Malacca City

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Malacca City
Bandaraya Melaka
City
Malacca skyline
Malacca skyline
Official seal of Malacca City
Seal
Nickname(s): Historical City
Malacca City is located in Peninsular Malaysia
Malacca City
Malacca City
Location in the Peninsula Malaysia
Malacca City is located in Malaysia
Malacca City
Malacca City
Location in Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°12′20.49″N 102°15′22.09″E / 2.2056917°N 102.2561361°E / 2.2056917; 102.2561361Coordinates: 2°12′20.49″N 102°15′22.09″E / 2.2056917°N 102.2561361°E / 2.2056917; 102.2561361
Country Malaysia
State Malacca
Established 1396
City status 2003
Government
 • Mayor Yusof Bin Jantan
Area[1]
 • City 304.29 km2 (117.49 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City 503,127 (11th)
 • Density 689/km2 (1,780/sq mi)
 • Metro 771,600[2]
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Website www.mbmb.gov.my

Malacca City (Malay: Bandaraya Melaka) is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site together with George Town of Penang on 7 July 2008.[4]

Geography[edit]

Part of Malacca City. Malacca Island is the strip of land directly across the coast.

The city of Malacca is located on both sides of the Malacca River near its mouth into the Strait of Malacca. The historic central area of the city is located near the old coastline, includes St Paul's Hill with the ruins of the Portuguese fortress, A Famosa and the Dutch Square on the right (eastern) bank of the river, and the old Chinatown on the left (western) bank. The modern city has grown in all directions from this historic core, including to the south (because the present coastline of the Strait of Malacca is somewhat further down to the south than its original location due to land reclamation).[citation needed] The "Chinese Hill" (Bukit Cina), where a large old Chinese cemetery is located, was formerly located to the northeast of the town, but now is surrounded by the city on all sides. Malacca river winding its way through the old town and the city centre.

Climate[edit]

Malacca's weather is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall, the intensity of which depends on the time of the year. It is one of the driest city in Malaysia which receives just below 2,000 mm (79 in) of rainfall annually beside Sitiawan, Perak while mostly in Peninsular of Malaysia the average rainfall is around 2,500 mm (98 in) annually. However Malacca never has a dry season as average rainfall is more than 100 mm (3.9 in) for each month. Malacca features tropical rainforest climate, under the Köppen climate classification. The relatively stable weather allows Malacca to be visited all-year-round. Temperatures generally range between 30 °C – 35 °C during the day and 27 °C – 29 °C at night. It may get cooler after periods of heavy rainfall.

Generally, Malacca annual rainfall is below average of Malaysia annual rainfall. Usually, it rains in the evening after hot and humid afternoon.

Climate data for Malacca (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.4
(88.5)
32.6
(90.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.4
(90.3)
31.8
(89.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
31.5
(88.7)
Average low °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.9
(73.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 73.3
(2.886)
90.9
(3.579)
144.1
(5.673)
197.5
(7.776)
172.0
(6.772)
165.8
(6.528)
164.2
(6.465)
164.1
(6.461)
210.2
(8.276)
212.9
(8.382)
231.5
(9.114)
123.8
(4.874)
1,950.3
(76.783)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 7 10 13 12 10 12 12 13 14 17 11 138
Mean monthly sunshine hours 193.0 202.5 214.8 207.5 210.5 193.9 201.3 191.2 171.5 179.6 156.9 166.8 2,289.5
Source: NOAA[5]

History[edit]

Malacca City Hall

The site where the city of Malacca stands today was the center of Malaccan history. It was the capital of the Malacca Sultanate and was the centre of the Malay world in the 15th and the 16th century after the Malays moved over from Sumatra and was the most prosperous Entrepôt and city of the Malay Archipelago before it fell to the hand of Portuguese in 1511. Centuries of colonisation by the Portuguese, Dutch and the British as well as development of Straits Chinese (Peranakan) culture have influenced the architecture of the town, notably the Portuguese A Famosa, Dutch Stadthuys, and the Dutch, Chinese and British influenced traditional town houses.

Malacca Sultanate[edit]

Main article: Sultanate of Malacca

Malacca City is well known for its historical uniqueness. The history of this city began when Parameswara, a royal prince from Palembang was involved in the struggle for the throne of Majapahit government towards the end of the 14th century.[citation needed]

Malacca continued to be known as the Malay trading centre in the East.

Among the commodity goods available in Malacca were silk and porcelain from China, cloths from Gujerat and Coromandel in India, camphor from Borneo, sandalwood from the East, nutmeg and cloves from Moluccas, gold and black pepper from Sumatera as well as tin from Malaya.[citation needed]

European colonisation[edit]

Japanese occupation[edit]


The demolition of A Famosa[edit]

Further information: A Famosa

The British in Penang were temporary caretakers of the then Dutch-controlled Malacca during the Napoleonic Wars. However, they were reluctant to hand Malacca back because they feared it might jeopardise the development of their new settlement in Penang. Hence they decided to destroy the regional influence of Malacca by diverting trade away from Malacca to Penang, the British planned to destroy the Malacca Fort and its city and move the 15,000 people to Penang.[citation needed]

The Governor of Penang ordered Captain William Farquhar to have the respective fort demolished in 1807. However during this time, Stamford Raffles who hails from Penang arrived in Malacca for his sick leave.[citation needed] He managed to rescind the demolition and depopulation process with the consent of Lord Minto, the Governor General of India. Raffles managed to save the archway of the Malacca Fort which can be seen to this day. The destruction of the Malacca Fort cost 70,000 sterling pounds and involved several hundred workers.[6]

Tourism[edit]

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Malacca and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Stadthuys
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1223
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2008 (32nd Session)

Most tourist attractions are concentrated in its small city centre which encompasses Jonker Walk which houses Malacca's traditional Chinatown that exhibits Peranakan architecture. A Famosa Fort, St. Paul's Hill are among the tourist attractions located in the Bandar Hilir, old city area. There are also numerous shopping centres located nearby. The Malacca Straits Mosque is located here. There are numerous islands which include Pulau Upeh near Klebang Beach (currently undergoing reclamation works) and Pulau Besar.

Transport[edit]

Malacca City is accessible via highway, railway, or Federal route/coastal road. Malacca City is approximately 130 km from Kuala Lumpur and 200 km from Singapore. People who wish to go to Malacca by train should board the Singapore-bound train in Kuala Lumpur Sentral and alight at Tampin station, where shuttle buses to and from places such as Jonker Street, Melaka Sentral and AEON Bandaraya Melaka Shopping Centre are available.

It was reported recently that under the 10th Malaysia Plan (RMK10), KTM is planning to reconnect the railway line from Tampin to Malacca City then Batang Melaka.[citation needed] The station will probably be in Batu Berendam (near the airport) or Melaka Sentral. There was a railway line from Tampin to Malacca City before World War II but was dismantled by the Japanese troops to build the infamous Death Railway in Burma.[citation needed] The railway line was never re-built after the British returned.

The Malacca Aerorail was a proposed transportation system. The project will link Ayer Keroh Interchange at Ayer Keroh to Malacca city centre.

The Malacca Aerorail is supposed to be based on Aerobus technology[7]

Media[edit]

The mainstream newspapers in Malacca include the English dailies The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun, The Edge, The Malaysian Reserve and The Malay Mail; the Malay dailies Berita Harian, Utusan Malaysia, Harian Metro, and Kosmo!; the Chinese dailies Kwong Wah Yit Poh, Sin Chew Daily, China Press, Nanyang Siang Pau and Oriental Daily News; and the Tamil dailies Tamil Nesan, Malaysia Nanban and Makkal Osai. All of them are in national circulation.

Notable sights[edit]

European settlement[edit]

Chinese settlement[edit]

Indian settlement[edit]

Malay settlement[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notations[edit]

External links[edit]