once subject to the pre-Hispanic Kingdom of Namayan, whose capital is now in the Santa Ana district of Manila. While under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan friars during the 17th century, it was established as a town on June 1, 1670 under the name San Pedro Macati out of the then-town of Santa Ana de Sapa.[13][14][15] The nearby Nuestra Señora de Gracia Church, welcomed an image of the Virgin Mary and devotees from Mexico, and one person from a family in Makati, the Montes De Oca family,[16] which produced Isidoro Montes de Oca who became pivotal in the Mexican war of Independence against Spain.

In 1851, Don José Bonifacio Roxas (an ancestor of the Zóbel de Ayala family) purchased the Jesuit estate of "Hacienda San Pedro de Macati" for 52,800 pesos.[17] Since then, the development of Makati has remained linked with the Zóbel de Ayala family and their company, Ayala Corporation.[18] In 1890, San Pedro de Macati was proclaimed as a public town of Manila province.

American occupation[edit]

The building that is now Museo ng Makati served as the municipal hall of Makati from 1918 to 1961.[19]

In 1901, San Pedro Macati was incorporated into the newly established province of Rizal.[20][21] On February 28, 1914, the name of the town was shortened to its present name of Makati, by virtue of Philippine Legislature Act No. 2390.[10][13][22]

Japanese occupation[edit]

Aerial view of the Guadalupe ruins, 1932

On January 1, 1942, Makati was one of the municipalities of Rizal merged alongside Manila and Quezon City to form the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure by President Manuel L. Quezon.[23] It regained its pre-war status as a municipality of Rizal when the City of Greater Manila was dissolved by President Sergio Osmeña effective August 1, 1945.[24]

Philippine independence[edit]

After the destruction that the Second World War brought upon Manila, and the subsequent closure of Nielson Field, the town grew rapidly, and real estate values boomed. The first of the planned communities (in what are now the barangays Forbes Park, Urdaneta, San Lorenzo and Bel-Air) were established in the 1950s with the efforts of its landowner, Ayala y Compañía. At the same time, Fort McKinley, then renamed Fort Bonifacio, and the then Philippine Army headquarters, became the starting point for the building up of seven more communities by military families who worked in the base area. The first office buildings were built on what is now the Makati Central Business District (CBD). Since the late 1960s, Makati has transformed into the financial and commercial capital of the country.[25] In December 1972, two barangays of Makati were established at the Inner Fort Bonifacio area: Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside.[26][27]

On November 7, 1975, Makati was separated from Rizal province to become part of the National Capital Region as a component municipality.[28]

The Martial Law era[edit]

Ayala Avenue (1982)

Makati was the setting of what is believed to be the single biggest case of involuntary disappearance during martial law[29][30][31] – the case of the "Southern Tagalog 10" – ten activists from the nearby Southern Tagalog region, mostly in their twenties,[32] who were abducted in late July 1977 at the Makati Medical Center.[33]

Following the assassination of opposition senator Benigno Aquino Jr. on August 21, 1983, Makati became a nexus for protests against the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos. Known as the Confetti Revolution, the demonstrations held in the central business district were led partly by employees of major corporations based in the area, culminating in the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled Marcos' 20-year authoritarian regime. His political rival and successor, Corazon Aquino–the wife of the deceased senator Aquino–became the eleventh and first female president of the Philippines.

In January 1986, Fort Bonifacio and the Embo barangays of Cembo, South Cembo, West Rembo, East Rembo, Comembo, Pembo and Pitogo were transferred to the control of Makati.[34]

After Mayor Nemesio Yabut succumbed to an illness on February 25, 1986, coinciding with the last day of the People Power Revolution,[35] Aquino appointed Jejomar Binay as acting mayor of the town of Makati two days later; he was subsequently elected as mayor in 1988.[36]

Cityhood[edit]

On January 2, 1995, President Fidel V. Ramos signed Republic Act No. 7854,[37] making Makati the seventh city in Metro Manila. The law was approved by a plebiscite one month later, on February 2, 1995, by majority of voters.

Contemporary[edit]

Makati and Taguig with disputed land

On May 17, 2000, at 5:02 p.m. PHT, the Glorietta mall located inside the Ayala Center was bombed, injuring 13 persons. According to local authorities, the homemade bomb originated from the restroom of a restaurant and affected an adjacent video arcade. The bombing was said to be the precursor of the May 21, 2000 SM Megamall bombing and the Rizal Day bombings.[38]

On October 19, 2007, an explosion in Glorietta 2 left eleven people dead and injured more than a hundred. Initially, authorities said that it was caused by a liquefied petroleum gas explosion at a restaurant, but later began investigating the possibility that the explosion may have been a C-4 bomb.[39][40]

In April 2022, Makati lost in the decades long the territorial dispute with Taguig, which was ruled with finality a year later in April 2023. The city ceded its territorial and political jurisdiction of the ten Embo barangays to Taguig, thus losing an estimated 300,000 people from its population.[41][42][43] However, disputes regarding public facilities like schools and health centers, persists.

Because of Taguig's territorial takeover, Makati's 2nd district, which has three barangays remaining in this city, is put into limbo as it does not meet the constitutional requirement of 250,000 people and may be reduced back to a single congressional district.[44] But pending legislation, the status quo of its existence, is expected to prevail.

Geography[edit]

Makati is located within the circle of 14′40″ °N and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. The city is bounded on the north by the Pasig River, facing Mandaluyong, on the east by Taguig, on the southwest by Pasay, and on the northwest by the city of Manila. Makati has a total land area of 21.57 square kilometers (8.33 sq mi). Its territory also surrounds the Manila South Cemetery, an exclave of San Andres district of Manila.[45]

Barangays[edit]

Since November 2023, Makati is divided into 23 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handle governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into two congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives. The 1st Congressional District is composed of the barangays straddling EDSA, the barangays to the north and west of them, while excluding Guadalupe Viejo, while the 2nd Congressional District is to the south and east of the 1st District, including the aforementioned barangay. The districts elect the sixteen members of the city council, eight from each of the two councilor districts that are coextensive with the congressional districts.

Cembo, South Cembo, West Rembo, East Rembo, Comembo, Pembo, Pitogo, Post Proper Northside, Post Proper Southside, and Rizal, collectively known as the Embo barangays, were part of Makati until 2023, when these were transferred to Taguig by virtue of the Supreme Court's ruling that year to finally side with Taguig regarding the cities' territorial dispute.[41][42][43][44]

Barangays under Makati's jurisdiction from 1996 to 2023
Barangays under Makati's jurisdiction since 2023
Political maps of Makati
First District
Barangay Area (km2) Population (2010)[46] Population (2015)[47] Population (2020)[3]
Bangkal 0.74 23,378 21,650 17,576
Bel-Air 1.71 18,280 23,685 36,007
Carmona 0.34 3,096 3,109 2,745
Dasmariñas 1.90 5,654 5,589 4,160
Forbes Park 2.53 2,533 2,335 3,715
Kasilawan 0.09 5,291 5,881 4,827
La Paz 0.32 7,931 7,356 6,346
Magallanes 1.20 5,576 5,672 5,267
Olympia 1.20 21,270 20,251 18,654
Palanan 0.65 17,283 14,110 11,623
Pio del Pilar 1.20 27,035 30,732 50,722
Poblacion 0.46 17,120 25,393 16,706
San Antonio 0.89 11,443 16,840 17,494
San Isidro 0.50 7,589 8,045 6,098
San Lorenzo 2.09 10,006 12,995 14,054
Singkamas 0.13 7,426 7,370 7,218
Sta. Cruz 0.47 7,440 7,207 6,333
Tejeros 0.29 13,868 13,696 15,122
Urdaneta 0.74 3,717 4,429 4,563
Valenzuela 0.24 7,261 6,310 5,370
Second District
Barangay Area (km2) Population (2010)[46] Population (2015)[47] Population (2020)[3]
Guadalupe Nuevo 0.57 18,271 18,341 20,533
Guadalupe Viejo 0.62 16,411 13,415 12,900
Pinagkaisahan 0.16 5,804 5,468 4,710

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification system, the city features a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines, Makati lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20 °C (68 °F) or going higher than 38 °C (100 °F). However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season from June through December.

Climate data for Makati
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
33
(91)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31.7
(89.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22.75
(72.95)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.4
(1.00)
25.4
(1.00)
38.1
(1.50)
25.4
(1.00)
38.1
(1.50)
127
(5.0)
254
(10.0)
431.8
(17.00)
406.4
(16.00)
355.6
(14.00)
203.2
(8.00)
152.4
(6.00)
2,082.8
(82.00)
Source: makaticity.com[48]

Climate change[edit]

The Global Climate Risk Index 2021 lists the Philippines as one of countries most affected by catastrophes due to extreme weather events.[49] Makati is a low-lying, coastal city vulnerable to natural calamities intensified by climate change, such as typhoons, floods, and landslides.[49][50] The city's disaster risk reduction and management office noted a rise in rainfall experienced by the city over the years, particularly during the rainy season.[51]

In August 2022, the city government declared a climate emergency, amid rising sea levels and global temperature changes.[49]

Makati undertakes climate adaptation programs to address vulnerabilities to climate change, which include health services to residents, emergency response, and environmental management and protection.[50] It intends to increase projects to address climate change, including a planned purchase of more electric vehicles, installation of solar panels in public schools and government offices, and improvement of public transport to lessen greenhouse gas emissions.[49]

Cityscape[edit]

Makati Skyline, August 2020
Makati in 2011

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Makati
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 2,700—    
1918 12,612+10.82%
1939 33,530+4.77%
1948 41,335+2.35%
1960 114,540+8.86%
1970 264,918+8.74%
1975 334,448+4.78%
1980 372,631+2.18%
1990 453,170+1.98%
1995 484,176+1.25%
2000 444,867−1.80%
2007 567,349+3.41%
2010 529,039−2.51%
2015 582,602+1.85%
2020 629,616+1.54%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[47][46][52][53]

As of the 2020 census, Makati had a population of 629,616. The count was later reduced to 292,743 in 2023 based on the same census when the Embo barangays were transferred to Taguig as a result of the cities' territorial dispute ruling.[3] Makati currently ranks 14th in population size within Metro Manila. A majority of Makati residents identified their religious affiliation as Roman Catholic.[citation needed] Other groups having large number of members in the city are the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Members Church of God International, Evangelical Christians, Iglesia ni Cristo, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism.[54]

Based on the city's Transport and Traffic Improvement Plan 2004–2014, the city's daytime population is estimated to be 3.7 million during weekdays, owing to the large number of people who come to work, do business, or shop.[55]

The daily influx of people into the city provides the skilled labor force that allows Makati to handle the service requirements of domestic as well as international transactions; it also serves as the base of a large consumer market that fuels the retail and service trade in the city.[55] At the same time, however, the large tidal population flows exert pressure on Makati's environment, services, and utilities, most noticeably causing large traffic volumes along the major road corridors leading to the city as well as within and at the periphery of the central business district.[55]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Ayala Triangle area

The city of Makati remains the richest local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines in terms of income from local sources and on a per capita basis.[63] As of end-2012, it had registered over 62,000 business enterprises, which are engaged in financial services, wholesale/retail, services, real estate, export/import, and manufacturing. It also boasts of having the highest number of BPO offices in Metro Manila at more than 1,150 companies, as well as the highest number of PEZA-accredited IT Parks and Buildings. Additionally, it has an office space supply of 2.8 million square meters (30 million square feet) as of end-2021, making it a dominant office market in Metro Manila alongside Taguig and Pasig.[64] The city government of Makati has not increased its tax rates since its new Revenue Code took effect in 2006. The city has been free of deficit for about three decades.[63][65]

The Ayala Triangle is a sub-district of the Makati CBD, comprising the parcel of land between Ayala Avenue, Makati Avenue and Paseo de Roxas, as well as the buildings on those streets. Many multinational companies, banks, and other major businesses are located within the triangle. A few upscale boutiques, restaurants, and a park called Ayala Triangle Gardens are also located in the area.[66] Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas also have the distinction of being the runways of the former Nielson Field, Metro Manila's main airport in the 1930s.

The Makati Business Club has over 800 chief executive officers and senior executives, which represents 450 of the country's biggest corporations.[67]

Most of the tallest skyscrapers in Metro Manila and the Philippines are located in Makati. Among them are the PBCom Tower, Trump Tower Manila and Gramercy Residences in Century City, Discovery Primea, Shang Salcedo Place, and G.T. International Tower. PBCom Tower along Ayala Avenue was the country's tallest office building from 2001 to 2017. It is the headquarters of the Philippine Bank of Communications or PBCom. It has a total ground-to-architectural-top height of 259 meters (850 ft), with 52 stories,[68] including an 8-level radio tower.

The biggest trading floor of the Philippine Stock Exchange used to be situated along the city's Ayala Avenue, before the stock exchange moved their headquarters to the Bonifacio Global City in Taguig.[69][70][71]

In addition, Evangelista Street in Barangay Bangkal is known for being the site of automobile repair shops, replacement automobile parts stores, tire and wheel stores, car air-conditioning unit repair shops, and car tint stores, almost similar to Banawe Street in Quezon City.[72]

Shopping centers[edit]

Glorietta (left and center) and One Ayala (right) in Ayala Center

Makati is one of the most well-known shopping hubs of Metro Manila. Various shopping centers, offering both international and local retail shops, high-end boutiques, dining outlets and entertainment facilities can be found around the city.[73]

The Ayala Center is a major commercial development operated by Ayala Land located in the Makati CBD. The center is known for its wide array of shopping, entertainment, and cultural offerings, making it a premier shopping and cultural district in the metropolis.[74] It is a vast walkable complex with high-end malls that houses cinemas, local and international shops, homegrown restaurants and international food chains. The shopping malls that are located at the Ayala Center include Greenbelt, Glorietta, Park Square, The Link, and Ayala Malls One Ayala. The Ayala Center is also home to three department stores, namely: SM Makati, Rustan's, and The Landmark.

Other shopping centers in Makati include Power Plant Mall at Rockwell Center, Century City Mall at Century City, Ayala Malls Circuit at Circuit Makati, Cash & Carry Mall, Walter Mart Makati, Makati Central Square (formerly Makati Cinema Square), Guadalupe Commercial Center, Paseo de Magallanes, and pocket malls at various high-rise residential condominiums or office buildings in the city.[75]

Education[edit]

The University of Makati campus with Fort Bonifacio High School

The University of Makati, a public, non-profit university, is the city's flagship university located in West Rembo, its former barangay that is now part of Taguig. Other institutions of higher education located in the city include the Asian Institute of Management (AIM), iAcademy, Asian Seminary of Christian Ministries (ASCM), Don Bosco Technical Institute of Makati, Assumption College San Lorenzo, Saint Paul College of Makati, Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary, and Asia Pacific College.

Several higher education institutions headquartered outside the city have established branch or satellite campuses in Makati. These include the Ateneo de Manila University (Ateneo Professional Schools), De La Salle University, Far Eastern University, Mapúa University, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Centro Escolar University, and AMA Computer College Colleges, among others.

Australian Catholic University, a foreign institution, maintains an extension program in Makati.

As of 2024, the Schools Division Office (SDO) of Makati City oversees 23 public schools: 16 elementary schools and 7 high schools.[76] In 2023, as a result of the Makati–Taguig boundary dispute ruling, 14 public elementary and high schools were transferred from the SDO of Makati City to the SDO of Taguig City and Pateros.[77][78][79]

Rafael Palma Elementary School, which is under the jurisdiction of the neighboring city of Manila's Schools Division Office, is located in Barangay La Paz, near the Makati–Manila boundary.

Culture and sports[edit]

Circuit Makati Blue Pitch
Saints Peter and Paul Parish in Poblacion

Makati is home to a number of fine art museums, colonial-era churches and recreation areas. Along the south-eastern border of Makati beyond Forbes Park are the Manila Golf Club and the Manila Polo Club. The Manila Golf Club features an 18-hole golf course. The Manila Polo Club counts among its polo enthusiasts some of the country's wealthiest people. The Makati Sports Club in Salcedo Village is another popular place for sports. The Makati Coliseum is another famous sports landmark in the city, where some of the biggest sports gatherings are held.

The city's only professional sports team is the Makati OKBet Kings, which joined the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League in its second season.

In the northwest, Circuit Makati Blue Pitch is a multi-use stadium, used not just for football games but since 2017 serves as the primary hub of the Philippine-American Football League. The site of Circuit Makati was also previously occupied by the Santa Ana Park, a racetrack whose operations were transferred to Naic, Cavite in 2009. The University of Makati Stadium, now part of Taguig, was the home venue of Philippines Football League club Kaya F.C.–Makati until the team's move to Iloilo City.

The Ayala Museum is a private fine arts and history museum housing various exhibitions such as the "Gold of Ancestors," an exhibition of more than one thousand golden pre-Hispanic artifacts.[80] Other popular museums also in Makati also include the Yuchengco Museum and the Museo ng Makati.

Makati has several Spanish-era churches, such as the Saints Peter and Paul Parish, Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish and the Nuestra Señora de Gracia Church (Our Lady of Grace) in the old town. At the Greenbelt Park stands the modern domed Sto. Niño de Paz Greenbelt Chapel. Located in Forbes Park is the Santuario de San Antonio, a popular church for weddings in the Makati area. The National Shrine of the Sacred Heart is located in San Antonio Village. Makati also houses the country's only Jewish synagogue, Beth Yaacov.[81]

There is a red-light district around Padre Burgos Street in Barangay Poblacion.[82]

Future development[edit]

Ayala Land and the Makati Tourism Foundation launched a year-long campaign titled "Make It Happen, Make it Makati" to increase Makati's visibility as an arts and culture destination. The campaign is part of Ayala's ongoing US$1.5 billion redevelopment masterplan for Makati, which began in 2011 and divides the city into six distinct hubs for business, lifestyle, entertainment and transport.[83]

Transportation[edit]

The Magallanes Interchange

Major roads in Metro Manila surround Makati, such as Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), located in the southwestern part of the city, the Osmeña Highway and South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), collectively known as South Superhighway (SSH), and the Skyway, which is built on top of both roads.

Land[edit]

Jeepney terminal in Guadalupe Nuevo

Two of Metro Manila's main arteries pass through Makati. The Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) pass along the city's southeast part and connects it with the cities of Mandaluyong and Pasay. The South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) starts in southwestfern Makati and connects it with southern Metro Manila and Southern Luzon. The Skyway is an elevated expressway that connects with NLEX and SLEX, providing residents coming from Northern Luzon, Northern Metro Manila, Southern Luzon and other cities of Southern Metro Manila a fast way to reach Makati. SLEX and EDSA intersect at the Magallanes Interchange, which is the most complex system of elevated roadways in Metro Manila.

The areas of Guadalupe and of Ayala Center are considered as major transport hubs. Ayala Center hosts One Ayala, a complex with an intermodal transport hub.[84] The BGC Bus also connects the city to Bonifacio Global City, with a terminal at the McKinley Exchange Corporate Center near Ayala Center. City-operation buses, including Premium Point-to-Point Bus Service, ply the city through EDSA, Osmeña Highway, Kalayaan Avenue, or the central business/financial district towards other parts of Metro Manila and Southern Luzon. Jeepneys ply Makati's inner roads and connect the city to its surrounding towns and cities. Tricycles are also used for shorter distances except at most of the Central Business District, exclusive villages, and some major roads.

The country's first-ever e-jeepney and hybrid bus services were piloted in Makati. The buses are parallel electric hybrids, powered by an electric motor and a Euro 3 diesel motor. The hybrid buses ply the route from Gil Puyat Avenue (Tramo area) to Kalayaan Avenue (near C-5), which are considered among the busiest in the city's central business district, cutting through other major roads like Osmeña Highway; Chino Roces, Ayala and Makati Avenues; Paseo de Roxas and EDSA.[85]

Other major roads in the city include Gil Puyat Avenue, which connects EDSA and SLEX in the north; Ayala Avenue, an important street that runs through the Makati CBD; McKinley Road, which connects the city to Bonifacio Global City; Arnaiz Avenue, which connects the city to Pasay; Osmeña Highway, which connects SLEX to the city of Manila; Makati Avenue, which connects the Makati CBD to Poblacion, also extending north to the Makati–Mandaluyong Bridge; and J. P. Rizal Avenue, the oldest main thoroughfare of Makati which connects it to the cities of Manila and Taguig. At the center of Makati is the Ayala Triangle, a park built on the former Nielson Air Base. According to the city's Department of Engineering and Public Works, the city had 261.573 kilometers (162.534 mi) of concrete roads and 74.068 kilometers (46.024 mi) of asphalt roads prior to the transfer of Embo barangays to Taguig.[8]

Railways[edit]

A Philippine National Railways train near EDSA station at the Magallanes Interchange

Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 3 (MRT Line 3) on EDSA has four stations located in Makati: Guadalupe, Buendia, Ayala and Magallanes.

The Philippine National Railways has three stations in the city: Dela Rosa, Pasay Road and EDSA. Pasay Road, formerly known as Culi-culi and Pio del Pilar, is the first railway station in Makati, having been initially opened in 1908. Dela Rosa replaced the old Buendia station in 2017. All aforementioned stations are part of the PNR South Main Line. The PNR Metro Commuter Line, which serves the South Main Line, is slated to be replaced by the North–South Commuter Railway, currently under construction, with stations at Buendia and EDSA.

In 2013, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) worked on a feasibility study for a $1.75 billion monorail project. The proposed 12.56-kilometer (7.80 mi) elevated monorail is envisioned to connect Makati, Bonifacio Global City and Pasay through MRT Line 3 as well as Ninoy Aquino International Airport. The present alignment being considered starts from the Guadalupe MRT station, enters Bonifacio Global City through the north gate and ends at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3.[86]

In 2015, NEDA approved the Public-Private Partnership project for the Makati-Pasay-Taguig Mass Transit System Loop which will have stations at key points in Makati namely Buendia MRT station, Ayala-EDSA, Ayala Triangle, Makati Post Office and PNR-Buendia which was later shelved and partially revived in 2018 as the Makati Intra-City Subway which inherits most of the stations in Makati.[87] The subway project was later stalled in 2023 due to the transfer of the Embo barangays to Taguig, which won the territorial dispute with Makati.[88]

Water[edit]

The Pasig River is located north of Makati. The Pasig River Ferry Service has one station in Makati located in Valenzuela.

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

The old (front) and new (back) Makati City Hall. The new building serves as the current seat of city government.

Makati is classified as a highly urbanized city (HUC). The mayor is the chief executive and is a member of the Metro Manila Council. The mayor is assisted by the vice mayor, who presides over a legislative council consisting of 18 members: 8 councilors from the 1st district, 8 councilors from the 2nd district, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions.

The incumbent mayor is Abby Binay, the daughter of former mayor and former Vice President Jejomar Binay. Monique Lagdameo is the incumbent vice mayor. Current district representatives of the city to the House of Representatives are Romulo "Kid" Peña Jr.,[89] representing the 1st district, and Luis Jose Angel Campos Jr., husband of Abby Binay, for the 2nd district.

Mayors[edit]

Seal of Makati[edit]

The current seal of Makati, adopted in August 1995,[90] composes of the old outline map of Makati containing 33 rays, green buildings, and a church. Those were first used on Makati's last municipal seal from 1990 to 1995.

The map of Makati is in golden yellow color which represents wealth and prosperity. The rays represent the 33 barangays of Makati (including the 10 Embo barangays ceded to Taguig in 2023) which are described to be "surging forward to a brighter future". The color of the buildings symbolizes life which is described to reflect a "new progressive" Makati. The church represents the oldest church of Makati, the Nuestra Señora de Gracia, which was used by Filipino revolutionaries against the Spaniards in 1896 and the Americans in 1898. The waves represent the tide which came from the phrase "Makati na, Kumakati na" which means ebbing tide in Tagalog.[91]

International relations[edit]

Diplomatic missions[edit]

The Herco Center in Legazpi Village houses the Embassy of the People's Republic of Bangladesh in Manila.

Most of the diplomatic missions to Manila by foreign countries in the Philippines have their chanceries located in Makati:

Sister cities[edit]

Makati's sister city is Los Angeles, California. Makati is also twinned with Ramapo, New York and Vladivostok, Russia.

International
Domestic

Notable persons[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arnold Cruz resigned upon election as Barangay Captain of Rizal, Taguig (formerly part of Makati) in 2023.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Official websites[edit]

General information[edit]