Malacca City

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Malacca City
Kota Melaka/Malaca/Malakka
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawi بندر ملاک
 • Simplified Chinese 马六甲市
 • Tamil மலாக்கா மாநகரம்
Clockwise from top right:Taming Sari Tower, St. Francis Xavier statue in front of St. Paul's Church, Malacca city centre, Chinatown, clock tower and fountain near the Stadthuys and A Famosa.
Clockwise from top right:
Taming Sari Tower, St. Francis Xavier statue in front of St. Paul's Church, Malacca city centre, Chinatown, clock tower and fountain near the Stadthuys and A Famosa.
Official seal of Malacca City
Nickname(s): Bandaraya Bersejarah
Historical City
Malacca City is located in Peninsular Malaysia
Malacca City
Malacca City
Location in the Peninsula Malaysia
Malacca City is located in Malaysia
Malacca City
Malacca City
Location in Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°12′20.49″N 102°15′22.09″E / 2.2056917°N 102.2561361°E / 2.2056917; 102.2561361Coordinates: 2°12′20.49″N 102°15′22.09″E / 2.2056917°N 102.2561361°E / 2.2056917; 102.2561361
Country  Malaysia
State  Malacca
Founded 1396
Granted city status 2003
 • Mayor Zainal Hussin
 • City 277 km2 (107 sq mi)
 • Metro 307.86 km2 (118.87 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 6 m (20 ft)
Population (2010)
 • City 484,885
 • Demonym Malaccans
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Postal code 75xxx to 78xxx
Area code(s) 06
Vehicle registration M

Malacca City (Malaysian pronunciation: [ˈbanˈdar ˈməˈlaˈka], Jawi: بندر ملاک‎, Chinese: 马六甲市; pinyin: ma liu jia shi, Tamil: மலாக்கா மாநகரம்), formerly known as Kota Melaka, is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. Malacca City has a population of 484,885 as of 2010.[3] It is one of the oldest cities in the Straits of Malacca, having become a success entrepôt during the era of the Malacca Sultanate. The present-day city was founded by Parameswara, a Sumatran prince who had escaped to Malay Peninsula when Srivijaya fall to the Majapahit. Since the establishment of Malacca Sultanate, it became the attention of traders from the Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, as well the Portuguese who intend to dominate trade route in Asia. After Malacca was conquer by Portugal, it soon became the centre of struggle when two sultanates of Aceh and Johor rise to take control from the Portuguese.

Following a number of wars between them, Aceh became weaken while Johor manage to survived and expand its influence over its past territory lost to Aceh in Sumatra when co-operate with Dutch who arrived to establish presence over Java and Maluku Islands. However, due to royal internal strife between the Malay and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided into two sultanates of Johor and Riau-Lingga. The separation became a permanent divide when British arrived to establish their presence in the Malay Peninsula. The Dutch, who already feel threatening with the British presence began conquering the Riau-Lingga Sultanate along with the rest of Sumatra, while Johor came under the British influence following the signing of Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824.

When British managed to extend its influence over the Malay Peninsula, the town soon became the attention of development under the Straits Settlements as part of British Empire. The development and prosperity was however halted when the Japanese arrived as part of the World War II from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation, many of the town residents were taken and forced to construct the Death Railway in Burma (present-day Myanmar). After the war, the town was returned to the British and remained as the capital of Malacca. This was continued until the formation of Malaysia in 1963, and in 2008, it was listed as one of Malaysian UNESCO World Heritage Site together with George Town of Penang for its long history.[4]


According to legend, the present-day site of the city was named Melaka when Parameswara who had flee from Sumatra arrived in the site. While he was resting under a tree (known as Melaka tree),[5] he saw his warriors hunting dogs was been challenged and kicked into river by a tiny mouse deer.[6] Amused with the act, he choose to name the site as Melaka since he was resting under a Melaka tree while watching the event.[7] When the town came under Portuguese administration, it was spelled as "Malaca",[8] under Dutch administration as "Malakka" or "Malacka", while under British rule, the town was called as "Malacca". The name of the Straits of Malacca were also inherited from the prosperous Malacca town in the period of Malacca Sultanate.[9]


Founding of Malacca[edit]

A sketch of Parameswara, the founder of Malacca.

Malacca Town was established when Parameswara who had escaped from Palembang in Sumatra decided to built a new kingdom since the fall of Malay Srivijaya in 1377 after been attacked by Javanese Majapahit.[6][10] Before he reach to the site, he arrived in Temasek where he decided to make it as the centre of new Malay Kingdom administration. But when Parameswara lived there, he killed a Malay chief appointed by the Siamese King as the Regent of Singapura named Temagi to take over the throne.[11] Fearing for a further reprisals by Siam when the news began to arrived into the Siamese Kingdom, Parameswara decided to move into a new place while leaving Temasek which was then attacked by Majapahit.[10] He then headed to the north of Malay Peninsula and arriving to Muar where he tried to establish another new kingdom at either Biawak Busuk or Kota Buruk but found the location are very unsuitable to him.[10][12]

He continue his journey to the north where he reportedly visited Sening Ujong (present-day known as Sungai Ujong) before arriving into a Malay fishing village at the mouth of Bertam River (present-day Malacca River). When he arrived at the place, he decided to stop a while to having a rest. While he was resting under a tree, he saw his followers hunting dogs involved in a fight with a small mouse deer then being kicked out into a river.[6] Amused with the event, he thought the place he rest must be an amazing place thus since it happened on 1396 he announced the place would be naming as Melaka.[13] Soon, the site became the centre of the Malay world in the 15th and the 16th century and was the most prosperous entrepôt in the Malay Archipelago.[14] During the time, many Arabs, Persian, Gujaratis, Tamils, Bengalis and Chinese come to trade. Other group found riches in the prosperous of the entrepôt including the Japanese, Siamese and Jews. To prevent the Malaccan empire from being fell into the Siamese and Majapahit, he forged a relationship with the Ming Dynasty of China for protection.[11][15] Since the establishment of the relations, the prosperous of Malacca entrepôt was then recorded by a first Chinese visitor named Ma Huan who travelled together with Admiral Zheng He.[14] On his descriptions, he wrote;

The Zheng He monument today (seen from the backside), marking that he once arrived to the town.

Malacca was a well-established town surrounded by a palisade with four gates and watch towers. Inside the walled towers was a second fortification, a kind of citadel, within whose confines were the merchants' godowns, the treasury and food storehouses. The Malacca River divided the town into two almost equal halves, the southern half being the inner citadel and the ruler's compound and the northern half, reached by a bridge some distance from the river mouth, containing the residents of many foreign merchants. The bridge and its approaches comprised the main venue for all commercial kinds. Constructed on the bridge was about a score of market stalls: an easy location for small watercraft to reach with their loads of produce and also close to the docks where foreign sea-going vessels unloaded goods for transhipment.[14]

— Ma Huan, Chinese Muslim voyager and translator.

Due to the large influence of Arab, Persian and Indian traders, Malacca soon turned into an Islamic sultanate and Parameswara was convert into Islam when he married a princess from Pasai thus changing his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah.[15] With the rise of Malacca as an empire, both Majapahit and Siamese kingdoms were unable to conquer it more so with the Chinese protection. During the time, an Hindu-Malay and Tamil-Malay society were also formed. He died on 1414 and the throne was succeeded by his son named Megat Iskandar Shah.[16] Malacca Town continue to prosper until the eight Sultanate of Malacca Mahmud Shah, with different races came to trade with their items identified with particular trade specialties; the Gujaratis, Tamils, and Bengalis were mostly cloth merchant, the Arabs and Persian waiting for their vessels to be filled with goods from China, the Chinese mainly dealt in silk, camphor and porcelain while the natives of Malay Archipelago like the Bugis and other island peoples were mainly spice and sandalwood traders, the Minangkabau bring pepper with some golds and the Javanese mainly controlled the rice and imported foodstuffs.[14] The Chinese established their own place in the town like other traders, occupying the southeast side of the port around a hill called Bukit Cina where they constructed temples and a well called Hang Li Poh's Well named after Hang Li Po, the fifth wife of the sixth Sultan of Malacca Mansur Shah who once to be a princess from the Ming Dynasty.[14]

European conquest[edit]

Portrait of Afonso de Albuquerque, the first European who conquer Malacca.

Due to its riches, the news of the success of Malacca came into the ear of the Portuguese who had an established presence on Indian ports.[17] The Portuguese under King Manuel I sent a representative named Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to establish contact with the Sultanate. At the first, Sequeira was well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah. But the Tamil Muslim community who already established presence in Malacca convinced the Sultan to eliminate the Portuguese based on their treatment to the Muslims of Goa.[18] Reacting to the report, Sultan Mahmud then ordered several men from the Portuguese representative to be captured and killed, but some of them managed to escape with their ships.[18] Thus in April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque who is the Portuguese expedition leader together with his armada arrived in Malacca to sever Islamic trade and Venetian trade.[17][19] His intention was described within his own words when he arrived to Malacca:

If they were only to take "Malaca" out of the hands of the Moors, Cairo and Mecca would be entirely ruined, and Venice would then be able to obtain no spiceries except what her merchants might buy in Portugal.

— Report on Albuquerque's words on his arriving to Malacca.[19]

The Portuguese launch its first attack on 25 July 1511 but met with a failure. Albuquerque then launch another attack on 15 August 1511, the second attack proved to be success as Malacca Town was captured on the day.[19] After successfully capturing the town, the Portuguese constructed a fortress called A Famosa using rocks and stones they get from Muslim graves, mosques and other buildings. A numbers of churches, convents, bishop's palace together with administrative buildings such as governor place were built. The Portuguese imposed a higher taxes over Chinese traders and restrict them on ownership of lands.[17] Since then, the news of the capturement of the town arrived to the Ming Dynasty of China, an alliance of the fall Malacca Sultanate in which the Chinese were also displeased about it when they heard many Chinese children been kidnapped by the Portuguese in Tuen Mun since their arrival from Malacca.[20] As a retaliation over what the Portuguese have done in Malacca, a numbers of Portuguese were later killed by the Chinese in a battle known as Battle of Tunmen and Xicaowan in China.[20]

By the mid-16th century, two sultanates of Aceh and Johor arise to tried control the town of Malacca from the Portuguese which then became the centre of struggle between the three.[13] Already in 1564, Aceh retook Aru (a territory in Sumatra which had previously lost to Johor) and destroy Johor's capital of Johor Lama with all the Johor Royal Family at the time been taken to Aceh to rule Johor as a vassal state. Another attack was done in 1570, 1613 and 1623 when Johor tried to breakaway from Aceh.[21] Aceh's domination ambition later led to a clash with the Portuguese in Malacca. All the three involved in a triangular war but when both the Portuguese and Johor seen Aceh as a threat due to constant attacks against them, the both began to collaborating each other to fight Aceh.[22] In 1582, Portuguese assisted Johor to thwart attack by Aceh but the relations ended when Johor attack Portuguese in 1587. While Aceh continue its attack on Portuguese, Aceh was later destroyed when a large additional armada from Portuguese port in Goa came to defend the town of Malacca and definitely destroy the sultanate.[21]

A painting of Dutch Malakka fort, c. 1665.
French navigator Cyrille Pierre Théodore Laplace visiting Malacca between 1833 and 1839.

After which Aceh was left weaken, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived and Johor formed a treaty with them to flush out the Portuguese in the second capture of Malacca. The Dutch success overtaking the town while Johor managed to re-established its suzerainty over many of its former dependencies in Sumatra such as Siak (1662) and Indragiri (1669). The Dutch expand the size of the fort town and built a numbers of additional infrastructures. But as the Dutch has less interest over Malay Peninsula and Sumatra than Java and Maluku Islands,[21] the Dutch remained neutral in local disputes between Malay Sultanates there until 1756 when the Bugis over the Riau-Lingga Sultanate has start to threat Dutch maritime trade. Until the 18th century, when English rivalry has started to establish its presence over northern Malay Peninsula named Prince of Wales Island and Province Wellesley (present-day Penang Island and Seberang Perai, Penang).[23] The Dutch began to seize the Bugis areas of Riau and expelled the Bugis from both Riau and Selangor, as fearing these areas would fall under the British rule. Malacca town were placed under direct control from Batavia (present-day Jakarta, Indonesia).[9]

Street scene of Malacca Town in 1912, during the British administration.

From 1795 until 1818, Malacca was however temporary placed under British Resident as Netherlands have been conquered by France in Napoleonic Wars before being returned to the Dutch on 1818. As a consequence to the British invasion of Java in 1811 from France,[24] a treaty was later signed in 1824 between the British and Dutch resulting in the Johor-Riau Empire separated into two influence along with Malacca which was then officially handed to the British in 1825 and integrated as part of the Straits Settlements.[21] The town came under direct control from a Resident in Penang and the old fort in the town was then dismantled.[23] The British set a regulation for the transformation of infrastructures; with the construction of back alleys, chimneys, back yards, fire escapes, fire alleys, pedestrian arcades along with many others.[25]

World War II, post-independence and present[edit]

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Malacca and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Melaka 03.jpg
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1223
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2008 (32nd Session)

At the first stage of the World War II, the town residents do their daily lives without any worries until the news of the Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse on 10 December 1941 came to the town and struck panic.[26] British Colonial officials began to fleeing in a hurry and thousands of the town residents hide in rubber estates and jungles since they heard the Japanese cruelty have committed in other parts of Malaya the Japanese overtaking.[26] The Japanese Army arrived in the town on 14 January 1942 in a convoy of bicycle,[26][27] but as they mainly focusing on the retreatment of the British to the south of Malay Peninsula of Singapore, there was no major battle in the town or other parts of Malacca.[27] During their occupation, a kempeitai headquarters was established in a former British building of "Government Rest House" which served as a place for arrestment, torturement and executions. Those who still lived in the town were given a low rice rations with tapioca supplement and life during the occupation was very traumatic as a numbers of them were taken to Thailand and forced to construct the Burma–Siam Railway.[28]

When the Allies began to counter-attack the Japanese, they officially surrendered to the Allies on August 1945 with the town left undestructable and administered as part of the British Military Administration until the formation of the Malayan Union and then by the Federation of Malaya. After Malaya achieved its independence on 31 August 1957, a colonial building named "Malacca Club" was built by the British in the town as the social centre for Briton in British Malaya. The building was then turned into a memorial after 38 years to commemorating the Malayan independence day.[29] After the Federation of Malaya, together with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963,[30] Malacca was extensively developed and on 2003 it was granted a city status. On 7 July 2008, Malacca City listed as one of the historical cities in Malaysia together with George Town in the northern Malay Peninsula.[4]

Capital city[edit]

The building of Malacca City Hall.

Malacca City is the centre of political and economic administration for the state of Malacca. There are one Members of Parliament (MPs) representing one parliamentary constituencies in the city: Kota Melaka (P.138). The city also elects five representatives into the state legislature from the state assembly districts of Kesidang, Kota Laksamana, Duyong, Bandar Hilir and Telok Mas.[31]

Local authority and city definition[edit]

The city is administered by the Malacca City Council (Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah, MBMB). Formerly known as Malacca Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Melaka Bandaraya Bersejarah, MPMBB), it was merged with the "Melaka Municipality Area" on 1 January 1977 with a new combined area of 114.7 square miles (303 square kilometres).[1] Then on 15 April 2003, MPMBB was upgraded into MBMB before part of its area covering 57.66 sq kilometres separated for Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (MPHTJ). MBMB area is currently at 277 sq kilometres as a result of land reclamation, with a new administration area of 30.86 sq kilometres. When combined, resulting a large metropolitan area of 307.86 sq kilometres.[1] The current mayor is Datuk Zainal Hussin.[32]


Part of the city centre, Malacca Island can be seen in a strip of land directly across the coast.

The city is located on both sides of the Malacca River near its mouth into the Strait of Malacca. Malacca river winding its way through the old town and the city centre. The city is approximately 152 kilometres[33] from the Malaysia's capital of Kuala Lumpur and 245 kilometres from Singapore.[34] Due to massive land reclamation, it has grown in its size, especially in the south.[35] Its physical features is characterised by flat and gently undulating land stretching from its coast.[36]

The historic central area of the city is located near the old coastline, includes St Paul's Hill with the ruins of the Portuguese fortress, A Famosa and the Dutch Square on the right (eastern) bank of the river, and the old Chinatown on the left (western) bank. The Chinese Hill (Bukit Cina), where a large old Chinese cemetery is located, was formerly located to the northeast of the town, but is now surrounded by new buildings on all sides.


Malacca's weather is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall, the intensity of which depends on the time of the year. It is one of the driest cities in Malaysia which receives just below 2,000 mm (79 in) of rainfall while most areas in Peninsular Malaysia received an average of rainfall around 2,500 mm (98 in) annually.[37] However Malacca never has a dry season as average rainfall is more than 100 mm (3.9 in) for each month. Malacca features tropical rainforest climate, under the Köppen climate classification. The relatively stable weather allows Malacca to be visited all-year-round. Temperatures generally range between 30 °C (86 °F) to 35 °C (95 °F) during the day and 27 °C (81 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F) at night. It may fall after periods of heavy rainfall. Generally, Malacca annual rainfall is below average of Malaysia annual rainfall. Usually, it rains in the evening after hot and humid afternoon.

Climate data for Malacca (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.4
Average low °C (°F) 22.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 73.3
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 7 10 13 12 10 12 12 13 14 17 11 138
Mean monthly sunshine hours 193.0 202.5 214.8 207.5 210.5 193.9 201.3 191.2 171.5 179.6 156.9 166.8 2,289.5
Source: NOAA[38]


Ethnicity and religion[edit]

The Malaysian Census in 2010 reported the population of Malacca City was 484,885.[3] Malays comprised the majority with 273,844, followed by Chinese with 158,828, Indian with 20,310 and others totalling 9,732.[3] Around 22,171 more is identified as a Non-Malaysian citizens.[3] Due to large interracial marriage since the era of Malacca Sultanate, the city features its own ethnic mixtures of Baba Nyonya, Chitty[28] and Kristang. Majority of the Malays are Muslim, Chinese and Peranakan were either Buddhist, Confucianist, Taoist or other Chinese folk religion. The Indian including the Chitty are mainly Hindus while the Kristang were mostly Christian.

The Baba Nyonya is a Straits-born Chinese, who have resided for generations since the era of Malacca Sultanate as traders and intermarried with the local Malay women. They adopted the local Malay culture and Malay language as part of their lives while at the same time preserving some of their Chinese heritage.[39] Along with the Chitty, which is also a mixture of Indian traders with local women of various ethnic backgrounds such as Malays, Javanese, Bataks and Chinese.[40] While the Kristang existed as a result of marriage between the European Portuguese men with Malay women during the era of Portuguese Malacca.[41]


See also: Baba Malay and Chitty Malay

The main language spoken in the city is the Malay, although the Baba Nyonya and Chitty have their own variations of Baba and Chitties creoles respectively.[39][40] The Malaccan Portuguese have their own version of Portuguese creole known as Kristang language.[41]


Since the era of Malacca Sultanate, the city has prosper for its success entrepôt, putting it in the same position as Venice, Cairo and Canton.[42] When the European conquest begin, Malacca had developed into a cosmopolitan city with a long standing European heritages.[25] The arrival of Chinese traders and coolie during the sultanate era and European colonisation saw a massive boost to the economy especially during the administration of Dutch and the British.[43] In the modern days however, the tertiary-based industry economic income are now became more dominant than the primary-based industry due to its historical riches with the melting pots of cultural influences which attracted many local and foreign tourists to visiting the city,[36] which also became part of the state economy income.[44] In addition to its strategic location in the maritime Silk Road, the city benefited from the rise of China and India as world economic powers.[45][46] Malacca City usually hosted numerous national, regional and international conferences, congress and trade fairs in the Malacca International Trade Centre.[47]



The Syed Abdullah Aziz Road, a coastal road in the city.
Trishaw service waiting for customers on the Stadhuis Red Square.

Most internal roads linking different parts on the city are mostly federal roads constructed and maintained by Malaysian Public Works Department. The city is accessible through the North-South Expressway and coastal road of Syed Abdullah Aziz Road. An alternative route was available although it was in the form of old trunk road system, which once served as a main passageway to the city until mid 1980s before the North-South Expressway was built.[48] While tourists visiting the old Malacca city centre can take a ride with trishaw which available through the Stadhuis Red Square.[49]

There is a proposal by the state government of Malacca before to revive a bridge project named Malacca Strait Bridge that will connecting land transportation in the city with Indonesian city of Dumai in Sumatra island.[50]

Public transportation[edit]

Melaka Sentral, the main public transportation terminal serving bus and taxi services in and around the city.

Melaka Sentral is the main bus and taxi terminal for the city, it serves services in and around the city as well with a domestic services.[51] Most taxis in the city are executive taxis which customer can choose from four, six or fourteen seats but only two types of taxis; the limousine (4 seats) and bas persiaran (14 seats) providing services to Singapore with the rest providing services only to other parts of Peninsular Malaysia.[52] A Singaporean bus service called Delima Express also provide a daily services to the city and Kuala Lumpur,[53] as well with many others Singaporean bus companies such as Luxury Coach, Konsortium Travel, Starmart Express, Sri Maju Group and Citiexchange Express & Services.[54]

There is a railway line from Tampin to Malacca City built by the British but the line has since been dismantled by the Japanese troops during the World War II to build the infamous Burma-Siam Railway (known as the Death Railway) by using its tracks.[55] The railway line was never re-built after the war ended thus there is a proposal recently that under the 10th Malaysia Plan (RMK10), the railway line could be rebuilt from Tampin to Malacca City with an extension to Batang Melaka.[55] A line for the Malacca Monorail was also leave un-operational.[56] While a project to develop the Melaka Aerorail was postponed.


The main airport; Malacca International Airport (MIA) (ICAO Code : WMKM) is located in Batu Berendam but serves for the city as well for northern Johor. Its international routes including Guangzhou in China, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) in Vietnam and Surabaya, Medan and Palembang in Indonesia.[57]


Ship anchoring at the Straits of Malacca near the city area.

The main water transportation in the city is the Malacca River Cruise with evening cruises serves an attractable colourful lightning along the Malacca River. The cruise route are known as an areas marking the border between historic Chinatown and Malay area.[49] The Melaka Gateway is currently a project which is under construction involving the development of one natural and two man-made islands off the coast of Malacca which will feature an international cruise terminal and became a new water transportation in the city.[58] Beside that, an international shipping port is also being planned to be build as part of the China's Maritime Silk Route economic belt.[59]

Other utilities[edit]

Courts of law and legal enforcement[edit]

Malacca Syariah Court building.

The city high court complex is located along Tun Abdul Razak Road,[60] while another court for Sharia law is located on Old Ayer Keroh Road.[61] The Malacca Police Contingent Headquarters also located on Old Ayer Keroh Road.[62] The main district police headquarters is located in Central Malacca. There are around thirteen police stations and eight police substations (Pondok Polis) serving around the city.[63] The main prison is located along the Ayer Keroh road, which has been built since 1969.[64] Another three prisons is located in the districts of Central Malacca such as in Tanjung Kling, Telok Mas and Sungai Udang.[65] Another prison is the Bandar Hilir Prison but has since been transformed into a museum with all the inmates been moved to Sungai Udang Prison.[66] Temporary lock-ups or prison cells are available in most police stations in the city.


Malacca General Hospital main building.
The Mahkota Medical Centre building, one of the largest private hospital in the city.

There are three public hospitals, twelve health clinics[67] (which fifty-two are private)[68] and three 1Malaysia clinics in Malacca City.[69] Malacca General Hospital, which is located along Mufti Haji Khalil Road, is the main and oldest hospital in the state with 359 beds.[70][71] Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre is the largest private hospital with 300 beds.[72] Another private hospital, the Mahkota Medical Centre located in Syed Abdul Aziz Road is the second largest with 266 beds.[73]

Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tinggi Melaka, the city main secondary school.


Various government or state schools are available through the city. The secondary schools include the Malacca High School, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tinggi Melaka, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tinggi Perempuan and Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Katholik.[74][75] Other different type of secondary schools such as the religious, vocational, technical and fully residential schools can be found inside and outside the city metro.[76] There are also a number of independent private schools in the city. These include Melaka International School,[77] Wesley Methodist School and Pay Fong High School.[78]


The Malacca Public Library headquarters is the main library in the state, located off Bukit Baru Road.[79] Another public library branch is in the Malacca Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), while other libraries or private libraries were available in other universities as well on schools and colleges.[80] Other village libraries are also available through the district of Central Malacca.

Culture and leisure[edit]

Attractions and recreation spots[edit]


The replica of Malacca Sultanate Palace which is a museum.
Cafe at Jonker Walk, part of the Chinatown.

The Malacca Sultanate Palace was built to represent the Malay culture and Malaccan history during the sultanate era. The building was construct without the using of any single nail. The city also represent a variety of other cultural attractions such as the Chinatown, Little India and Portuguese Settlement.[54] The Chinatown feature a strong Chinese cultural influences, with Clan Houses and regional Chinese eateries located around the areas since many Chinese traders have settling since the era of Sultanate of Malacca. The most recognisable part of the Chinatown is the Jonker Walk where many outdoor stage and performances frequently been performed.[49] The Kopitiam and restaurants around the city serve a mixed cultural influences of Malay and Baba Nyonya as well with various regional Chinese cuisines such as Teochew and European cuisines.[49] The No 8 Heeren Street Heritage Centre is an old two-storey shop house that represent the cultural and historical fabric of Malaccan community. The building has since undergoing restoration for years.[81] The Cheng Ho Cultural Museum is the site where Zheng He, a famous Muslim Chinese voyager was believed to have set a huge warehouse complex along the northern side of the Malacca River,[82] while the Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum is a site where collection of Chinese jewellery design and motifs since the establishment of relations between Malacca and the Ming dynasty of China.[83] The Little India is the site where strong Indian culture are presented with variety of Indian shops, restaurants as well fabric shops selling a various saris, punjabi suits and other Indian fabric designs.[83] Located within the Portuguese settlement is a "Mini Lisbon" where it became the centre of Portuguese culture with many Eurasian descended from marriages between Portuguese men and local women that took place after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca reside there.[84]


The replica of a 1502 Portuguese ship, the Flor de la Mar.

The Dutch Square is an area surrounded by red painted buildings with Dutch buildings such as the Stadthuys, Christ Church, British Queen Victoria's Fountain, and Chinese settlers structure of Tan Beng Swee Clock Tower in honour to past generous Chinese tycoon named Tan Beng Swee.[85] The original clock tower was imported from England but has since been replaced with the one from Japan. The Portuguese traces mostly on A Famosa which also can seen across the square on the bank of Malacca River.[85] The Kuomintang Cenotaph (Malacca Warrior Monument) in Bukit Cina is a memorial where thousands of Chinese in Malacca been killed by the Japanese during their occupation.[49][86]

Leisure and conservation areas[edit]

Malacca Zoo is the main zoo in the city metropolitan, it features 215 wide ranges species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians including Sumatran rhinoceros, Malayan gaur, Serow and the Indochinese tiger.[87] An oceanarium located inside the Shore shopping malls building complex features a variety of fish species and other sea creatures with the walls create a kind of underwater world.[49]

Other sights[edit]

Other attractions including the Maritime Museum and Taming Sari Tower. The Maritime Museum features a replica of the historical ship the Flor de la Mar as well as describing the trading history of Malacca, while the Taming Sari offers a scenic view of the city centre. The Padang Pahlawan is the site where Tunku Abdul Rahman, the father of Malayan independence making his first independence announcement.[85][88] In the St. Paul's Hill is where the historical Governor's Museum, Malacca Literature Museum and Malacca Light located.


The Dataran Pahlawan Malacca Megamall seen from outside.

A number of shopping malls and traditional art and craft shops available around the city, with the popular shopping malls is Dataran Pahlawan Malacca Megamall and The Shore.[49] Another two is the ÆON Bandaraya Melaka and JUSCO shopping centres.


The main cinemas in the city is the Golden Screen Cinemas (GSC), with the one located inside the building of Dataran Pahlawan Malacca Megamall with a capacity of 2,004,[89] while the second in ÆON Bandaraya Melaka with a capacity of 1,793.[90] Other cinema known as the MBO Cinemas with a capacity of 1,212 is located in the MBO Melaka Mall.[91]


The second largest football stadium in the state of Malacca is located in the city, named Hang Tuah Stadium, the stadium has a capacity of around 15,000 and known as the oldest stadium in the state.[92] The stadium is the second home ground for Malacca United S.A. after Hang Jebat Stadium in Krubong.

International relations[edit]

Saudi Arabia has set up its consulate in Malacca City.[93]

Sister cities[edit]

Malacca City currently has ten sister cities:

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]