Mal (caste)

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Mal
Religions Hinduism
Languages Bengali, Assamese, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Hindi
Populated States West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Bangladesh
Population 205,000 (West Bengal, 1981 census)
273,641 (West Bengal, 2001 census)[1]
306,234 (West Bengal, 2011 census)[2]
Family names Mal, Mall, & Malla.

The Mal are a Hindu caste found in the state of West Bengal & Jharkhand.They are also known as the Mal/Malla Kshatriya.[3][4][5] Mal, Mall & Malla are derived from the Sanskrit word malla, meaning wrestler.[6][7]

Paharia Mal or Mal Paharia is considered as Scheduled Tribe while the other Mal groups are considered as Scheduled Castes by the Government of West Bengal.[8][9][10]

Demographics[edit]

Mal numbered 273,641 in the 2001 census and were 1.5 per cent of the total Scheduled Caste population of West Bengal. 39.6 per cent of the Mal were literate - 51.9 per cent males and 26.8 per cent females were literate.[11]

Divisions[edit]

The Mal have four sub-divisions, the Raja Mal or Rajbansi Mal, the Chhatradhari Mal or Rajchhatradhari Mal, the Sapure Mal or Bede and the Paharia Mal or Dhanguria Mal. They are said to be Dravidian tribes found in the Rajmahal hills that was Hinduized over time. The community is now found mainly in Birbhum District.[12] Raja Mals were rulers of Bengal-Jharkhand junction area. Chatradhari Mals were supposed to be ministers of Raja Mals. Sapure Mals are mainly snake charmers. Paharia Mals generally live in hilly areas, and have their own distinct language. Raja Mals do not practice widow marriage like other orthodox Hindus.[13][6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "West Bengal, Census of India 2001, Data Highlights - The Scheduled Castes" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  2. ^ "(SC)2011census". censusindia.gov.in. 
  3. ^ People of India West Bengal Volume XXXXIII edited by Shekhar Bandopadhyay, Tilsk Bagchi and R. K Bhattacharya pages 834-840
  4. ^ "'39.Type of Lok Sabha Debate : SPECIAL MENTION, Participant(s) : Shri Ajay Kumar '". loksabha.nic.in. 22 March 2012. 
  5. ^ "'39.Type of Lok Sabha Debate Detail'". indiankanoon.org. 22 March 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Singh, Kumar Suresh (29 Aug 2008). The scheduled castes (2, illustrated ed.). Anthropological Survey of India, 1993. ISBN 9780195632545. 
  7. ^ Dasgupta 2009, p. 19.
  8. ^ "Scheduled Caste List Of West Bengal State". anagrasarkalyan.gov.in. 
  9. ^ "Scheduled Caste Welfare - List of Scheduled Castes". socialjustice.nic.in(Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment). 
  10. ^ "Scheduled Tribe List Of West Bengal State". anagrasarkalyan.gov.in. 
  11. ^ "West Bengal, Census of India 2001, Data Highlights - The Scheduled Castes" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General, India. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  12. ^ People of India West Bengal Volume XXXXIII edited by Shekhar Bandopadhyay, Tilsk Bagchi and R. K Bhattacharya pages 834-840
  13. ^ 'Birbhumer Itihas'