Maléku language

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Guatuso
Maléku Jaíka
Native to Costa Rica
Ethnicity 1,070 Maleku people (200?)[1]
Native speakers
750 (2000)[1]
Chibchan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gut
Glottolog male1297[2]

The Maléku Jaíka language, also called Guatuso, Watuso-Wétar, and Guetar, is an indigenous language of north central Costa Rica. It is a Chibchan language and Votic language spoken by around 300 to 750 indigenous Maléku people. This language is considered to be endangered according to The Endangered Languages Project. Corobicí is possibly a dialect.

Origin[edit]

The Maleku population has lived in the Río Frío watershed for thousands of years with very little disturbance from other populations, or from Spanish colonizers, as they remained undiscovered until 1750. The Maleku tribes faced hardship when the rubber farmers migrated onto Maleku territory, spanning from 1868 - 1900. The rubber gatherers were armed, and many battles followed their arrival, leading to catastrophic losses of Maleku lives, and abandonment of their ancestral settlements. The Catholic Missionaries led by Bishop Thiel came to the aid of the Maleku in the late 1800s to early 1900s, providing them with protection and instruction. The missionaries vastly advanced the Maleku's worldly development by teaching them to use various tools, firearms, and also teaching them to grow different crops, along with expanding their knowledge of language. This is where the death of the Maleku's native language began, as cultural assimilation developed between the Catholic Missionary ideals and the Maleku's traditions. Only adults continued to speak the native language.[3]

Culture[edit]

The Maleku culture still thrives today, although not as prominent as it once was, in the form of their tourism offerings to visitors in their community. Economically, they thrive off of their cultural offerings such as art and jewelry, all handmade and artisan crafted, and religious ritualism, purely for the presence of tourists. Missionary presence during the early 1900s prevented children from participating in many traditional activities. This translates directly over into the Maleku's current culture in the sense that there are far fewer traditional activities to take place in now than there were in the 1800s.[3]

Sample Vocabulary[edit]

  • kapi kapi = hello (with a knocking gesture on your partner's shoulder)
  • afekapian = Thank you
  • w-ay = yes
  • hebet = no
  • fufu = morfo butterfly
  • niskak = bird
  • pili = toucan
  • pek-pen = frog
  • gnou-ek = red-eye frog
  • ti-fakara = waterfall
  • irri miotem? = what is your name?
  • mioten ... = my name is ...
  • arrachapi kahole = I would like a cup of coffee
  • errekeki kerakou = let's go (to a place)
  • erreke malehila =let's go swimming

Numbers[edit]

[4]

  • Dooka = One
  • Pángi = Two
  • Poóse = Three
  • Pakái= Four
  • Otíni= Five

Common Nouns[edit]

[4]

  • Ochápaká= Man
  • Kuríjurí= Woman
  • Toji= Sun
  • Tlijii= Moon
  • Laká= Earth
  • Oktara= Stone
  • Koora= Tree
  • Uu= House

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Guatuso at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Maléku Jaíka". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ a b Ryan, James. Maleku Jaika. N.p., 1 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 May 2016. <http://dice.missouri.edu/docs/chibchan/MalekuJaika.pdf>
  4. ^ a b Native Languages of the Americas

Further reading[edit]

  • Barrantes, R., Smouse, P. E., Mohrenweiser, H. W., Gershowitz, H., Azofeifa, J., Arias, T. D., & Neel, J. V. (1990). Microevolution in lower Central America: genetic characterization of the Chibcha-speaking groups of Costa Rica and Panama, and a consensus taxonomy based on genetic and linguistic affinity. American Journal of Human Genetics, 46(1), 63–84.
  • Brinton, Daniel G. 1891. The American Race: A Linguistic Classification and Ethnographic Description of the Native Tribes of North and South America. New York: N. D. C. Hodges Publisher
  • Guatuso. Retrieved from http://multitree.org/codes/gut.html
  • Madrigal Cordero, P., & Solís Rivera, V. (2012). Recognition and Support of ICCAs in Costa Rica. Kothari et al.
  • Maleku Indian Language (Guatuso, Jaika). (2016). Retrieved from http://www.native-languages.org/maleku.htm
  • Miranda, Roberto Herrera. Endangered Languages Documentation Programme (sponsor). n.d. Endangered Languages Archive.
  • Pache, Matthias. Morphosyntactic Properties of Chibchan Verbal Person Marking. Retrieved from http://journals.dartmouth.edu/cgibin/WebObjects/Journals.woa/1/xmlpage/1/article/462?htmlAlways=yes
  • Ryan, James. Maleku Jaika. N.p., 1 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 May 2016. <http://dice.missouri.edu/docs/chibchan/MalekuJaika.pdf>.

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1982). "Sobre la construcción ergativa en la lengua guatusa". Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 8: 97–102. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1983). "Descripción del sistea fonemático del guatuso". Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 9: 3–20. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1986). "La voz antipasiva en guatuso". Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha (Universidad de Costa Rica). 5: 86–96. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1986). Abecedario ilustrado malecu. San José, Costa Rica: Ministerio de Educación Pública. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1988). "El guatuso de Palenque Margarita: su proceso de declinación". Estudios de lingüística chibcha (Universidad de Costa Rica). 7: 7–38. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1990). "Morfofonología y morfología derivativa guatusas". Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha (Universidad de Costa Rica). 9: 81–122. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1991). Las lenguas del área intermedia: Introducción a su estudio areal. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1998). Gramática de la lengua guatusa. Heredia, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad Nacional. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (2008). "Estado actual de la subclasificación de las lenguas chibchenses y de la reconstrucción fonológica y gramatical del protochibchense". Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha. San José, Costa Rica. XXVII: 117–135. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (2009). FL-3159 Guatuso/Malécu Jaíca I. San José, Costa Rica. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo og Eustaquio Castro C. (2011). Pláticas sobre felinos. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 
  • Constenla Umaña, Adolfo, Eustaquio Castro C. og Antonio Blanco R. (1993). Lacá majifíjicá – La transformación de la tierra. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 
  • Gordon, Raymond G. Jr. (red.) (2005). "Ethnologue – Maléku jaíka". Retrieved 2015-05-03. 
  • Krohn, Haakon Stensrud (2011). "La representación sintáctica de la topicalidad de los participantes discursivos en la narrativa tradicional malecu". Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha. 30: 37–62. 
  • Krohn, Haakon Stensrud (2012). "El mantenimiento de la referencia anafórica en el discurso narrativo tradicional en lengua malecu". Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 38 (1): 191–216. 
  • Krohn, Haakon Stensrud (2013). "La función de la orientación al ergativo en el discurso narrativo malecu". Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 39 (2): 173–190. 
  • Quesada J., Diego (2007). The Chibchan languages. Cartago, Costa Rica: Editorial Técnica de Costa Rica. 
  • Quesada Pacheco; Miguel Ángel (2000). "Situación actual y futuro de las lenguas indígenas de Costa Rica". Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha. San José, Costa Rica. XVIII–XIX: 7–34. 
  • Quilter, Jeffrey og John W. Hoopes (2003). "Goldwork and Chibchan identity: Endogenous change and diffuse unity in the Isthmo-Colombian area" (PDF). Gold and Power in Ancient Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia: 49–89. 
  • Sánchez Avendaño, Carlos (2011). "Caracterización cualitativa de la situación sociolingüística del pueblo malecu". Estudios de lingüística chibcha (Universidad de Costa Rica). 30: 63–90. 
  • Sánchez Corrales; Víctor M. (1979). "El maleku: lengua ergativa". Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 5: 67–71. 
  • Sánchez Corrales; Víctor M. (1984). "Análisis fonológico del guatuso". Estudios de Lingüística chibcha (Universidad de Costa Rica). 3: 143–178. 
  • Smith Sharp, Heidi (1979). "Un análisis fonológico del maleku". Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica. 5: 31–54.