|City of Malacca|
|• Jawi||باندراي ملاک|
|• Chinese||马六甲市 (Simplified)|
Mǎliùjiǎ shì (Hanyu Pinyin)
|• Tamil||மலாக்கா மாநகரம்|
Malākkā mānakaram (Transliteration)
|Establishment of the local government||1824|
|Municipality status||1 January 1977|
|City status||15 April 2003|
|• Type||City council|
|• Body||Malacca City Council|
|• Mayor||Shadan Othman|
|• City and state capital||277 km2 (107 sq mi)|
|• Metro||307.86 km2 (118.87 sq mi)|
|Elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|• City and state capital||579,000|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed|
75xxx to 78xxx
|Official name||The Historic City of Melaka|
|Part of||Melaka and George Town, the Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca|
|Inscription||2008 (32nd Session)|
|Area||45.3 ha (112 acres)|
|Buffer zone||242.8 ha (600 acres)|
Malacca City (Malay: Bandaraya Melaka or Kota Melaka) is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca, in Melaka Tengah District. It is the oldest Malaysian city on the Straits of Malacca, having become a successful entrepôt in the era of the Malacca Sultanate. The present-day city was founded by Parameswara, a Sumatran prince who escaped to the Malay Peninsula when Srivijaya fell to the Majapahit. Following the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate, the city drew the attention of traders from the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia, as well as the Portuguese, who intended to dominate the trade route in Asia. After Malacca was conquered by Portugal, the city became an area of conflict when the sultanates of Aceh and Johor attempted to take control from the Portuguese.
Following a number of wars between these territories, Aceh declined in influence while Johor survived and expanded its influence over territory previously lost to Aceh in Sumatra when Johor co-operated with the Dutch who arrived to establish dominance over Java and Maluku Islands. However, due to royal internal strife between the Malay and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided into the sultanates of Johor and Riau-Lingga. This separation became permanent when the British arrived to establish their presence in the Malay Peninsula. The Dutch, who already felt threatened in the presence of the British, began conquering the Riau-Lingga Sultanate along with the rest of Sumatra, while Johor came under British influence following the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.
When the British succeeded in extending their influence over the Malay Peninsula, the city soon became an area of development under the Straits Settlements as part of the British Empire. The development and burgeoning prosperity were, however, halted when the Japanese arrived in World War II and occupied the area from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation, many of the city's residents were taken and forced to construct the Death Railway in Burma (present-day Myanmar). After the war, the city was returned to the British and remained as the capital of Malacca. The status as a capital remained until the formation of Malaysia in 1963, and in 2008 it was listed, together with George Town of Penang, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its long history. As of 2019 it has a population of 579,000.
The economy of Malacca City is largely based on tourism. As the economic centre of the state of Malacca, it also hosts several international conferences and trade fairs. The city is located along the Maritime Silk Road, proposed by China in 2013. Among the tourist attractions in Malacca City are Porta de Santiago, Jonker Walk, Little India, Portuguese Settlement, Stadthuys, Maritime Museum, Christ Church, Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum and Taming Sari Tower.
According to legend, the site that is now Malacca City was named Malaka when Parameswara, a Sumatran prince arrived there. While he was resting under a tree known as a Malacca tree, he saw his warrior's hunting dogs were challenged and kicked into a river by a tiny mouse deer. Amused by this, he chose to name the site Malaka after the tree under which he was sitting. When the city came under Portuguese administration, its name was spelled "Malaca", under Dutch administration as "Malakka" or "Malacka", and under British rule, "Malacca". The Straits of Malacca were named after the city at the time of the Malacca Sultanate.
Sultanate of Malacca 1396–1511
Portuguese Empire 1511–1641
Dutch Empire 1641–1795; 1818–1825
Straits Settlements 1826–1942; 1945–1946
Empire of Japan 1942–1945
Malayan Union 1946–1948
Federation of Malaya 1948–1963
Founding of Malacca
Malacca was established when Parameswara, who had escaped from Palembang in Sumatra, decided to build a new kingdom following Malay Srivijaya's fall in 1377 after being attacked by Javanese Majapahit. Before he reached the site, he arrived in Temasek, which he decided to make the centre of the new Malay Kingdom's administration. But when Parameswara lived there, he killed Temagi, a Regent of Singapura who served under the Siamese King to take over the throne from Temagi. Fearing further reprisals by Siam when the news reached the Siamese Kingdom, Parameswara decided to move to a new place. After he left Temasek, it was attacked by Majapahit. Parameswara then headed to the north of Malay Peninsula and arrived at Muar, where he tried to establish another new kingdom at either Biawak Busuk or Kota Buruk, but found the locations unsuitable.
Parameswara continue his journey to the north, where he reportedly visited Sening Ujong (now Sungai Ujong) before arriving at a Malay fishing village at the mouth of Bertam River (now Malacca River). He decided to stop there to rest. While he was resting under a tree, he saw his follower's hunting dogs fighting with a small mouse deer before they were kicked into a river by the deer. Amused by this, he thought the place he rested must be an unusual place; following this event, in 1396 he announced the place would be called Malaka. Soon, the site became the centre of the Malay world in the 15th and 16th centuries and the most prosperous entrepôt in the Malay Archipelago. In 1403, the first official Chinese trade envoy led by Admiral Yin Qing arrived in Malacca. Later, Parameśwara was escorted by Zheng He and other envoys in his successful visits. Malacca's relationships with Ming granted protection to Malacca against attacks from Siam and Majapahit and Malacca officially submitted as a protectorate of Ming China. This encouraged the development of Malacca into a major trade settlement on the trade route between China and India, Middle East, Africa and Europe. To prevent the Malaccan empire from falling to the Siamese and Majapahit, he forged a relationship with the Ming dynasty of China for protection. Following the establishment of this relationship, the prosperity of the Malacca entrepôt was then recorded by the first Chinese visitor, Ma Huan, who travelled together with Admiral Zheng He. On his descriptions, he wrote;
Malacca was a well-established city surrounded by a palisade with four gates and watch towers. Inside the walled towers was a second fortification, a kind of citadel, within whose confines were the merchants' godowns, the treasury and food storehouses. The Malacca River divided the city into two almost equal halves, the southern half being the inner citadel and the ruler's compound and the northern half, reached by a bridge some distance from the river mouth, containing the residents of many foreign merchants. The bridge and its approaches comprised the main venue for all commercial kinds. Constructed on the bridge was about a score of market stalls: an easy location for small watercraft to reach with their loads of produce and also close to the docks where foreign sea-going vessels unloaded goods for transhipment.— Ma Huan, Chinese Muslim voyager and translator.
In Malacca during the early 15th century, Ming China actively sought to develop a commercial hub and a base of operation for treasure voyages into the Indian Ocean. Malacca had been a relatively insignificant region, not even qualifying as a polity prior to the voyages according to both Ma Huan and Fei Xin, and was a vassal region of Siam. In 1405, the Ming court dispatched Admiral Zheng He with a stone tablet enfeoffing the Western Mountain of Malacca as well as an imperial order elevating the status of the port to a country. The Chinese also established a government depot (官廠) as a fortified cantonment for their soldiers. Ma Huan reported that Siam did not dare to invade Malacca thereafter. The rulers of Malacca, such as Parameswara in 1411, would pay tribute to the Chinese emperor in person. Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, according to local folklore, a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled mostly in Bukit Cina. Due to Chinese involvement, Malacca had grown as key alternative to other important and established ports.
Due to the large influence of Arab, Persian, and Indian traders, Malacca soon turned into an Islamic sultanate, and Parameswara converted to Islam when he married a princess from Pasai, changing his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. With the rise of Melaka as an empire, both the Majapahit and Siamese kingdoms were unable to conquer it, especially with the Chinese protection. During this time, a Hindu–Malay and Tamil–Malay society were also formed. The Sultan died in 1414 and was succeeded by his son, Megat Iskandar Shah. Malacca continued to prosper until the eighth Sultanate of Malacca, Mahmud Shah, with the various races who came to trade becoming associated with particular trade specialties; the Gujaratis, Tamils, and Bengalis were mostly cloth merchants, the Arabs and Persians waited for their vessels to be filled with goods from China, the Chinese dealt mainly in silk, camphor, and porcelain, and the natives of Malay Archipelago, like the Bugis and other island peoples, traded mainly in spices and sandalwood, and the Minangkabau in pepper and gold, with the Javanese controlling the rice and imported foodstuffs. Like other traders, the Chinese established their own area in the city, occupying the southeast side of the port around a hill called Bukit Cina, where they constructed temples and a well called Hang Li Poh's Well, named after Hang Li Po, the fifth wife of the sixth Sultan of Malacca, Mansur Shah, who was a Chinese princess from the Ming dynasty.
Due to its riches, the news of the success of Malacca reached the Portuguese, who had an established presence on Indian ports. The Portuguese, under King Manuel I, sent a representative named Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to establish contact with the Sultanate. At first, Sequeira was well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah. But the Tamil Muslim community, who already had an established presence in Malacca, convinced the Sultan to eliminate the Portuguese based on their treatment of the Muslims of Goa. Reacting to the report, Sultan Mahmud then ordered several men from the Portuguese delegation to be captured and killed, but some of them managed to escape with their ships. Thus, in April 1511 Afonso de Albuquerque, who was the Portuguese expedition leader together with his armada, arrived in Malacca to sever its Islamic and Venetian trade. His intention was described in his own words when he arrived to Malacca:
If they were only to take "Malaca" out of the hands of the Moors, Cairo and Mecca would be entirely ruined, and Venice would then be able to obtain no spiceries except what her merchants might buy in Portugal.
The Portuguese launched their first attack on 25 July 1511, but this was met with failure. Albuquerque then launched another attack on 15 August 1511, which proved successful as Malacca was captured on that day. The Portuguese constructed a fortress called A Famosa using rocks and stones taken from Muslim graves, mosques, and other buildings. Several churches and convents, a bishop's palace, and administrative buildings such as the governor's palace were built. The Portuguese imposed higher taxes on Chinese traders and restricted their ownership of land. The news of the city's capture reached the Ming dynasty of China; the Chinese were also displeased about the kidnapping of many Chinese children by the Portuguese in Tuen Mun. In retaliation for Portugal's activity in Malacca, several Portuguese were later killed by the Chinese in the battles of Tunmen and Xicaowan in China.
By the mid-16th century, the two sultanates of Aceh and Johor had arisen to take control of Malacca from the Portuguese which then became the centre of struggle between the three. By 1564, Aceh had retaken Aru (a territory which Sumatra had previously lost to Johor) and destroyed Johor's capital, Johor Lama, with the Johor royal family taken to Aceh to rule Johor as a vassal state. Other attacks were carried out in 1570, 1613, and 1623, when Johor tried to break away from Aceh. Aceh's ambition for domination later led to a clash with the Portuguese in Malacca. The two sultanates and the Portuguese became involved in a triangular war, but when both the Portuguese and the Johor saw Aceh as a threat due to its constant attacks against them, the two began to collaborate to fight Aceh. In 1582 the Portuguese assisted Johor to thwart an attack by Aceh, but the arrangement ended when Johor attacked the Portuguese in 1587. Aceh continued its attacks against the Portuguese, and was later destroyed when a large additional armada from the Portuguese port of Goa came to defend Malacca and destroy the sultanate.
After Aceh was left weakened, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) arrived, and Johor formed a treaty with them to flush out the Portuguese in the second capture of Malacca. The Dutch succeeded at overtaking Malacca while Johor managed to re-establish its suzerainty over many of its former dependencies in Sumatra, such as Siak (1662) and Indragiri (1669). The Dutch expanded the size of the city fort and built a significant amount of additional infrastructure. As they had less interest in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra than they had in Java and the Maluku Islands, the Dutch remained neutral in local disputes until 1756 when the Bugis, who ruled the Riau-Lingga Sultanate, began to threaten Dutch maritime trade. The threats increased in the 18th century, when English rivalry started to establish its presence over areas in the northern Malay Peninsula. This led the Dutch to seize the Bugis areas of Riau and expel the Bugis from both Riau and Selangor, for fearing that these areas would otherwise have fallen under British rule. Malacca was placed under the direct control of Batavia in Java.
From 1796 until 1801, and 1807 to 1818 Malacca was temporarily placed under a British Resident as the Netherlands were conquered by France in the Napoleonic Wars. It was returned to the Dutch in 1818. Malacca served as the staging area for the British victory in 1811. A treaty was later signed in 1824 between the British and Dutch to prevent further British influence in Java; one result was that the Johor-Riau Empire fell under two colonial powers along with Malacca, which was then officially handed to the British in 1825 and integrated as part of the Straits Settlements. The city came under direct control of a Resident in Penang, and the old fort in the city was then dismantled. The British established regulations for infrastructure with the construction of, for example, back alleys, chimneys, back yards, fire escapes, fire alleys, and pedestrian arcades.
World War II, post-independence and present
During the first stage of World War II, the city's residents continued to live normally until the news of the Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse on 10 December 1941 reached the city and struck panic. British colonial officials began to flee and thousands of the city's residents hid in rubber estates and jungles since they heard about the acts of cruelty committed in other parts of Malaya following their conquest by the Japanese. The Japanese Army arrived in the city on 14 January 1942 in a convoy of bicycles, but as they mainly focused on ensuring the retreat of the British to the south of the Malay Peninsula and Singapore, there was no major battle in the city or other parts of Malacca. During their occupation, a kempeitai headquarters was established in the formerly British "Government Rest House" which served as a place for arrests, torture and executions. Those who still lived in the city were given low rice rations with a tapioca supplement and a number of them were taken to Thailand and forced to construct the Burma–Siam Railway.
When the Allies began to counter-attack against the Japanese, the Japanese officially surrendered to the Allies in August 1945 with the city left undamaged as there were no heavy battles, and it was administered as part of the British Military Administration until the formation of the Malayan Union and then the Federation of Malaya. After Malaya achieved its independence on 31 August 1957, a colonial building named "Malacca Club" was built by the British in the city as the social centre for Britons in British Malaya. The building was then turned into a memorial after 38 years to commemorate the Malayan independence day. After the Federation of Malaya, together with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, Malacca was extensively developed and in 2003 it was granted city status. On 7 July 2008, Malacca City was listed as one of the historical cities in Malaysia, together with George Town in the northern Malay Peninsula.
Malacca City is the centre of political and economic administration for the state of Malacca. There is one member of parliament (MP) representing one parliamentary constituency in the city: Kota Melaka (P.138). The city also elects five representatives to the state legislature from the state assembly districts of Kesidang, Kota Laksamana, Duyong, Bandar Hilir and Telok Mas.
The city is administered by the Malacca City Council (Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah, MBMB). Formerly known as Malacca Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Melaka Bandaraya Bersejarah, MPMBB), it was merged with the "Malacca Municipality Area" on 1 January 1977 with a new combined area of 297.19 square kilometres (114.75 sq mi). Then on 15 April 2003, MPMBB was upgraded into MBMB before part of its area, covering 57.66 kilometres separated for Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (MPHTJ). MBMB area is currently at 270 sq kilometres as a result of land reclamation, with a new administration area of 30.86 sq kilometres. Together these areas comprise a metropolitan area of 307.86 sq kilometres.
The city is located on both sides of the Malacca River near its mouth on the Straits of Malacca. The city is approximately 152 kilometres from Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur. Due to large-scale land reclamation, it has grown in size, especially in the south. Its physical features are characterised by flat and gently undulating land stretching from its coast.
The historic central area of the city is located near the old coastline; it includes St Paul's Hill with the ruins of the Portuguese fortress and the Dutch Square on the right (eastern) bank of the river, and the old Chinatown on the left (western) bank. The Chinese Hill (Bukit Cina), where a large old Chinese cemetery is located, was formerly located to the northeast of the city, but is now surrounded by new buildings on all sides.
Malacca's weather is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall, the intensity of which depends on the time of the year. It is one of the driest cities in Malaysia, receiving just under 2,000 mm (79 in) of rainfall while most areas in Peninsular Malaysia receive an average of around 2,500 mm (98 in) of rainfall annually. However, Malacca has no dry season as average rainfall is more than 100 mm (3.9 in) for each month. Malacca is classified as having a tropical rainforest climate (Af) under the Köppen climate classification system, more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and with no cyclones so a pure equatorial climate. The relatively stable weather allows Malacca to be visited year-round.
|Climate data for Malacca (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.2
|Average high °C (°F)||31.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.7
|Average low °C (°F)||23.3
|Record low °C (°F)||19.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||81
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11||9||14||16||14||12||15||16||16||17||20||15||175|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80||79||82||85||86||86||86||86||86||86||87||83||84|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||166||185||183||179||171||164||163||166||174||171||157||152||2,031|
|Source 1: Ogimet|
|Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity), NOAA|
Ethnicity and religion
The Malaysian census in 2010 reported the population of Malacca City was 484,885. Malays comprised the majority with 273,844, followed by Chinese with 158,828, Indian with 20,310 and others totalling 9,732. Around 22,171 were identified as a Non-Malaysian citizens. Due to a large amount of interracial marriage since the era of the Malacca Sultanate, the city features its own ethnic mixtures of Baba Nyonya, Chitty and Kristang peoples. The Majority of the Malays were Muslims, and the Chinese and Peranakan were either Buddhists, Confucianists, Taoists or followers from other denominations of Chinese folk religion. The Indians, including the Chitty, were mainly Hindus while the Kristang were mostly Christian.
The Baba Nyonya are Straits-born Chinese, who have resided for generations since the era of the Malacca Sultanate as traders and intermarried with the local Malay women. They adopted the local culture and the Malay language as part of their lives while at the same time preserving some of their Chinese heritage and religious traditions. The Chitty are also a mixture of Indian traders with local women of various ethnic backgrounds such as Malays, Javanese, Bataks and Chinese. The Kristang exist as a result of marriage between the European Portuguese men with Malay women during the era of Portuguese Malacca.
Melaka Straits Mosque, a newly built mosque in the city's metro area
The main language spoken in the city is the Malay and English, although the Baba Nyonya and Chitty have their own variations of Baba and Chitties creoles respectively. The Malaccan Portuguese have their own version of Portuguese creole, known as Kristang language.
Since the era of Malacca Sultanate, the city has prospered as a successful entrepôt, putting it in the same position as Venice, Cairo and Canton. When the European conquest begin, Malacca had developed into a cosmopolitan city with a long-standing European heritage. The arrival of Chinese traders and coolie during the sultanate era and European colonisation saw a large boost to the economy, especially during the administration of Dutch and the British. In modern times, the tourism is more dominant than the primary-based industry due to its historical riches with the melting pots of cultural influences which attracted many local and foreign tourists to visiting the city, which also became part of the state economy income. In addition to its strategic location in the maritime Silk Road, the city benefited from the rise of China and India as world economic powers. Malacca City has hosted numerous national, regional and international conferences, congresses and trade fairs in the Malacca International Trade Centre. In early 2016, the Malacca state government has start to develop a new economic development area in the central city centre which will be known as the Hang Tuah Trade Centre that will encompassing trade centres, higher education, hospitality and business.
Internal roads linking different parts on the city are mostly federal roads constructed and maintained by the Malaysian Public Works Department. The city is accessible through the North–South Expressway and the coastal Syed Abdullah Aziz Road. There is also an old trunk road system, which once served as a main passageway to the city until the mid-1980s, when the North–South Expressway was built. In the old city centre, trishaw services are available through the Stadhuis Red Square.
There was previously a proposal by the state government of Malacca to revive a bridge project named Malacca Strait Bridge that will connect land transportation in the city with the Indonesian city of Dumai on Sumatra island.
Melaka Sentral is the main bus and taxi terminal for the city, with services in and around the city as well as domestic services. Most taxis in the city are executive taxis with either four, six or fourteen seats; but only two types of taxis, the limousine (4 seats) and bas persiaran (14 seats), provide services to Singapore with the rest providing services only to other parts of Peninsular Malaysia.
There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca City before World War II, but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. On 10 October 2015, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) commuter service has introduced a new route, shuttle service between Seremban-Sebang/Tampin-Gemas station.
A 1.6-km line of Malacca Monorail was launched in October 2010, served the route along the Malacca River. Due to several technical glitches months into its operation, the system was left idle in 2013. However, in June 2015 the Malacca State Government decided to revive the project. On 4 December 2017, Malacca Monorail has re-operate with enhanced safety features such as lightning-prevention devices and the addition of a rescue vehicle to attract wagons in the event of a technical problem. The previous incident is believed will not recur as tests had been performed for two months before re-operation. The Malacca Monorail operating hours are 10.00 am to 10.00 pm on weekdays and will be continued until 12.00 midnight on Saturdays and Sundays.
The main water transportation in the city is the Malacca River Cruise with evening cruises along the Malacca River. The cruise route is an area marking the border between historic Chinatown and Malay area. The Melaka Gateway is a project under construction involving the development of one natural and two man-made islands off the coast of Malacca which will feature an international cruise terminal and aid water transport in the city. An international shipping port is also planned to be built as part of China's Maritime Silk Route economic belt.
Courts of law and legal enforcement
The city high court complex is located along Tun Abdul Razak Road, while another court for Sharia law is located on Old Ayer Keroh Road. The Malacca Police Contingent Headquarters is also located on Old Ayer Keroh Road. The main district police headquarters is located in Central Malacca. There are around thirteen police stations and eight police substations (Pondok Polis) serving the city. The main prison is located along the Ayer Keroh road, and was built in 1969. Another three prisons are located in the districts of Central Malacca, Tanjung Kling, Telok Mas and Sungai Udang. The Bandar Hilir Prison has been transformed into a museum with all the inmates moved to Sungai Udang Prison.
There is one public hospital and twelve government health clinics in and nearby the city. There are also 52 private clinics and three 1Malaysia clinics in Malacca City. Malacca General Hospital, which is located along Mufti Haji Khalil Road, is the main and oldest hospital in the state with 359 beds. Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre is the largest private hospital with 300 beds. Mahkota Medical Centre, located on Syed Abdul Aziz Road, is the second largest with 266 beds.
Various government or state schools are available in the city. The secondary schools include the Malacca High School, Malacca Girls High School and Catholic High School. Other types of secondary schools such as religious, vocational, technical and fully residential schools are available inside and outside the city's metropolitan area. There are also a number of independent private schools in the city. These include Melaka International School, Wesley Methodist School and Pay Fong High School.
Malacca State Library is the main library of the State of Malacca, located in Bukit Baru town. Other public library branches are located in Telok Mas town, Kampung Padang, Bertam Hulu and Klebang town. There are also libraries available in the city's universities, schools and colleges.
Culture and leisure
Attractions and recreational spots
The Malacca Sultanate Palace was built to represent the Malay culture and Malaccan history during the sultanate era. The building was constructed without using any nails. The city also includes a variety of other cultural attractions such as Chinatown, Little India and Portuguese Settlement. The Chinatown feature a strong Chinese cultural influences, with Clan associations, regional Chinese eateries and prominent Chinese Temples like Cheng Hoon Teng located around the areas where many Chinese traders have settling since the era of Sultanate of Malacca. The most recognisable part of the Chinatown is the Jonker Walk where many outdoor stage performances occur. The Kopitiam and restaurants around the city serve mixed cultural influences of Malay and Baba Nyonya as well as various regional Chinese cuisines such as Teochew and European cuisines. The No 8 Heeren Street Heritage Centre is an old two-storey shop house which has been undergoing restoration for years. The Cheng Ho Cultural Museum is the site where Zheng He, a famous Muslim Chinese voyager, was believed to have set up a large warehouse complex along the northern side of the Malacca River, while the Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum is a site where there has been a collection of Chinese jewellery design and motifs since the establishment of relations between Malacca and the Ming dynasty of China. Little India is the site where Indian culture is presented with a variety of Indian shops and restaurants as well as fabric shops selling various saris, Punjabi suits and other Indian fabric designs. Located within the Portuguese settlement is a "Mini Lisbon" which has become the city's centre of Portuguese culture, with many Eurasians descended from marriages between Portuguese men and local women that took place after the Portuguese conquest of Malacca residing there.
The Dutch Square is an area surrounded by Dutch buildings such as the Stadthuys, Christ Church, British Queen Victoria's Fountain, and Chinese settlers structure of Tan Beng Swee Clock Tower in honour of a generous late Chinese tycoon, Tan Beng Swee. The original clock tower was imported from England but has since been replaced with the one from Japan. The Portuguese traces are mostly on Porta do Santiago which can also be seen across the square on the bank of Malacca River and on St. Peter's Church. The Kuomintang Cenotaph (Malacca Warrior Monument) in Bukit Cina is a memorial where thousands of Chinese people in Malacca were killed by the Japanese during their occupation.
Leisure and conservation areas
Malacca Zoo is the main zoo in the city metropolitan, featuring 215 species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians including the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Malayan gaur, Serow and the Indochinese tiger. An oceanarium located inside the Shore shopping malls complex features a variety of fish species and other sea creatures.
Other attractions include the Maritime Museum, Taming Sari Tower and Macau Gallery Melaka. The Maritime Museum features a replica of a historical ship, the Flor de la Mar, and describes the trading history of Malacca, while the Taming Sari offers a scenic view of the city centre. The Padang Pahlawan is the site where Tunku Abdul Rahman, the father of Malayan independence, made his first independence announcement. St. Paul's Hill is where the Governor's Museum, Malacca Literature Museum and Malacca Light are located.
A number of shopping malls and traditional art and craft shops are available around the city, with the most popular shopping malls being Dataran Pahlawan Melaka Megamall, The Shore, and the ÆON Bandaraya Melaka and JUSCO shopping centres.
The main cinemas in the city are the Golden Screen Cinemas (GSC), with one located inside the building of Dataran Pahlawan Malacca Megamall with a capacity of 2,004, while the second largest, in ÆON Bandaraya Melaka, has a capacity of 1,793. Another cinema, known as the MBO Cinemas, with a capacity of 1,212 is located in the MBO Melaka Mall.
The second largest football stadium in the state of Malacca, Hang Tuah Stadium, is located in the city; it has a capacity of around 15,000 and is the oldest stadium in the state. The stadium is the second home ground for Melaka United, after Hang Jebat Stadium in Krubong.
Saudi Arabia has set up its consulate in Malacca City. Malacca first started twinning in 1984 with the city of Lisbon, Portugal and it is now twinned with or established as a friendship city with the following cities:
- Valparaíso, Chile.
- Changsha, China.
- Guangdong, China.
- Nanjing, China.
- Kota Tua Jakarta, Indonesia.
- Padang Panjang, Indonesia.
- Sawahlunto, Indonesia.
- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Hoorn, Netherlands.
- Lisbon, Portugal.
- "DOSM_DOSM_MELAKA_1_2020_Siri-81" (PDF). dosm.gov.my (in Malay). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Background" (in Malay and English). Historical Malacca City Council. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 11 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Malaysia Elevation Map (Elevation of Melaka)". Flood Map : Water Level Elevation Map. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Eight new sites, from the Straits of Malacca, to Papua New Guinea and San Marino, added to UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO (World Heritage Site). 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2008..
- "The legendary Melaka tree". Forest Research Institute, Malaysia. 25 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Achyut Yagnik (2 February 2011). Ahmedabad: From Royal city to Megacity. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-81-8475-473-5.
- Hugh; Colleen Gantzer (27 September 2015). "Where Malaysia was born". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
• "Malaca Os irredutíveis filhos de Albuquerque" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
• José Valério (9 June 2014). As Moedas Desconhecidas de Malaca: uma nova perspectiva (in Portuguese). José Valério. pp. 23–. GGKEY:8JB3W3RRAYB.
- Dennis De Witt (2008). History of the Dutch in Malaysia: In Commemoration of Malaysia's 50 Years as an Independent Nation and Over Four Centuries of Friendship and Diplomatic Ties Between Malaysia and the Netherlands. Nutmeg Publishing. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-983-43519-0-8.
- "Sri Tri Buana/Parameswara". National Library Board. 1299. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Lim SK (1 November 2011). Asia Civilizations: Ancient to 1800 AD. Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-981-229-594-1.
- Abdul Shukor Ismail (Datoʹ Haji) (1984). Sejarah ringkas Muar (in Malay). Manaf.
- Jaime Koh; Stephanie Ho PhD (22 June 2009). Culture and Customs of Singapore and Malaysia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-313-35116-7.
- Donald B. Freeman (17 April 2003). Straits of Malacca: Gateway Or Gauntlet?. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-7735-2515-3.
- Wade 2005, p.  harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWade2005 (help)
- Wong Hui Shin (20 June 2012). Sunshine Little Kitchen. AuthorHouse. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-1-4772-1460-2.
- Zheng He's Voyages Down the Western Seas. 五洲传播出版社. 2005. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0708-8.
- Sen, Tansen (2016). "The Impact of Zheng He's Expeditions on Indian Ocean Interactions". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 79 (3): 615–621. doi:10.1017/S0041977X16001038.
- Jin, Shaoqing (2005). Office of the People's Government of Fujian Province (ed.). Zheng He's voyages down the western seas. Fujian, China: China Intercontinental Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-7-5085-0708-8. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
- Geraldo Affonso Muzzi (4 January 2014). The Portuguese in Malay Land. Ediçoes Vercial. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-989-8392-65-7.
- Timothy P. Daniels (2005). Building Cultural Nationalism in Malaysia: Identity, Representation, and Citizenship. Psychology Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-415-94971-2.
- Merle Calvin Ricklefs (1 January 1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1300. Stanford University Press. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-8047-2194-3.
- The Cambridge History of the British Empire: New Zealand. 7/2. CUP Archive. 1933. pp. 11–. GGKEY:55QQ9L73P70.
- Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-988-8028-54-2.
- M.C. Ricklefs; Bruce Lockhart; Albert Lau; Portia Reyes; Maitrii Aung-Thwin (19 November 2010). A New History of Southeast Asia. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-1-137-01554-9.
- Paulo Jorge Sousa Pinto (1996). "Melaka, Johor and Aceh: A bird's eye view over a Portuguese-Malay Triangular Balance (1575–1619)" (PDF). Files of the Calouste Gulbenkian Cultural Centre, Composite, Printed and Stitched in Graphic Arts Workshops & Xavier Barbosa, Limited, Braga. Academia.edu: 109–112. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- A. GUTHRIE (of the Straits Settlements, and OTHERS.) (1861). The British Possessions in the Straits of Malacca. [An Address to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Signed by A. Guthrie and Others, and Dated April 20th, 1861, in Reference to the Transfer of the Administration of the British Possessions in the Straits of Malacca to the Colonial Office.]. pp. 1–.
- Michael Leifer (1 January 1978). Malacca, Singapore, and Indonesia. BRILL. pp. 9–. ISBN 90-286-0778-1.
- Johannes Widodo (2002). "Melaka – A Cosmopolitan City in Southeast Asia". Academia.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Pek Leng Tan (2011). An Uncommon Hero: M.K. Rajakumar in Politics and Medicine. GB Gerakbudaya Enterprise S. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-967-5832-27-7.
- C. Peter Chen. "Invasion of Malaya and Singapore (8 December 1941 – 15 February 1942)". World War II Database. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Samuel S. Dhoraisingam (1 January 2006). Peranakan Indians of Singapore and Melaka: Indian Babas and Nonyas—Chitty Melaka. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-981-230-346-2.
- "Melaka History". Melaka State Government. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Arthur Cotterell (15 July 2014). A History of South East Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-981-4634-70-0.
- "List of Parliamentary Elections Parts and State Legislative Assemblies on Every States". Ministry of Information Malaysia. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan" (in Malay). Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- "Malacca City to Kuala Lumpur Distance". Google Maps. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Malacca City to Singapore Distance". Google Maps. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Touristic Impressions of Social Transformation in Melaka" (PDF). EMP Group of Companies. 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "The Tourism Industry in the State of Melaka" (PDF). University of Malaya Repository. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- S. Nieuwolt (September 1966). "A Comparison of Rainfall in the Exceptionally Dry Year 1963 and Average Conditions in Malaya (Ein Vergleich zwischen Niederschlägen während des Jahres 1963 und den Durchschnittsverhältnissen in Malaya)". Erdkunde (in English and German). University of Bonn). 20 (3): 169–181. JSTOR 25640511. (full document)
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- "CLIMAT summary for 48665: Malacca (Malaysia) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
- "Klimatafel von Malacca (Melaka) / Malaysia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Malacca Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Total population by ethnic group, Local Authority area and state, Malaysia" (PDF). Statistics Department, Malaysia. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Elzbieta Thurgood. "The Development of Articles in Baba Malay" (PDF). California State University, Chico. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Noriah Mohamed. "The Malay Chetty Creole Language of Malacca: A Historical and Linguistic Perspective" (PDF). Universiti Sains Malaysia Repository. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Ian Hancock (2009). "The Portuguese Creoles of Malacca" (PDF). București, Romania: Institutul de Lingvistică al Academiei. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Michael G. Vann. "When the World Came to Southeast Asia – Malacca and the Global Economy" (PDF). The Association for Asian Studies. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Laurence J. C. Ma; Carolyn L. Cartier (2003). The Chinese Diaspora: Space, Place, Mobility, and Identity. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-7425-1756-1.
- "Ekonomi di Melaka" (in Malay). Malacca State Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Wang Wei (26 April 2015). "Malacca Stands to Benefit from "Belt And Road" Initiative". Xinhua News Agency. CRIEnglish.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Sam Bateman; Joshua Ho (3 June 2014). Southeast Asia and the Rise of Chinese and Indian Naval Power: Between Rising Naval Powers. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-135-14726-6.
- "(Synopsis) Auditor's General Report on the activities of the Malacca State Government Departments and Agencies and the Management of State Government Companies" (PDF). National Audit Department, Malaysia. 2009. p. 6/vi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Amir Mamat (11 January 2016). "Melaka wujud Pusat Perdagangan Hang Tuah" (in Malay). Berita Harian. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- Bart August; Kevin Teh (23 September 2014). "You Can Do It Too: Roadtrip To Malacca". Going Places Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Va Sonyka (29 October 2015). "Five Things to Do in Majestic Malacca". Khmer Times. Retrieved 6 November 2015.[dead link]
- Helga Zepp-LaRouche; Michael O. Billington; Ramtanu Maitra; Dennis Small; Bruce Director; Jason Ross; Paul Gallagher; Hussein Askary; Rachel Douglas; Benjamin Deniston (1 December 2014). The New Silk Road Becomes the World Land-Bridge. Executive Intelligence Review. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-943235-24-0.
- Melaka from the Top. Nutmeg Publishing. 2010. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2.
- "Vehicle Models". Malacca Taxi. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Nor Shahid Mohd Nor (24 July 2015). "We can revive Tampin-Malacca rail service". New Straits Times. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "KTMB perkenal perkhidmatan komuter baharu dari Seremban ke Gemas". Bernama (in Malay). Berita Harian. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "Komuter guna jadual baru mulai esok". Bernama (in Malay). Malaysiakini. 2 February 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- R.S.N. Murali (20 June 2015). "Malacca wants to revive monorail line to promote river". The Star/Asia News Network. AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "Kos taman tema, naik taraf kawasan monorel Melaka RM109 juta". Bernama (in Malay). Astro Awani. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "Lebih 17,000 guna Monorel Melaka sejak beroperasi semula". Bernama (in Malay). Utusan Borneo. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "Monorel Melaka beroperasi semula esok" (in Malay). The Malaysian Insight. 3 December 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Rebecca Gibson (11 February 2014). "New terminal for Malaysia". Cruise & Ferry. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- R.S.N. Murali (21 February 2015). "Global port in the works for Malacca". The Star. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Alamat Mahkamah Tinggi Sesyen & Majistret" (in Malay). Malacca Law Courts Official Website. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Contact Us". Malacca Syariah Court. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Direktori PDRM (Melaka)" (in Malay). Royal Malaysia Police. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Direktori PDRM Melaka – Melaka Tengah". Royal Malaysia Police. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Penjara istimewa Dusun Datuk Murad". Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). 20 March 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Prison Address & Directory". Prison Department of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Penjara Bandar Hilir mula dikosongkan". Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). 1 June 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- "Malacca E-Commerce (State Health Clinic)". MelakaCom.net. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Malacca E-Commerce (Private Clinic)". MelakaCom.net. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "List of 1Malaysia Clinics (See Melaka)" (in Malay and English). Ministry of Health. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Health (Government Hospital)". Melaka Historic City Council. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Jabatan Perubatan" (in English and Malay). Malacca General Hospital. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Who We Are". Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Introduction". Mahkota Medical Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Education" (in Malay and English). Melaka State Government. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "SENARAI SEKOLAH MENENGAH DI NEGERI MELAKA (List of Secondary Schools in Malacca) – See Malacca" (PDF). Educational Management Information System. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "List of Schools in Malacca". Department of Education, Malacca. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "History". Melaka International School. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Message from Principal". Wesley Methodist School Melaka. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Malacca Public Library Location" (in English and Malay). Malacca Public Library. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Zon Melaka Tengah - PERPUSTAM". perpustam.gov.my (in Malay). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
- "Perpustakaan UiTM" (in Malay). UiTM Malacca Library. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Taburan Perpustakaan Desa di Malaysia" (in Malay). National Library of Malaysia. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Leong Siok Hui (30 April 2011). "A Malaccan gem". The Star. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "History". Cheng Ho Cultural Museum. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Narina Exelby (26 February 2015). "Melaka: five ways to see the world in one Malaysian city". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Portuguese Square". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Karl-Heinz Reger; Nelles Verlag Staff (1997). Malaysia – Singapore – Brunei. Nelles Verlag. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-3-88618-902-1.
- M. Veera Pandiyan (16 August 2013). "Bukit China: A hill steeped in legend and history". The Star. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Melaka Zoo". Cuti.my. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Padang Pahlawan, that's the new name for freedom ground". The Straits Times. National Library Board. 11 October 1968. p. 5. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "GSC Dataran Pahlawan". Golden Screen Cinemas. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "GSC Aeon Bandaraya Melaka". Golden Screen Cinemas. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Our Cinemas (Locate Us)". MBO Cinemas. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Stadiums in Malaysia (Hang Tuah)". World Stadiums. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Consulate of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Malacca". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "At A Glance [TwinCities 2017]". Melaka Historic City Council. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- "MBMB MUO With Twin Cities". Melaka Historic City Council. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Marina Tan (9 January 1998). "Valpairaso, land of steep hills, trains, sea and curves". New Straits Times. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Anniversary of the twinning of the Cities of Melaka and Valparaiso". Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Santiago. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. 23 June 2007. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Mohd Bakri Darus (23 June 2007). "Melaka is keen to get Valparaiso's help [Melaka Keen To Get Valparaiso's Help In Getting UN Recognition]". Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Santiago and Bernama. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "List of Sister cities of Hunan". People's Government of Hunan Province, China. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Chan (23 September 2015). "Guangdong & Malacca sign sister relationship memo". News Guangdong. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Highlights News" (PDF). Consulate General of Malaysia, Guangzhou. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "Penerbangan khas Nanjing-Melaka guna LTAM". Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). 3 July 2010. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "Jiangsu". Jiangsu Provincial People's Government, China. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- Edna Tarigan (2 January 2014). "Jakarta's 'Kota Tua' and Melaka are now sister cities". The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post Travel. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Wahyu Setyo (19 June 2014). "Melaka, Kembaran Kota Tua Jakarta di Malaysia" (in Indonesian). DetikCom. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Bandar Kembar Melaka, Hoorne" (PDF). Bernama (in Malay). National Library of Malaysia. 7 July 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Twin Cities plan will boost Malacca". New Sunday Times. 25 April 2002. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Dennis de Witt (May 2001). "Malacca, a Dutch conquest forgotten". The Dutch Courier. Malaysian Dutch Descendants Project. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas: Lisbon" [Twinning Cities and Towns: Lisbon] (in Portuguese). Lisbon, Portugal: Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities]. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship] (in Portuguese). Camara Municipal de Lisboa. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.