|District of British India|
Malabar District, Revenue Divisions and Taluks
|15,027 km2 (5,802 sq mi)|
• Attached to Madras Presidency
• Reorganisation of Taluks
• Became part of Madras State
Malabar District, also known as Malayalam District, was an administrative district on the southwestern Malabar Coast of Bombay Presidency (1792-1800) and Madras Presidency (1800-1947) in British India, and independent India's Madras State (1947-1956). It was the most populous and the third-largest district in the erstwhile Madras State. The British district included the present-day districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram, Palakkad (excluding Chittur town), Chavakad Taluk and parts of Kodungallur Taluk of Thrissur district (former part of Ponnani Taluk), and Fort Kochi area of Ernakulam district in the northern and central parts of present Kerala state, the Lakshadweep Islands, and a major portion of the Nilgiris district in Tamil Nadu. The detached settlements of Tangasseri and Anchuthengu, which were British colonies within the kingdom of Travancore in southern Kerala, also formed part of Malabar District until 1927. Malayalam was administrative as well as most spoken Lingua franca of Malabar District during British Rule. Jeseri, a distinct dialect of Malayalam, was spoken in the Laccadive Islands. Malabar District merged with the erstwhile state of Travancore-Cochin (1950-1956) to form Kerala according to the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. On the same day, the present Kasaragod district of South Canara District was also attached to Malabar, and the Laccadive&Minicoy Islands of Malabar were reorganised to form a new Union Territory. Malabar was trifurcated to form the districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad, on 1 January 1957.
The city of Kozhikode was the capital of Malabar. It was divided into North Malabar and South Malabar in 1793 for administrative convenience, with their regional headquarters at Thalassery and Cherpulassery (Later changed to Ottapalam) respectively. During the British rule, Malabar's chief importance laid in producing pepper, Coconut, and Tiles. In the old administrative records of the Madras Presidency, it is recorded that the most remarkable plantation owned by Government in the erstwhile Madras Presidency was the Teak plantation at Nilambur planted in 1844. The District of Malabar and the ports at Beypore and Fort Kochi had some sort of importance in the erstwhile Madras Presidency as it was one of the two districts of the Presidency that lies on the Western Malabar Coast, thus accessing the marine route through Arabian Sea. The first railway line of Kerala from Tirur to Beypore in 1861 was laid for it. The work Malabar Manual authored by William Logan as two volumes explain the characteristics of Malabar.
The district lay between the Arabian Sea on the west, South Canara District on the north, the Western Ghats (the princely states of Coorg and Mysore, and Nilgiris and Coimbatore districts) to the east, and the princely state of Cochin to the south. The district covered an area of 15,027 square kilometres (5,802 sq mi), and extended 233 km (145 mi) along the coast and 40–120 kilometers (25–75 miles) inland. The name Mala-bar means the "hillside slopes".
All the major pre-independence political parties of Kerala such as Indian National Congress, Communist Party of India, and Muslim League started their functioning in Kerala at Malabar District as a part of the freedom struggle. Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee was formed in 1921 at Ottapalam, on the bank of river Bharathappuzha. In July 1937, a clandestine meeting of Congress Socialist Party, which was the political party formed by socialists of Congress, was held at Calicut. The Communist Party of India in Kerala was formed on 31 December 1939 with the Pinarayi Conference, held near Thalassery. It was the erstwhile leaders of Congress Socialist Party, such as E. M. S. Namboodiripad and A. K. Gopalan, who formed CPI in Kerala. The Muslim League was also formed in the 1930s, on a meeting held at Thalassery.
Until the arrival of British, the term Malabar was used in foreign trade circles as a general name for Kerala. Earlier, the term Malabar had also been used to denote Tulu Nadu and Kanyakumari which lie contiguous to Kerala in the southwestern coast of India, in addition to the modern state of Kerala. The people of Malabar were known as Malabars. Still the term Malabar is often used to denote the entire southwestern coast of India. From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. The first element of the name, however, is attested already in the Topography written by Cosmas Indicopleustes. This mentions a pepper emporium called Male, which clearly gave its name to Malabar ('the country of Male'). The name Male is thought to come from the Malayalam word Mala ('hill'). Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. Authors such as Ibn Khordadbeh and Al-Baladhuri mention Malabar ports in their works. The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. Malabar is reminiscent of the word Malanad which means the land of hills. According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent).
The ancient maritime port of Tyndis, which was then a centre of trade with Ancient Rome, is roughly identified with Ponnani, Tanur, and Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu. Tyndis was a major center of trade, next only to Muziris, between the Cheras and the Roman Empire. The River Bharathappuzha (River Ponnani) had importance since Sangam period (1st-4th century CE), due to the presence of Palakkad Gap which connected the Malabar coast with Coromandel coast through inland.
Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) states that the port of Tyndis was located at the northwestern border of Keprobotos (Chera dynasty). The North Malabar region, which lies north of the port at Tyndis, was ruled by the kingdom of Ezhimala during Sangam period. According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a region known as Limyrike began at Naura and Tyndis. However the Ptolemy mentions only Tyndis as the Limyrike's starting point. The region probably ended at Kanyakumari; it thus roughly corresponds to the present-day Malabar Coast. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. Pliny the Elder mentioned that Limyrike was prone by pirates. The Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned that the Limyrike was a source of peppers.
Early Middle Ages
Three inscriptions those date back to 932 CE, those were found from Triprangode (near Tirunavaya), Kottakkal, and Chaliyar, mention the name of Goda Ravi of Chera dynasty. The Triprangode inscription states about the agreement of Thavanur. Several inscriptions written in Old Malayalam those date back to the 10th century CE, have found from Sukapuram near Edappal, which was one of the 64 old Nambudiri villages of Kerala. Descriptions about the rulers of Eranad and Valluvanad regions can be seen in the Jewish copper plates of Bhaskara Ravi Varman (around 1000 CE) and Viraraghava copper plates of Veera Raghava Chakravarthy (around 1225 CE). Eranad was ruled by a Samanthan Nair clan known as Eradis, similar to the Vellodis of neighbouring Valluvanad and Nedungadis of Nedunganad. The rulers of Valluvanad were known by the title Eralppad/Eradi. It was the ruler of Eranad who later became the Zamorin of Calicut by annexing the port town of Calicut from Polanad, which was vassal to Kolathunadu. The ruler of Kingdom of Cochin also traces back to Ponnani in South Malabar. South Malabar was also the seat of the kingdoms of Parappanad, Vettathunadu, Valluvanadu, Nedungadis, and Palakkad. Parappanad royal family is a cousin dynasty of the Travancore royal family. The Azhvanchery Thamprakkal were the feudal lords of Athavanad. Tirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam festival, lies on the bank of the river Bharathappuzha.
Rise of Kozhikode
In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered larger parts of central Kerala after the seize of Tirunavaya region from Valluvanad, which were under the control of the king of Perumbadappu Swaroopam (Cochin). The ruler of Perumpadappu was forced to shift his capital (c. CE 1405) further south from Kodungallur to Kochi. In the 15th century, the status of Cochin was reduced to a vassal state of Kozhikode, thus leading to the emergence of Kozhikode as the most powerful kingdom in medieval Malabar Coast.
Kozhikode was the largest city in the Indian state of Kerala under the rule of Zamorin of Calicut, an independent kingdom based at Kozhikode. It remained so until the 18th century CE. The port at Kozhikode was the gateway to South Indian coast for the Arabs, the Portuguese, the Dutch, and finally the British. The Kunjali Marakkars, who were the naval chief of the Zamorin of Kozhikode, are credited with organizing the first naval defense of the Indian coast. Under British Raj, Kozhikode became the headquarters of Malabar District, one of the two districts in the western coast of erstwhile Madras Presidency. The port at Kozhikode held the superior economic and political position in medieval Kerala coast, while Kannur, Kollam, and Kochi, were commercially important secondary ports, where the traders from various parts of the world would gather. The Portuguese arrived at Kappad Kozhikode in 1498 during the Age of Discovery, thus opening a direct sea route from Europe to South Asia.
At the peak of their reign, the Zamorins of Kozhikode ruled over a region from Kollam (Quilon) in the south to Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy) in the north. They were the most powerful rulers on Malabar Coast and Kozhikode was the largest city of Kerala until the Portuguese era. The Zamorin of Calicut, who was originally the ruler of Eranad based at Nediyiruppu, developed the port at Kozhikode and changed his headquarters to there for maritime trade. Ibn Battuta (1342–1347), who visited the city of Kozhikode six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. He describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit-out others like them". Ma Huan (1403 AD), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He) states the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day), and the matrilineal system of succession. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen.
The Kingdom of Cochin used to adopt members from Kingdom of Tanur in the medieval period. Being home to the prominent figures like Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, Poonthanam Nambudiri, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, Kunchan Nambiar, and Zainuddin Makhdoom II, South Malabar was the cultural capital of medieval Kerala. The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions. The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was based at Vettathunadu (Tirur region) of South Malabar.
Kozhikode, Tanur, and Ponnani were the three major port cities in South Malabar region, while the minor trading ports included Beypore, Parappanangadi, and Chaliyam. The coastal Kingdom of Tanur, the Kingdom of Valluvanad in inland, and Palakkad in the hilly region formed other major kingdoms in South Malabar region in the medieval period. Marthanda Varma, the founder of Travancore, belongs to Parappanad royal family. In 1664, the municipality of Fort Kochi was established by Dutch Malabar, making it the first municipality in Indian subcontinent, which got dissolved when the Dutch authority got weaker in the 18th century.
North Malabar was the seat of powerful kingdom based at Ezhimala in the Sangam period (1st-5th century CE). The ancient port of Naura, which is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as a port somewhere north of Muziris is identified with Kannur. The kingdom of Ezhimala had jurisdiction over two Nadus - The coastal Poozhinadu and the hilly eastern Karkanadu. According to the works of Sangam literature, Poozhinadu consisted much of the coastal belt between Mangalore and Kozhikode. Karkanadu consisted of Wayanad-Gudalur hilly region with parts of Kodagu (Coorg). It is said that Nannan, the most renowned ruler of Ezhimala dynasty, took refuge at Wayanad hills in the 5th century CE when he was lost to Cheras, just before his execution in a battle, according to the Sangam works.
Early Middle Ages
Ezhimala kingdom was succeeded by Mushika dynasty in the early medieval period, most possibly due to the migration of Tuluva Brahmins from Tulu Nadu. The Indian anthropologist Ayinapalli Aiyappan states that a powerful and warlike clan of the Bunt community of Tulu Nadu was called Kola Bari and the Kolathiri Raja of Kolathunadu was a descendant of this clan. The Kolathunadu (Kannur) Kingdom at the peak of its power, reportedly extended from Netravati River (Mangalore) in the north to Korapuzha (Kozhikode) in the south with Arabian Sea on the west and Kodagu hills on the eastern boundary, also including the isolated islands of Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea.
An Old Malayalam inscription (Ramanthali inscriptions), dated to 1075 CE, mentioning king Kunda Alupa, the ruler of Alupa dynasty of Mangalore, can be found at Ezhimala (the former headquarters of Mushika dynasty) near Cannanore, Kerala. The Arabic inscription on a copper slab within the Madayi Mosque in Kannur records its foundation year as 1124 CE. In his book on travels (Il Milione), Marco Polo recounts his visit to the area in the mid 1290s. Other visitors included Faxian, the Buddhist pilgrim and Ibn Batuta, writer and historian of Tangiers.
Late Middle Ages
Until the 16th century CE, the Kasargod town was known by the name Kanhirakode (may be by the meaning, 'The land of Kanhira Trees') in Malayalam. The Kumbla dynasty, who swayed over the land of southern Tulu Nadu wedged between Chandragiri River and Netravati River (including present-day Taluks of Manjeshwar and Kasaragod) from Maipady Palace at Kumbla, had also been vassals to the Kolathunadu, before the Carnatic conquests of Vijayanagara Empire. The Kumbla dynasty had a mixed lineage of Malayali Nairs and Tuluva Brahmins. They also claimed their origin from Cheraman Perumals of Kerala. Francis Buchanan-Hamilton states that the customs of Kumbla dynasty were similar to those of the contemporary Malayali kings, though Kumbla was considered as the southernmost region of Tulu Nadu. Just like other contemporary kings of Kerala in the medieval period, The powerful Kolathu Raja also came under the influence of Zamorin later. The Kolathunadu in the late medieval period emerged into independent 10 principalities i.e., Kadathanadu (Vadakara), Randathara or Poyanad (Dharmadom), Kottayam (Thalassery), Nileshwaram, Iruvazhinadu (Panoor, Kurumbranad etc., under separate royal chieftains due to the outcome of internal dissensions. The Nileshwaram dynasty on the northernmost part of Kolathiri dominion, were relatives to both Kolathunadu as well as the Zamorin of Calicut, in the early medieval period.
Kannur was an important trading centre in the 12th century, with active business connections with Persia and Arabia. It served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. Kannur Cantonment is the only cantonment board in Kerala. Kannur was the capital city of Kolathunadu, one of the four powerful kingdoms who ruled Kerala during the medieval period. Arakkal Kingdom and Chirakkal kingdom were two vassal kingdoms based in the city of Kannur. The port at Kozhikode held the superior economic and political position in medieval Kerala coast, while Kannur, Kollam, and Kochi, were commercially important secondary ports, where the traders from various parts of the world would gather. St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India. The Dutch captured the fort from the Portuguese in 1663. They modernized the fort and built the bastions Hollandia, Zeelandia, and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure. The original Portuguese fort was pulled down later. A painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The Dutch sold the fort to the king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772. The British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the 17th century, Kannur was the capital city of the only Muslim Sultanate in the Malabar region - Arakkal. The Ali Rajas of Arakkal kingdom, near Kannur, who were the vassals of the Kolathiri, ruled over the Lakshadweep islands.
In 1761, the British captured Mahé, and the settlement was handed over to the ruler of Kadathanadu. The British restored Mahé to the French as a part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In 1779, the Anglo-French war broke out, resulting in the French loss of Mahé. In 1783, the British agreed to restore to the French their settlements in India, and Mahé was handed over to the French in 1785.
In conjunction with her sister city, Thalassery, it was the third-largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi. Vatakara and Koyilandy were two major coastal towns in North Malabar region besides Kannur and Thalassery.
The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular. The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them.
The ruler of the Kingdom of Tanur, who was a vassal to the Zamorin of Calicut, sided with the Portuguese, against his overlord at Kozhikode. As a result, the Kingdom of Tanur (Vettathunadu) became one of the earliest Portuguese Colonies in India. The ruler of Tanur also sided with Cochin. Many of the members of the royal family of Cochin in 16th and 17th members were selected from Vettom. However, the Tanur forces under the king fought for the Zamorin of Calicut in the Battle of Cochin (1504). However, the allegiance of the Mappila merchants in Tanur region still stayed under the Zamorin of Calicut.
The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi. When Francisco de Almeida was appointed as Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, his headquarters was established at Fort Kochi (Fort Emmanuel) rather than in Kozhikode. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast. Fort St Angelo or St. Angelo Fort was built at Kannur in 1505 and Fort St Thomas was built at Kollam(Quilon) in 1518 by the Portuguese. However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces in Malabar region; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. The Kunjali Marakkars are credited with organizing the first naval defense of the Indian coast. An insurrection at the Port of Quilon between the Arabs and the Portuguese led to the end of the Portuguese era in Quilon. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam Fort. The Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who during the conflicts between the Kozhikode and the Kochi, gained control of the trade.
Under Mysore Sultans
In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of Hyder Ali of Mysore. In 1766, Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an East India Company ally at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state. After the Third Mysore War (1790–1792), Malabar was placed under the control of the company. Eventually, the status of the Samoothiri was reduced to that of a pensioner of the company (1806). When Wayanad was under Hyder Ali's rule, the ghat road from Vythiri to Thamarassery was constructed. Then the British rulers developed this route to Carter road. His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.
Tipu ultimately ceded the Malabar district and South Kanara to the company in the 1790s; both were initially annexed to the Bombay Presidency of British India. After the Anglo-Mysore wars, the parts of Malabar Coast, those became British colonies, were organized into a district of British India. Later the region was transferred into the Madras Presidency in 1800. The administrative headquarters were at Calicut (Kozhikode). Local affairs were managed by the District Board at Calicut along with Taluk Boards located at Malappuram, Thalassery, Palakkad and Mananthavady. Initially the British had to suffer local resistance against their rule under the leadership of Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja, who had popular support in Thalassery-Wayanad region. During the 19th century, British established their army stations at Kannur, Malappuram, and Calicut. Malappuram which was one of the European military stations in Madras presidency since 1852, also became the special police force headquarters of Malabar District, with the establishment of the Malabar Special Police in 1885. The oldest railway lines of Kerala lie in Malabar District which was laid in the late 19th century for the transportation of good and services; the line laid from Tirur to Beypore in 1861 being the first among them.
According to William Logan, the Taluks of Malabar could be subdivided on the basis of the feudal lords who ruled them before as given below:
Kolathunadu was the land where Kolattiri Rajas (Chirakkal family) were historically considered as the main authority. It was ruled by Kolattiri Raja, Mannanars, Arakkal Kingdom, and Kingdom of Mysore in various periods. It consisted of the following 36 Amsoms:
- Kuttur (Payyanur)
Randathara was also called Poyanadu due to the belief that it was the place from where the Cheraman Perumal took his final departure on the journey to Mecca. It was originally a part of Kolathunadu, but was treated as a different Nadu. It consisted of the following 7 Amsoms:
The Amsoms included in Kottayam Taluk was classified into four divisions- The English Settlement at Tellicherry and Dharmapattanam Islands, Iruvazhinadu, Kurangott Nayar Nadu, and Kottayam. There were 28 Amsoms in the Taluk.
1. The English Settlement at Tellicherry and Dharmapattanam Islands
It was a part of the ancient Kolathunadu. Later it became a part of the Arakkal kingdom and Kingdom of Mysore. The island of Dharmapattanam was claimed by all of the Kolattu Rajas, Kottayam Rajas, and Arakkal Bibi. The English had settled here and started a factory here. It consisted of the following 4 Amsoms:
It was also under the Kolathunadu earlier. When the English factory was established at Thalassery, Iruvazhinadu was held by six families of Nambiars - Kunnummal, Chandroth, Kizhakkedath, Kampurath, Narangozhi, and Kariyad Nambiars. Kurangott Nayar's possession also probably formed part of the original territory of Iruvazhinadu. It consisted of the following 6 Amsoms:
3. Kurangott Nayar Nadu
It was also earlier a part of Kolathunadu. The Kottayam Rajas (also known as Puranattu Rajas in the meaning of foreign Kshatriya caste) received their territory from the Kolattu Rajas. Pazhassi Raja was a Kottayam Raja. It consisted of the following 16 Amsoms.
The Amsoms included in Wynad Taluk was classified into three divisions- North Wynad, South Wynad, and Southeast Wynad. There were 16 Amsoms in the Taluk. Wynad was a separate Revenue Division within Malabar District until 1924.
Wynad was ruled by various kingdoms including Kutumbiyas, Kadambas, Western Chalukyas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagaras, and the Kingdom of Mysore, in various periods. Wynad was home to many tribes. Wynad has relations with the Kingdom of Kottayam and Kurumbranad. Some parts were ruled by the Kottayam dynasty.
1. North Wynad
It consisted of the following 7 Amsoms:
2. South Wynad
It consisted of the following 6 Amsoms:
3. Southeast Wynad
It was the regions included in the Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of present Nilgiris district. Southeast Wynad was a part of Malabar District until 31 March 1877, when it was transferred to the neighbouring Nilgiris district due to the heavy population of Malabar and the small area of Nilgiris. It consisted of the following 3 Amsoms.
The Amsoms included in Kurumbranad Taluk was classified into five divisions- Kadathanad, Payyormala, Payanad, Kurumbranad, and Thamarassery (Some Amsoms of Kurumbranad and Thamarassery were included in the Kozhikode Taluk). There were 57 Amsoms in the Taluk.
It was also part of the Kolathunadu earlier. It formed a major portion of the Thekkalankur (Southern Regent), or the second headquarters of the Kolattiri Rajas. When the English company settled at Thalassery, Kadathanad was under the ancestors of the Kadathanad Rajas, who was then called Bavnores of Badagara. It consisted of the following 31 Amsoms:
It was under the control of the Nairs of Payyormala (Paleri, Avinyat, and Kutali Nairs). They were independent chieftains with some theoretical dependence on both the Kurumbranad and the Zamorin of Calicut. It consisted of the following 7 Amsoms:
The Amsoms included in Kozhikode Taluk was classified into three divisions- Polanad, Beypore (Northern Parappanad), and Puzhavayi. There were 41 Amsoms in the Taluk. (As stated earlier, a part of Kurumbranad and Thamarasseri historical divisions of Kurumbranad Taluk was also included in the Kozhikode Taluk.)
Polanad was ruled by the Porlathiri Rajas before the conquest of Kozhikode by the Zamorin of Calicut. After the conquest, the Zamorins shifted their headquarters from Nediyiruppu in Eranad to Kozhikode. It became the capital of the Zamorins. It consisted of the following 22 Amsoms:
2. Beypore (Northern Parappanad)
Parappanad kingdom was a dependent of the Zamorin of Calicut headquartered at Parappanangadi. It was divided into Northern Parappanad and Southern Parappanad. Northern Parappanad was headquartered at Beypore. It consisted of the following 3 Amsoms:
The Amsoms included in Ernad Taluk was classified into four divisions- Parappur (Southern Parappanad), Ramanad, Cheranad, and Eranad. There were 52 Amsoms in the Taluk. (A part of Cheranad division was under Ponnani Taluk).
1. Parappur (Southern Parappanad)
Cheranad was also directly ruled by the Zamorin of Calicut. Cheranad was scattered in Eranad and Ponnani Taluks. The headquarters of Cheranad was Tirurangadi. It consisted of the following 17 Amsoms:
Eranad was the original headquarters of the Zamorin of Calicut. It was later changed to Kozhikode with the conquest of Polanad. It also was under the direct rule of the Zamorin. It consisted of the following 26 Amsoms:
The Amsoms included in Walluvanad Taluk was classified into four divisions- Vellatiri (Walluvanad proper), Walluvanad, Nedunganad, and Kavalappara. There were 64 Amsoms in the Taluk.
1. Vellatiri (Walluvanad Proper)
Vellatiri (Walluvanad Proper) was the sole remaining territory of the Walluvanad Raja (Valluvakonathiri), who had once ruled majority of the South Malabar. A major part of Ernad Taluk was under Walluvanad before the expansion of the Ernad in 13th-14th centuries. Some of the Amsoms in this division was part of the Ernad Taluk. It consisted of the following 26 Amsoms:
Nedunganad had been under the Zamorin for some time. After the disintegration of Perumals of Mahodayapuram, Nedunganad became independent. It was ruled by Nedungadis. Later it came under the Zamorin's kingdom. It consisted of the following 27 Amsoms:
- Moothedath Madamba
- Eledath Madamba
The Amsoms included in Ponnani Taluk was classified into three divisions- Vettathunad, Koottanad, Chavakkad, and the Island of Chetvai . There were 73 Amsoms in the Taluk.
Vettathunad, also known as the Kingdom of Tanur, was a coastal city-state kingdom in the Malabar Coast. It was ruled by the Vettathu Raja, who was dependent on the Zamorin of Calicut. The Kshatriya family of the Vettathu Rajas became extinct with the death of the last Raja on 24 May 1793. Vettathunad consisted of the following 21 Amsoms:
4. The Island of Chetvai
The Amsoms included in Palghat Taluk was classified into three divisions- Palghat, Temmalapuram, and Naduvattam. There were 56 Amsoms in the Taluk.
Palghat was ruled by the Palghat Rajas. Sometime previously to 1757, the Zamorin of Calicut, the Kingdom of Valluvanad, and the Kingdom of Cochin had tried to annex Palghat. Cochin had annexed Chittur region. Walluvanad Raja had a nominal sovereignty over the Nairs of Kongad, Edathara, and Mannur. Palghat division consisted of the following 23 Amsoms:
Temmalapuram consisted of the following 10 Amsoms:
Exceptional Nadus (1887)
1. Cannanore and Laccadive Islands
These islands were the territory of Arakkal kingdom outside the town of Kannur. They remained in Malabar district until the formation of the state of Kerala in 1956. It consisted of the following 5 inhabited islands of Lakshadweep:
The uninhabited island of Bangaram was also a part.
2. Dutch settlements at Cochin (Fort Cochin Taluk)
In 1814, the Dutch settlements at Fort Kochi region of present Kochi city was ceded to East India Company. They were attached to the Malabar District. They remained in the district until the formation of the state of Kerala in 1956. The settlement consisted of the town and fort of Kochi. It was the erstwhile municipality of Fort Kochi. In 1664, the municipality of Fort Kochi was established by Dutch Malabar, making it the first municipality in Indian subcontinent, which got dissolved when the Dutch authority got weaker in the 18th century. It consisted of the following gardens or Pattams:
- Tumboli Pattam
- Kattoor Pattam
- Athazhakkad Pattam
- Manakodathu Pattam
- Antony Fernandez Pattam
- Thekkepurupunkara Pattam
- Mundamveli Pattam
- Domingo Fernandez Palakkal Pattam
- Santiago Pattam
- Thaiveppu Pattam
- Belicho Rodriguez Pattam
- Saint Louis Pattam
- Duart Lemos Pattam
- Hendrick Silva Pattam
- Ramanthuruth Pattam
- Sondikalguvankure Pattam
- Palliport Hospital Parambu
3. The Dutch settlement at Thangacherry and the English Settlement at Anjengo
Those were the British colonies surrounded by the Kingdom of Travancore to three sides and Arabian Sea to one side. Thangassery is actually a part of the city of Kollam. Anchuthengu lies near Attingal in Thiruvananthapuram. Later Thangassery and Anchuthengu were transferred from Malabar to Tirunelveli district on 1 July 1927.
The district was the venue for many of the Mappila revolts (uprisings against the British East India Company in Kerala) between 1792 and 1921. It is estimated that there were about 830 riots, large and small, during this period. Muttichira revolt, Mannur revolt, Cherur revolt, Manjeri revolt, Wandoor revolt, Kolathur revolt, Ponnani revolt, and Thrikkalur revolt are some important revolts during this period. During 1841-1921 there were more than 86 revolutions against the British officials alone. East India Company made an arrangement to collect revenue through Zamorin. However, a revolt under the leadership of Manjeri Athan Gurukkal took place opposing it in 1849.
The Malabar district political conference of Indian National Congress held at Manjeri on 28 April 1920 strengthened Indian independence movement and national movement in Malabar District. That conference declared that the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms were not able to satisfy the needs of British India. It also argued for land reform to seek solutions for the problems caused by the tenancy that existed in Malabar. However, the decision widened the drift between extremists and moderates within Congress. The conference resulted in the dissatisfaction of landlords with the Indian National Congress. It caused the leadership of the Malabar district Congress Committee to come under the control of the extremists who stood for labourers and the middle class. Eranad, Valluvanad, and Ponnani Taluks had been part of Khilafat Movement just after the Manjeri conference. The Khilafat non-cooperation demonstration conducted at Kalpakanchery in Ponnani Taluk (now a part of Tirur Taluk) on 22 March 1921 under the leadership of K. P. Kesava Menon was attended by about 20,000 people. The first all Kerala provincial conference of Indian National Congress held at Ottapalam in April 1921 also influenced the rebellion. Malabar Rebellion of 1921 was the last and important among the Mappila rebellions.
The cities/towns of Malappuram, Manjeri, Kondotty, Perinthalmanna, and Tirurangadi were the main strongholds of the rebels. The Battle of Pookkottur occurred as a part of the rebellion. After the army, police, and British authorities fled, the declaration of independence took place in over 200 villages in Eranad, Valluvanad, Ponnani, and Kozhikode taluks. The new country was given the name Malayala Rajyam (The land of Malayalam). On August 25, 1921, Variyan Kunnathu Kunjahammed Haji inaugurated the Military Training Center at Angadipuram, which was started by the revolutionary government. The feudal customs of Kumpil Kanji and Kanabhumi were abolished and the tenants were made landowners. A tax exemption was given for one year and a tax was imposed on the movement of goods from Wayanad to Tamil Nadu. Similar to the British, the structure of administration was built upon Collector, Governor, Viceroy, and King. The parallel government established courts, tax centers, food storage centers, the military, and the legal police. Passport system was introduced for those in the new country. Although the nation's lifespan is less than six months, some British officials have suggested that the region was ruled by a parallel government for more than a year.
The rebels won to establish self-rule in the region for about six months. However, less than six months after the declaration of autonomy, the East India Company reclaimed the territory and annexed it to the British Raj. The war was directly controlled by British Army Commander-in-Chief Chief Rawlson, General Barnett Stuart, Intelligence Chief Maurice Williams, and Police General Armitage. Many of the important British military regiments including Dorset, Karen, Yenier, Linston, Rajputana, Gorkha, Garwale, and Chin Kutchin reached Malabar for the reannexation of the South Malabar. The Wagon tragedy (1921) is still a saddening memory of the Malabar rebellion, where 64 prisoners died on 20 November 1921. The prisoners had been taken into custody following the Mappila Rebellion in various parts of the district. Their deaths through apparent negligence generated sympathy for Indian independence movement.
After the Indian independence, Madras Presidency was reorganized into Madras state, which was divided along linguistic lines on 1 November 1956, when Malabar District was merged with erstwhile Kasaragod Taluk immediately to the north and the state of Travancore-Cochin to the south to form the state of Kerala. Malabar District was divided into the three districts of Kozhikode, Palakkad, and Kannur on 1 January 1957. The Chavakkad region of the Ponnani Taluk was transferred to the Thrissur district. Malappuram District was created from parts of Kozhikode and Palakkad in 1969, and Wayanad District was created in 1980 from parts of Kozhikode and Kannur.
Malabar district, also known as the Malayalam district, bears its name from the hilly nature of many areas in the district. It was one of the two districts of Madras presidency, which lied in the western coast (Malabar coast) of India, the other being the South Canara. The mainland area of Malabar District (excluding Lakshadweep Islands and Fort Kochi region), was surrounded by South Canara (Mangalore) to north, the princely states of Coorg and Mysore to northeast, the British districts of Nilgiris (Ooty) and Coimbatore to southeast, and the princely state of Cochin to south. North Malabar and South Malabar was divided by the river Korapuzha. Wayanad, Valluvanad, and Palakkad Taluks hadn't seacoast, whereas the remaining Taluks in the district had coastal areas. With an exception of the Lakshadweep islands, the district was wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Wayanad, which forms a continuation of Mysore Plateau, was the only Plateau in Malabar as well as Kerala. The district was widely scattered and consists of the following parts:-
- Malabar Proper extending north to south along the coast, a distance of around 240 kilometers, and lying between N. Lat 10° 15′ and 12° 18′ N and E.Long. 75° 14′ and 76° 56′.
- A group of nineteen isolated bits of territory lying scattered, fifteen of them in the native state of Cochin and the remaining four in those of Travancore, but all of them near the coastline. These isolated bits of territory form the taluk of British Cochin.
- Two other detached bits of land, the Tangasseri and the Anchuthengu, within the Travancore.
- Four inhabited and ten uninhabited islands of Lakshadweep. The four inhabited islands are: Agatti, Kavaratti, Androth, and Kalpeni.
- The solitary island of Minicoy.
The Western Ghats form a continuous mountain range on the eastern border of the district. Only break in the Ghats was formed by the Palakkad Gap. The western part of the district was sandy coast. The Ghats in the district maintained an average elevation of 1500 m, which might occasionally go up to 2500 m. In Kozhikode Taluk, they turned sharply eastwards and after passing the Nilambur valley in Ernad Taluk, they continued further south along the eastern portions of Ernad and Walluvanad Taluks and the northern portion of Palghat Taluk. Palakkad Gap broke the Ghats in Palghat Taluk. The highest peaks in Malabar District was located in Nilambur region on the vicinity of Nilgiri Mountains. The 2,554 m high Mukurthi peak, which is situated in the border of modern-day Nilambur Taluk and Ooty Taluk, and is also the fifth-highest peak in South India as well as the third-highest in Kerala after Anamudi (2,696 m) and Meesapulimala (2,651 m), was the highest point of elevation in Malabar district. It is also the highest peak in Kerala outside the Idukki district. The 2,383 high Anginda peak, which is located closer to Malappuram-Palakkad-Nilgiris district border is the second-highest peak. Vavul Mala, a 2,339 m high peak situated on the trijunction of Nilambur Taluk of Malappuram, Wayanad, and Thamarassery Taluk of Kozhikode districts, was the third-highest point of elevation in the district. Apart from the main continuous range of Western Ghats, there were many small undulating hills in the lowland of the district. Tropical evergreen forests were present in the mountain ranges in the district. The eastern regions in the modern-day districts of Wayanad, Malappuram (Chaliyar valley at Nilambur), and Palakkad (Attappadi Valley), which together form parts of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and a continuation of the Mysore Plateau, are known for natural Gold fields, along with the adjoining districts of Karnataka.
The largest three rivers in Malabar District were, Bharathappuzha (River Ponnani), Chaliyar, Kadalundippuzha, all of them flowing through South Malabar. Valapattanam River was the largest river in North Malabar region which empties into Arabian Sea near Kannur. Two rivers flowed eastwards in the district - Kabini River in Wynad Taluk and Bhavani River in the high hills of the Walluvanad Taluk. Both of them were tributaries of the River Kaveri. Other rivers in the district were west-flowing which flows into the Arabian Sea. Coastal backwaters like Kavvayi and Biyyam were also there. The important west-flowing rivers included Valapattanam River in Chirakkal Taluk, Anjarakandi River in Kottayam Taluk, Mahé River and Kuttiadi River in Kurumbranad Taluk, Chaliyar in Ernad Taluk, Kadalundi River in Ernad and Walluvanad Taluks, and Bharathappuzha in Ponnani and Palghat Taluks. Other rivers were Kottoor, Irikkur, Vannathi, Pazhayangadi, Perumba, Kuppam, Kuttikol, and Kavvayi in Chirakkal Taluk, Bavali and Iritti in Kottayam Taluk (Bavali flows through Wynad too), Korapuzha in Kurumbranad and Kozhikode Taluks, Panamarampuzha and Manantoddy River in Wynad Taluk, Kallayi, Irittuzhi, Irungi, and Mukkam in Kozhikode Taluk, Thuthapuzha in Ponnani and Walluvanad Taluks, Olipuzha and Siruvani in Walluvanad Taluk, and Kalpathipuzha, Yakkarapuzha, and Gayathripuzha in Palghat Taluk.
Malabar district had 5 revenue divisions namely, Thalassery (Tellicherry), Kozhikode (Calicut), Malappuram, Palakkad (Palghat), and Fort Cochin and 10 Taluks within them. The plateau of Wayanad was a separate Revenue Division until 1924. Later it was merged with Thalassery.
Thalassery Revenue Division
- Chirakkal (Area:1,750 square kilometres (677 sq mi); Headquarters:Chirakkal), now Kannur
- Kottayam (Area:1,270 square kilometres (489 sq mi); Headquarters:Kottayam), now Thalassery
- Wayanad (Area:2,130 square kilometres (821 sq mi); Headquarters:Mananthavady)
Kozhikode Revenue Division
- Kurumbranad (Area:1,310 square kilometres (505 sq mi); Headquarters:),now Vatakara
- Kozhikode & Laccadive Islands (Area:980 square kilometres (379 sq mi); Headquarters:Kozhikode)
(Laccadive islands were a separate Taluk under British rule. Later it merged with Kozhikode Taluk.)
Malappuram Revenue Division
- Ernad (Area:2,540 square kilometres (979 sq mi); Headquarters:Manjeri)
- Valluvanad (Area:2,280 square kilometres (882 sq mi); Headquarters:), now Perinthalmanna
Palakkad Revenue Division
- Ponnani (Area:1,100 square kilometres (426 sq mi); Headquarters:Ponnani)
- Palakkad (Area:1,670 square kilometres (643 sq mi); Headquarters:Palakkad)
Fort Cochin Revenue Division
- Cochin (Area:5.2 square kilometres (2 sq mi); Headquarters:Cochin)
Among various Hindu castes, Thiyyas were the most populous in the erstwhile Malabar District according to 1881 Census of India. Thiyyas formed nearly 35% of the total Hindus of Malabar in 1881. Mannanar was a former Thiyyar dynasty in Malabar. Kalari Panicker, Chekavar, etc. were some subdivisions of Thiyya caste. They were present in large numbers in almost all Taluks of Malabar except Palghat, Cochin, and Laccadive Islands. Thiyyas were similar to Billavas of Tulu Nadu. In Palghat Taluk, there were Ezhavas instead of Thiyyas.
Nairs were the second-largest caste accounting for nearly 20% of the Hindu population in 1881. Their presence was scattered all over Malabar except Laccadive and Minicoy Islands. According to William Logan, the main subdivisions among the Nair of erstwhile Malabar District were Menon, Nayanar (in North Malabar), Menoky, Moopil Nair, Pada Nair, Kuruppu, Kaimal, Panikkar, Kiryathil Nair, Moothar, Oore, Kidavu, Kartha, Eradi (in Eranad and Kozhikode), Vellodi (in Valluvanad), Nedungadi (in Nedunganad), Mannadiyar (in Palakkad), and Manavalan. Nairs were similar to the Bunts of Tulu Nadu.
Malabar Manual states that the royal family of Parappanad belonged to Kshatriya caste, from where members for Travancore royal family were usually selected. The rulers of the Kingdom of Kottayam (Thalassery) also belonged to Kshatriyas. Ambalavasi population was higher in South Malabar, compared to that in North Malabar.
Nambudiri Brahmins, who had the highest position in caste system, were mainly concentrated around the river Bharathappuzha, mainly in the Taluks of Valluvanad and Ponnani, in South Malabar. According to 1881 Census, more than 50% of all Nambudiris in Malabar were settled in Valluvanad and Ponnani taluks. Nearly 90% of the Nambudiris of Malabar were from South Malabar, while North Malabar contributed only around 10%. Kozhikode and Eranad came next to Valluvanad and Ponnani in Namboodiri population. Azhvanchery Thamprakkal, who were the head of all Namboodiri of Kerala belong to Athavanad in erstwhile Ponnani taluk. There were some Iyer Brahmins in Palghat Taluk and Tuluva Brahmins in North Malabar.
Cherumar/Cheramar population was comparatively higher in the erstwhile Taluk of Cheranad (merged with Eranad and Ponnani in the 1860s) and its surroundings. Nearly 70% of all Cherumars of Malabar District in 1857 census were from the Taluks of Eranad, Valluvanad, Ponnani, and Palakkad. William Logan notes in his Malabar Manual that a larger number of Cherumar caste converted into Islam in the Taluks of Eranad, Ponnani, and Valluvanad during 1871–1881, comparing the census reports of 1871 and 1881.
Muslim population was higher in South Malabar compared to its northern counterparts. Muslims formed nearly 100% of population in Laccadive Islands, and more than 50% in Eranad Taluk, according to 1881 Census. Muslim population was much higher than the district average in the Taluks of Valluvanad and Ponnani too in 1881. At the same time Palakkad Taluk had the least population of Muslims in 1881. Their population was higher in former territories of the Zamorin of Calicut. Mappila Muslims of Malabar were similar to the Beary Muslims of Tulu Nadu.
Fort Cochin Taluk had the highest Christian population in Malabar while Valluvanad Taluk and Laccadive Islands had the least. The presence of Saint Thomas Christians was significant only in the southern portions of Ponnani taluk (Chavakkad region) and Fort Kochi.
The Talukwise area and population of Malabar district as of 1951 Census of India are given below:
|5||Kozhikode & Laccadive Islands||380||530,364|
|Fort Cochin Division|
Towns and Types
Although there were several settlements across Malabar district during the Madras Presidency or Pre-Independence era, only a handful were officially considered as 'Towns'. Those were Cannanore, Tellicherry, Badagara, Calicut, Malappuram, Tanur, Ponnani, Palghat and Fort Kochi. The municipalities of Kozhikode, Palakkad, Fort Kochi, Kannur, and Thalassery, were formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850) of the British Indian Empire, making all of them the first modern municipalities in Kerala. Even the Thiruvananthapuram municipality was formed in 1920 (54 years later).
|M: Municipality:||Towns with a local governing body constituted under Madras Town Improvement Act of 1865.|
|T: Non Municipal Town:||Towns without a governing body, listed in Madras District Records.|
|C: Cantonment||Towns with a Military base in Madras Presidency.|
|A.C: Administrative Center:||Towns supporting administrative headquarters of higher order.|
|Pre-Independence / Late 1800s||(1881)|
|Kozhikode||1866||M, C, AC||Kozhikode||Kozhikode||57,085|
|Fort Kochi||1866||M, AC||Fort Cochin||Fort Cochin||15,698|
|Malappuram||1904||T, C, AC||Ernad||Malappuram||9,216|
1951 Census of India
The settlements with a population of more than 50,000 were considered as cities and those had between 10,000 and 50,000 were considered as towns. The following table gives the cities and towns of Malabar district classified by their population as of the 1951 Census:
|Fort Kochi||Fort Cochin||29,881|
At the time of 1951 Census of India, Malabar District was divided into 5 Municipalities and 100 Panchayat Boards. Among them 2 municipalities (Kozhikode and Palakkad) were treated as cities. The municipalities were Kozhikode, Palakkad, Kannur, Thalassery, and Fort Cochin. The other towns mentioned above, i.e., Shoranur, Ottapalam, Manjeri, Ponnani, Tanur, Trikkandiyur (Tirur), Feroke, Pandalayini (Quilandy), and Badagara, were treated as Panchayat towns. The Taluk-wise details of 5 Municipalities and 100 Panchayat Boards under Malabar District Board at that time are given below:
|It maybe either a Municipal Town or a Non-Municipal Town.|
The settlements exceeding a population of 10,000 and had
some sort of economic importance were considered as
towns according to 1951 Census of India
|The Municipalities exceeding a population of 50,000|
and had larger economic importance were treated as
cities according to 1951 Census of India
|Chirakkal Taluk (10)|
|Cannanore Municipality (T)|
|1. Payyanur||2. Karivellur-Peralam||3. Ramanthali|
|4. Cheruthazham-Kunhimangalam||5. Azhikode||6. Pappinisseri|
|7. Kankole||8. Baliapatam||9. Chirakkal|
|Kottayam Taluk (15)|
|Tellicherry Municipality (T)|
|11. Panoor||12. Kuthuparamba||13. Kadirur|
|14. Kariyad||15. Dharmadom||16. Kottayam|
|17. Eranholi||18. Eruvatty||19. Peringalam|
|20. Pinarayi||21. Pathiriyad||22. Olavilam|
|23. Vadakkumpad||24. Menapram||25. Kodiyeri|
|Wynad Taluk (8)|
|26. Thavinhal||27. Manantoddy||28. Thirunelly|
|29. Kalpetta||30. Vythiri||31. Meppadi|
|32. Kidanganad||33. Vellamunda|
|Kurumbranad Taluk (14)|
|34. Badagara (T)||35. Cheruvannur||36. Unnikulam|
|37. Eramala||38. Balussery||39. Edacheri|
|40. Kunnummakkara||41. Meppayur||42. Villiappally|
|43. Nadapuram||44. Chorode||45. Panthalayani (Koyilandy) (T)|
|46. Veloor||47. Karthikappalli|
|Kozhikode Taluk (3)|
|Kozhikode Municipality (C)|
|48. Beypore||49. Thamarassery||50. Koduvally|
|Ernad Taluk (5)|
|51. Nilambur||52. Nediyiruppu||53. Manjeri (T)|
|54. Kondotty||55. Kottakkal|
|Walluvanad Taluk (10)|
|56. Shoranur (T)||57. Ottapalam (T)||58. Pattambi|
|59. Thiruvegappura||60. Perinthalmanna||61. Cherpulassery|
|62. Perur||63. Kuruvattoor||64. Vaniyamkulam|
|Ponnani Taluk (21)|
|66. Ponnani (T)||67. Kalpakanchery||68. Trikkandiyur (Tirur) (T)|
|69. Tanur Nagaram||70. Tanur (T)||71. Ozhur|
|72. Andathode||73. Vadakkekad||74. Attupuram|
|75. Vylathur||76. Veliyankode||77. Ayiroor|
|78. Maranchery||79. Kottapadi||80. Chavakkad|
|81. Chittaattukara||82. Elavally||83. Pavaratty|
|84. Kundazhiyur||85. Venkitangu||86. Engandiyur|
|Palghat Taluk (14)|
|Palghat Municipality (C)|
|87. Peringottukurissi||88. Kottayi||89. Tholanur|
|90. Vadakkencherry||91. Kizhakkancherry||92. Kollengode|
|93. Vadavannur||94. Pallassana||95. Koduvayur|
|96. Thenur||97. Elappully||98. Kattusseri|
|99. Paruthipully||100. Mankara|
|FORT COCHIN DIVISION|
|Fort Cochin Taluk (0)|
|Fort Cochin Municipality (T)|
Representatives from Malabar to Madras State
- In C. Rajagopalachari Ministry: 1) Kongattil Raman Menon (1937–39), 2) C. J. Varkey, Chunkath (1939)
- In Prakasam Ministry: 1) R. Raghavamenon (1946–47)
- In Ramaswami Reddyar Ministry: 1) Kozhippurathu Madhavamenon (1947–49)
- In P. S. Kumaraswami Ministry: 1) Kozhippurathu Madhavamenon (1949–52)
- In C. Rajagopalachari Ministry: 1) K. P. Kuttikrishnan Nair (1952–54) Kalladi Unnikammu Sahib
In the first election to the Lok Sabha conducted under the provisions of the Indian Constitution after Independence, Malabar district had five constituencies, Kannur, Thalassery, Kozhikode, Malappuram and Ponnani.
|1||Kannur||A. K. Gopalan||CPI||C.K.K Govindan Nayar||INC|
|2||Thalassery||Nettur P. Damodaran||KMPP||P. Kunhiraman||INC|
|P.M.V Kunhiraman Nambiar||SP|
|3||Kozhikode||Achuthan Damodaran Menon||KMPP||Ummar Koya Parappil||INC|
|Ramakrislina Naick,R.N. Ruhur||IND|
|4||Malappuram||B. Pocker Sahib Bahadur||IUML||T.V. Chathukutty Nair||INC|
|5||Ponnani||K. Kelappan||KMPP||Karunakara Menon||INC|
|Vella Eacharan Iyyani||INC||Massan Gani||IND|
25 State Legislative Assembly constituencies were allotted from the Malabar District to the First Assembly of Madras State. 4 of them were dual-member constituencies. The total number of seats in the district was 29 (including dual member constituencies).
|2||Ponnani||N. Gopala Menon||INC||K. C. Sankarann||INC|
|E. T. Kunhan||CPI||A. C. Raman||KMPP|
|3||Tirur||K. Uppi Saheb||IUML||K. Ahmad Kutty||INC|
|4||Thrithala||K. B. Menon||SP||P. K. Moideen Kutty||INC|
|5||Perinthalmanna||Kunhimahamad Shafee Kallingal||IUML||P. Ahmad Kutty Sadhu||CPI|
|6||Mannarkkad||K. C. Gopalanunni||IND||Kurikal Ahmed||IND|
|7||Pattambi||V. Sankara Narayana Menon||KMPP||A. Ramachandra Nedungadi||INC|
|8||Ottapalam||M. Narayana Kurup||KMPP||C. P. Madhavan Nair||INC|
|9||Palakkad||K. Ramakrishnan||IND||P. Vasu Menon||INC|
|10||Alathur||K. Krishnan||CPI||Y. R. Ramanatha Iyer||IND|
|O. Koran||KMPP||E. Eacharan||INC|
|11||Malappuram||Miniyadam Chadayan||IUML||Karupadata Ibrahim||INC|
|Mohammad Haje Seethi||IUML||Kallayan Kunhambu||INC|
|12||Kottakkal||Chakkeeri Ahmad Kutty||IUML||Kunjunni Nedumgadi, Ezhuthassan Kalathil||INC|
|13||Kozhikode||K. P. Kutty Krishnan Nair||INC||E. M. S. Namboodiripad||CPI|
|14||Chevayur||A. Appu||INC||Ayyadhan Balagopalan||KMPP|
|15||Wayanad||Manyangode Padmanabha Gounder||SP||Kozhipurath Madhava Menon||INC|
|Chomadi Velukkan||SP||Veliyan Nocharamooyal||INC|
|16||Koyilandy||Chemmaratha Kunhriramakurup||KMPP||Anantapuram Patinhare Madam Vasudevan Nair||INC|
|17||Perambra||Kunhiram Kidavu Polloyil||KMPP||Kalandankutty, Puthiyottil||INC|
|18||Vadakara||Moidu Keloth||SP||Ayatathil Chathu||INC|
|19||Nadapuram||E. K. Sankara Varma Raja||INC||K. Thacharakandy||CPI|
|20||Thalassery||C. H. M. Kanaran||CPI||K. P. M. Raghavan Nair||INC|
|21||Kuthuparamba||Krishna Iyer||IND||Harindranabham, Kalliyat Thazhathuveethil||SP|
|22||Mattanur||Madhavan Nambiar, Kallorath||CPI||Subbarao||INC|
|23||Kannur||Kariath Sreedharan||KMPP||Pamban Madhavan||INC|
|24||Taliparamba||T. C. Narayanan Nambiar||CPI||V. V. Damodaran Nayanar||INC|
|25||Payyanur||K. P. Gopalan||CPI||Vivekananda Devappa Sernoy||INC|
The Malabar cuisine depicts it culture and heritage. It is famous for Malabar biriyani. The city of Kozhikode is also famous for Haluva called as Sweet Meat by Europeans due to the texture of the sweet. Kozhikode has a main road in the town named Mittai Theruvu (Sweet Meat Street, or S.M. Street for short). It derived this name from the numerous Halwa stores which used to dot the street.
Malabar cuisine is a blend of traditional Kerala, Persian, Yemenese and Arab food culture. This confluence of culinary cultures is best seen in the preparation of most dishes. Kallummakkaya (mussels) curry, irachi puttu (irachi meaning meat), parottas (soft flatbread), Pathiri (a type of rice pancake) and ghee rice are some of the other specialties. The characteristic use of spices is the hallmark of Malabar cuisine—black pepper, cardamom and clove are used profusely.
The Malabar version of biryani, popularly known as kuzhi mandi in Malayalam is another popular item, which has an influence from Yemen. Various varieties of biriyanis like Thalassery biriyani, Kannur biriyani, Kozhikode biriyani and Ponnani biriyani are prepared in Malabar.
The snacks include unnakkaya (deep-fried, boiled ripe banana paste covering a mixture of cashew, raisins and sugar), pazham nirachathu (ripe banana filled with coconut grating, molasses or sugar), muttamala made of eggs, chatti pathiri, a dessert made of flour, like a baked, layered chapati with rich filling, arikkadukka, and more.
However, the newer generation is more inclined towards to Chinese and American food. Chinese food is very popular among the locals.
Notable people from Malabar
Modern day Taluks and Islands in erstwhile Malabar
|Ernakulam district||Fort Kochi|
|Kollam district||Thangassery (Kollam taluk)|
|Thiruvananthapuram district||Anchuthengu (Chirayinkeezhu taluk)|
Malabar Coast around AD 1st century CE
Major ports in 1st Century CE according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Malabar Coast around AD 300 (4th century CE)
Zamorin of Calicut's empire in 1498
Malabar Coast in the early 17th century (1600-1618)
A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature map by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, c.1580, from the Epitome Theatri Orteliani; *a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630*; and *another Bertius version*, Amsterdam, c.1600-18
Malabar in 1652 (Malabar Coast is highlighted separately on the right side)
A map in which the entire western coast of India is termed as Malabar Coast (drawn in the mid-18th century CE)
Indian Subcontinent in 1760
South India in 1782
South India in 1794
A Map of the Peninsula of India from the 19th Degree North Latitude to Cape Comorin, just after the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War which ended in 1799
India in 1804
South India in 1808
India in General Karte von Vorderindien zur Übersicht der Hauptverhältnisse (1836)
South India in 1843
Southern division of South India in 1843
Map of Madras Presidency in taken from Text-book of Indian History: Geographical Notes, Genealogical Tables, Examination Questions (1880)
India in 1887 with cattle breeds based on the travels of Robert Wallace.
1891 Map of India (Outlines of Geography for the use of lower and middle forms of schools and of candidates for the Army Preliminary Examinations)
Malabar Coast in 1893
North Malabar in 1893 (On the southwestern end of the map)
North Malabar in 1909 (On the southwestern end of the map)
Malabar Coast in 1911 (On the southwestern region of the map)
1932 map of Malabar Coast
- Arakkal kingdom
- Kingdom of Mysore
- Dutch Malabar
- Treaty of Seringapatam
- Pazhassi Raja
- William Logan (author)
- North Malabar
- South Malabar
- Malabar pepper
- Kozhikode district
- Wayanad district
- Nilgiris district
- Kannur district
- Kasaragod district
- Malappuram district
- Palakkad district
- Thrissur district
- Fort Kochi
- Kingdom of Valluvanad
- Kingdom of Tanur
- Kingdom of Cochin
- States Reorganisation Act, 1956
- 1951 census handbook - Malabar district (PDF). Chennai: Government of Madras. 1953. pp. 1–2.
- Logan, William (2010). Malabar Manual (Volume-I). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 631–666. ISBN 9788120604476.
- Sreedhara Menon, A. (2007). A Survey of Kerala History (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 9788126415786.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 452. .
- Superintendent of Census Operations, Madras (1956). Abstract of 1951 Census Tables for Madras State (PDF). Madras: Government of Madras. p. 6.
- C.A., Innes (1908). Madras District Gazetteers: Malabar and Anjengo. Government Press, Madras. p. 416. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "The States Reorganisation Act, 1956" (PDF). legislative.gov.in. Government of India.
- M. K. Devassy (1965). 1961 Census Handbook- Cannanore District (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands.
- M. K. Devassy (1965). 1961 Census Handbook- Kozhikode District (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands.
- M. K. Devassy (1965). 1961 Census Handbook- Palghat District (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands.
- Pamela Nightingale, ‘Jonathan Duncan (bap. 1756, d. 1811)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2009
- Boag, GT (1933). The Madras Presidency (1881-1931) (PDF). Madras: Government of Madras. p. 9.
- "KPCC marks a milestone tomorrow". The Hindu. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- "Founders". CPIM Kerala.
- Thiruvananthapuram, R. KRISHNAKUMAR in. "A man and a movement". Frontline.
- Sreedhara Menon, A. (January 2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 9788126415885. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- J. Sturrock (1894). "Madras District Manuals - South Canara (Volume-I)". Madras Government Press.
- V. Nagam Aiya (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government Press.
- C. A. Innes and F. B. Evans, Malabar and Anjengo, volume 1, Madras District Gazetteers (Madras: Government Press, 1915), p. 2.
- M. T. Narayanan, Agrarian Relations in Late Medieval Malabar (New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 2003), xvi–xvii.
- Mohammad, K.M. "Arab relations with Malabar Coast from 9th to 16th centuries" Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Vol. 60 (1999), pp. 226–34.
- M. Vijayanunni (1983). 1981 Census Handbook- Wayanad District (Part-A&B) (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala.
- Coastal Histories: Society and Ecology in Pre-modern India, Yogesh Sharma, Primus Books 2010
- Subramanian, T. S (28 January 2007). "Roman connection in Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 September 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Gurukkal, R., & Whittaker, D. (2001). In search of Muziris. Journal of Roman Archaeology, 14, 334-350.
- A. Shreedhara Menon, A Survey of Kerala History
- According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price. See 
- Bostock, John (1855). "26 (Voyages to India)". Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. London: Taylor and Francis.
- Indicopleustes, Cosmas (1897). Christian Topography. 11. United Kingdom: The Tertullian Project. pp. 358–373.
- Das, Santosh Kumar (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 301.
- Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 438-42.
- DCHB Malapuram 2011 Part-B
- Sreedhara Menon, A. (January 2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 978-81-264-1588-5. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- The Portuguese, Indian Ocean and European Bridgeheads 1500–1800. Festschrift in Honour of Prof. K. S. Mathew (2001). Edited by: Pius Malekandathil and T. Jamal Mohammed. Fundacoa Oriente. Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR (Kerala)
- DC Books, Kottayam (2007), A. Sreedhara Menon, A Survey of Kerala History
- Varier, M. R. Raghava. "Documents of Investiture Ceremonies" in K. K. N. Kurup, Edit., "India's Naval Traditions". Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1997
- K. V. Krishna Iyer, Zamorins of Calicut: From the earliest times to AD 1806. Calicut: Norman Printing Bureau, 1938.
- Ibn Battuta, H. A. R. Gibb (1994). The Travels of Ibn Battuta A.D. 1325-1354. Vol. IV. London.
- Ma Huan: Ying Yai Sheng Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, translated by J.V.G. Mills, 1970 Hakluyt Society, reprint 1997 White Lotus Press. ISBN 974-8496-78-3
- Varthema, Ludovico di, The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema, A.D.1503–08, translated from the original 1510 Italian ed. by John Winter Jones, Hakluyt Society, London
- Gangadharan. M., The Land of Malabar: The Book of Barbosa (2000), Vol II, M.G. University, Kottayam.
- Roy, Ranjan (1990). "Discovery of the Series Formula for π by Leibniz, Gregory, and Nilakantha". Mathematics Magazine. 63 (5): 291–306. doi:10.2307/2690896. JSTOR 2690896.
- Pingree, David (1992), "Hellenophilia versus the History of Science", Isis, 83 (4): 554–63, Bibcode:1992Isis...83..554P, doi:10.1086/356288, JSTOR 234257, S2CID 68570164,
One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read anymore the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish's article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus, but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case, the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution.
- M K Sunil Kumar (26 September 2017). "50 years on, Kochi still has a long way to go". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007). A Survey of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN 9788126415786.
- District Census Handbook, Kasaragod (2011) (PDF). Thiruvananthapuram: Directorate of Census Operation, Kerala. p. 9.
- Government of India (2014–15). District Census Handbook – Wayanad (Part-B) 2011 (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala.
- Ayinapalli, Aiyappan (1982). The Personality of Kerala. Department of Publications, University of Kerala. p. 162. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
A very powerful and warlike section of the Bants of Tulunad was known as Kola bari. It is reasonable to suggest that the Kola dynasty was part of the Kola lineages of Tulunad.
- Sreedhara Menon, A. (2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-8126415885. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- Narayanan, M. G. S. Perumāḷs of Kerala. Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks, 2013. 483.
- Charles Alexander Innes (1908). Madras District Gazetteers Malabar (Volume-I). Madras Government Press. pp. 423–424.
- S. Muhammad Hussain Nainar (1942). Tuhfat-al-Mujahidin: An Historical Work in The Arabic Language. University of Madras.
- M. Vijayanunni. 1981 Census Handbook- Kasaragod District (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala.
- The Hindu staff reporter (21 November 2011). "Neeleswaram fete to showcase its heritage". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Arakkal royal family". Archived from the original on 5 June 2012.
- Henry Morse Stephens (1897). "Chapter 1". Albuquerque. Rulers of India series. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1524-3.
- "History of Mahé". Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- Charles Corn (1999) [First published 1998]. The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade. Kodansha America. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-56836-249-6.
- PN Ravindran (2000). Black Pepper: Piper Nigrum. CRC Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-5702-453-5. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Philip D. Curtin (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5.
- J. L. Mehta (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 324–327. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Kollam Mayor inspects Tangasseri Fort". The Hindu. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- K. K. N. Kurup (1997). India's Naval Traditions: The Role of Kunhali Marakkars. Northern Book Centre. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-81-7211-083-3. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- South Asia 2006. Taylor & Francis. 1 December 2005. p. 289. ISBN 9781857433180. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- World States Men: Indian Princes Princely states of India
- V. V., Haridas. "King court and culture in medieval Kerala – The Zamorins of Calicut (AD 1200 to AD 1767)".  Unpublished PhD Thesis. Mangalore University
- Madrass District Gazetteers, The Nilgiris. By W. Francic. Madras 1908 Pages 90-104
- Report of the Administration of Mysore 1863-64. British Parliament Library
- British Museum; Anna Libera Dallapiccola (22 June 2010). South Indian Paintings: A Catalogue of the British Museum Collection. Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-0-7141-2424-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe; Thorpe Edgar. The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- The Edinburgh Gazetteer. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. 1827. pp. 63–. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Dharma Kumar (1965). Land and Caste in South India: Agricultural Labor in the Madras Presidency During the Nineteenth Century. CUP Archive. pp. 87–. GGKEY:T72DPF9AZDK. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- K.P. Ittaman (1 June 2003). History of Mughal Architecture Volume Ii. Abhinav Publications. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-81-7017-034-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- C.A., Innes (1908). Madras District Gazetteers: Malabar and Anjengo. Government Press, Madras. p. 373. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- Sreenivasa Murthy, H. V. (1990). Essays on Indian History and Culture: Felicitation Volume in Honour of Professor B. Sheik Ali. ISBN 9788170992110.
- Logan, William (1887). Malabar Manual (Volume-2). Madras: PRINTED BY R. HILL, AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS.
- Ayyappan, A. (1992). The Paniyas: An Ex-slave Tribe of South India. The University of Michigan: Institute of Social Research and Applied Anthropology. pp. 20, 28–29, 80.
- Kurup, Dr. K K N (2008). Jain society of Wayanad, Sri Ananthanatha Swami Kshetram, Kalpetta, Platinum Jubilee souvenir. p. 45.
- Rice, B. Lewis (1902). Epigraphica Carnatica (PDF). Mangalore: Government of India. pp. 24, 28, 32.
- K. Madhavan Nair, 'Malayalathile Mappila Lahala,' Mathrubhumi, 24 March 1923.
- "History of Malappuram" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "The 1920 political conference at Manjeri". Deccan Chronicle. 29 June 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
- Malabar Desiyathayude Idapedalukal. Dr. M. T. Ansari. DC Books
- R. H. Hitch cock, 1983 Peasant revolt in Malabar, History of Malabar Rebellion 1921.
- Madras Mail 17 September 1921, p 8
- ‘particularly strong evidence of the molding influence of British power structures lies in the rebels constant use of British titles to authority such as Assistant Inspector, Collector, Governor, Viceroy and (less conclusively) King’ The Moplah Rebellion and Its Genesis 184
- ‘The rebel kists’, martial law, tolls, passports and, perhaps, the concept of a Pax Mappila, are to all appearances traceable to the British empire in India as a prototype’ The Moplah Rebellion and Its Genesis, Peoples Publishing House, 1987, 183
- C. Gopalan Nair. Moplah Rebellion, 1921. p. 78. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
He issued passports to persons wishing to get outside his kingdom
- F. B. Evans, ‘Notes on the Moplah Rebellion’, 27 March 1922, p 12.
- (Tottenham, G. F. R., ‘Summary of the Important Events of the Rebellion,’ in Tottenham, Mapilla Rebellion) 1921 dated Sept 15 no 367
- Home (Pol) Department, Government of India, File No. 241/XVI,/1922, Telegram Section, p.3, TNA
- Panikkar, K. N., Against Lord and State: Religion and Peasant Uprisings in Malabar 1836-1921
- "Mineral Resources in Kerala".
- Official Administration of the Madras Presidency, Pg 327
- 1951 census handbook - Malabar district (PDF). Chennai: Government of Madras. 1953.
- Cornish, W. R. (1874). Report on the Census of Madras Presidency - 1871 (PDF). Madras: Government of Madras.
- William Logan (1887). Malabar Manual (Volume-I). Madras Government Press.
- J. Sturrock (1894). Madras District Manuals - South Canara (Volume-I). Madras Government Press.
- Presidency, Madras (India (1915). Madras District Gazetteers, Statistical Appendix For Malabar District (Vol.2 ed.). Madras: The Superintendent, Government Press. p. 20. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF CENTRAL ACTS (Updated up to 17-10-2014)". Lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- McIver, Lewis; Stokes, G. (1883). Imperial Census of 1881 Operations and Results in the Presidency of Madras ((Vol II) ed.). Madras: E.Keys at the Government Press. p. 444. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
- HENRY FROWDE, M.A., Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908–1909). Imperial Gazetteer of India (New ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- Devassy, M. K. (1965). District Census Handbook (2) - Kozhikode (1961) (PDF). Ernakulam: Government of Kerala. pp. 11–17 (Part-B).
- Rajabhushanam, D. S. (1963). Statistical Atlas of the Madras State (1951) (PDF). Madras (Chennai): Director of Statistics, Government of Madras. pp. 635–637.
- Report on the First General Elections in India, 1951-1952 (Vol.II ed.). Election Commission. 1955. pp. 54–55. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- Sabhnani, Dhara Vora (14 June 2019). "Straight from the Malabar Coast". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
- "Thalassery Chicken Biriyani". The Take It Easy Chef. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- Shamsul (7 May 2016). "Calicut Biryani Recipe I Kozhikodan Biriyani Recipe". CookAwesome. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- "Chicken and rosewater biryani recipe". BBC Food. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- Kurian, Shijo (2 July 2014). "Flavours unlimited from the Malabar coast". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
- "Arikkadukka - Spicy Stuffed Mussels". Faces Places and Plates. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- S. Muhammad Hussain Nainar (1942), Tuhfat-al-Mujahidin: An Historical Work in The Arabic Language, University of Madras (The English translation of Tuhfat Ul Mujahideen)
- K. V. Krishna Iyer (1938), Zamorins of Calicut: From the earliest times to AD 1806, Norman Printing Bureau, Kozhikode
- William Logan (1887), Malabar Manual (Volume-I), Madras Government Press
- William Logan (1887), Malabar Manual (Volume-II), Madras Government Press
- Charles Alexander Innes (1908), Madras District Gazetteers Malabar (Volume-I), Madras Government Press
- Charles Alexander Innes (1915), Madras District Gazetteers Malabar (Volume-II), Madras Government Press
- Government of Madras (1953), 1951 Census Handbook- Malabar District (PDF), Madras Government Press
- J. I. Arputhanathan (1955), South Kanara, The Nilgiris, Malabar and Coimbatore Districts (Village-wise Mother-tongue Data for Bilingual or Multilingual Taluks) (PDF), Madras Government Press
- Rajabhushanam, D. S. (1963), Statistical Atlas of the Madras State (1951) (PDF), Madras (Chennai): Director of Statistics, Government of Madras
- M. K. Devassy (1965), 1961 Census Handbook- Cannanore District (PDF), Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands
- M. K. Devassy (1965), 1961 Census Handbook- Kozhikode District (PDF), Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands
- M. K. Devassy (1965), 1961 Census Handbook- Palghat District (PDF), Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands
- M. K. Devassy (1967), Census of India - 1961 (Kerala) (PDF), Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala and The Union Territory of Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands