Malak-Malak language

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Malak-Malak
Mullukmulluk
Nguluk Wanggarr
RegionNorthern Territory
EthnicityMulluk-Mulluk, Ngolokwangga, Djerait
Native speakers
10 Malak-Malak (2016 census)[1]
5 Tyeraity (2005)[2]
Dialects
  • Malak-Malak
  • Djerait (Kuwema)
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
mpb – Malak-Malak
woa – Kuwema (Tyaraity)
Glottolognort1547[3]
AIATSIS[2]N22 Malak Malak, N10 Kuwema (Tyaraity)
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Malak-Malak (also spelt Mullukmulluk, Malagmalag, Malak-Malak), also known as Ngolak-Wonga (Nguluwongga), is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken by the Mulluk-Mulluk people. Malakmalak is nearly extinct, with children growing up speaking Kriol or English instead. The language is spoken in the Daly River area around Woolianna and Nauiyu. The Kuwema or Tyaraity (Tyeraty) variety is distinct.

Classification[edit]

Malakmalak was formerly classified in a Northern Daly family along with the "Anson Bay" group of Wagaydy (Patjtjamalh, Wadjiginy, Kandjerramalh) and the unattested Giyug. Green concluded that Wagaydy and Malakmalak were two separate language families.[4] Some later classifications have linked them such as Bowern (2011).[5] However, the Wagaydy people are recent arrivals in the area, and their language may only similar due to borrowing.[6] AIATSIS and Glottolog both treat Wagaydy as an isolate and Giyug as unclassifiable.

In contemporary usage, "Northern Daly" (e.g. Harvey 2003[7], Cahir 2006[8], Nordlinger 2017[9]) most often refers specifically to the group of languages which includes Malakmalak and Tyerraty[10] (also known as Guwema), a variety with which MalakMalak differs significantly in vocabulary (65% according to Tryon's 200 word list), but is very close to morphologically.[11]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[12][edit]

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ ɯ / u
Close-mid
Open-mid ɛ ɜ
Open ɐ

Consonants[13][edit]

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Stop voiceless p t c k
voiced b d g
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l ʎ
Approximant w ɻ j

Typological classification[edit]

MalakMalak, is an ergative-absolutive language with constituent order mainly determined by information structure and prosody, but syntactically free. Marking of core-cases is optional. The language is mostly dependent-marking (1), but also has no marking (2) and head-marking features (2).[14]

(1) dependent-marking: possession

Doro-ngayi muyiny
name-3SG.F dog

"Doro's dog"

(2) no marking: noun-adjective

meldaty ada tjung yintjerrik
trip 1SG.excl.go.PST stick small.M

"I tripped on the little stick"

(3) head-marking: noun-adposition

ngatj yunu tjinang pak-ma nende wag puyunduk-nana
EMPH 3SG.M.sit.PST stay.give sit-CONT thing/person water underneath-LOC

"he sits down underneath the water"

Morphosyntactic properties[edit]

MalakMalak's verb phrase uses complex predicates. These consist of an inflecting verb that has properties of person, number and tense. MalakMalak only has six such verbs. In example (4), yuyu and vida are inflecting verbs. Additionally, there are coverbs which have aspectual properties, but do not inflect for number, tense or person. They occur with inflecting verbs. They are unlimited in number and new verbs are also borrowed into this class. In (4), kubuk-karrarr, dat-tyed, and ka are coverbs. They can also form serial verbs (kubuk-karrarr, dat-tyed).[15]

(4) Complex Predicates and Serial Coverbs

kubuk-karrarr dat-tjed yuyu yanak ka yida=ke
swim-move.up look-stand 3SG.M.stand.PST one come 3SG.M.go.PST=FOC

"he crossed the river and looked once, then he came here"

Spatial Language[edit]

MalakMalak employs all three "classic" types of spatial Frames of Reference: intrinsic, relative and absolute. Additionally, the language uses place names and body-part orientation to talk about space.[16][17] The intrinsic Frame requires some kind of portioning of the ground object or landmark into named facets from which search domains can be projected.[18] In English this would be, for example, the tree is in front of the man. And in MalakMalak it would be (5).

(5) intrinsic Frame of Reference

tjung angundu-na muyu
tree behind-LOC 3SG.N*.stand.PST

"the tree was behind (the man)"

The relative Frame of Reference involves mapping from the observer's own axes (front, back, left, right) onto the ground object.[18] An English example is the ball is on the right. In MalakMalak it would be (6)

(6) relative Frame of Reference

yerra tjalmiyiny dek kantjuk purrat-ma wuta
now right place up/upwards jump-CONT 3SG.N.go.PST

"now the ball was on the right, jumping up (lit. jumping in an upward place on the right)"

The absolute Frame of Reference requires xed bearings that are instantly available to all members of the community.[18] An English example is the opera is west of here. In MalakMalak, three different types of absolute frames can be used. Those based on the course of the sun (east/west) (7a), on prevailing winds (northwesterly/southeasterly) (7b), and on two sides of the prominent Daly River (northeastern/southwestern bank) (7c).

(7a) absolute Frame of Reference (sun)

miri tjalk-ma yina, yina miri paiga-ma
sun go.down-CONT this this sun go.up-CONT

"this one is west and this one is east"

(7b) absolute Frame of Reference (wind)

Waliwali-nen pudang tjedali yuyu nul-yen pudang tjedali yuyu
Daly.River-DIR face.towards stand.PART 3SG.M.stand.PRS northwesterly-DIR face.towards stand.part 3SG.M.stand.PRS

"one is facing the river and the other one is facing northwest"

(7c) absolute Frame of Reference (riverbank)

duk puyunduk kinangga yide chair=we
place underneath north.eastern.bank/this.side 3SG.M.go/be.PRS chair=FOC

"it is underneath, on the northeastern bank's side, of the chair"

Vocabulary[edit]

The following basic vocabulary items of Northern Daly language varieties are from Tryon (1968).[19]

no. gloss Mullukmulluk Djeraity
1 head pundɔ pundu
2 hair pundɔmæk pundumæR
3 eyes numɔrɔ numɔrɔ
4 nose yinïn yinun
5 ear čawœr muninǰawœr
6 tooth dit diR
7 tongue ŋændɛl ŋændulk
8 shoulder mœndœl mændœm
9 elbow pimïle pimilu
10 hand naɲïl naɲulk
11 breasts wiyœ wiŋ
12 back payak daɲ
13 belly pœɲ pœɲ
14 navel čœčœt čœčuruk
15 heart mændulma mændulma
16 urine wurɔ wurɔ
17 excrete wœn wœn
18 thigh čæt čæR
19 leg wilit dulk
20 knee pœŋgœl pœŋgœl
21 foot maǰan mæl
22 skin ŋæčïdl karala
23 fat milyœ laɲ
24 blood dawut padawɔ
25 bone nœrœt murɔ
26 man yiɲa lœlambœr
27 woman alawaR alœrguR
28 father baŋa papaŋa
29 mother wiyaŋa kalaŋa
30 grandmother æǰæŋa ŋeyæčɔ
31 policeman čæyæčman čayačdiɲ
32 spear čaŋar čaŋal
33 woomera yarawa maduR
34 boomerang čïmbičïmbič čïmbičïmbič
35 nullanulla warawara čændæɲ
36 hair-belt pudur purur
37 canoe wænde wændɔ
38 axe walyïmba ličpuRp
39 dilly bag karɛr pæmbuR
40 fire čœŋ čuŋɔ
41 smoke wæn wæn
42 water wak wak
43 cloud durɔ pæRk
44 rainbow dæpulɔlɔy pulɔlɔy
45 barramundi
46 sea ŋambač ŋambač
47 river wakwurɔ wurɔ
48 stone wadlk wulɔ
49 ground pawuRk wœnǰœ
50 track yære æRɔ
51 dust pulɔ pulɔ
52 sun mïre mirɔ
53 moon yædlk yœlk
54 star nœmœrœl numurudl
55 night puwaR poyædɔ
56 tomorrow nœyænœ nuŋɔyɔ
57 today æmæn æɲika
58 big wunædle wudælɔ
59 possum wœyœ wœyœ
60 dog moyiɲ moweyiɲ
61 tail wœmœ wumɔ
62 meat
63 snake ŋunǰul čalala
64 red kangaroo čæyœt manduRk
65 porcupine mænɛŋɛč manɛŋɛč
66 emu čïnburat ŋœrœɲ
67 crow waŋgïr waŋguR
68 goanna čæriɲ čæɲ
69 blue tongue lizard kumugut pɛrɛt
70 mosquito wænŋɛn wænŋun
71 sugar-bag piǰak ŋœčœn
72 camp dæk dæk
73 black eyïkeyïk eyukeyuk
74 white puŋma tamalma
75 red widma witma
76 one yanakŋa yawunuka
77 two wæræna wærunuka
78 when? amanæle ŋædekælædiɲ
79 what? nïgidæ nïgidæ
80 who? eyɛn aŋon
81 I ŋa ŋa
82 you waŋare niɲ
83 he yœndœn yœndœn
84 grass wæne wænœ
85 vegetable food mi miyɔ
86 tree čœŋ čuŋɔ
87 leaf dæmbæl wœR
88 pandanus murɔmurɔ narɔ
89 ironwood pawit æluRk
90 ripe moeŋœɲ damberæmæ
91 good yunbayan munbayɛn
92 bad yinat munætɔ
93 blind wuɲak wuɲ
94 deaf ɲabɔ ŋamama
95 saliva čalïlk čalulk

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census 2016, Language spoken at home by Sex (SA2+)". stat.data.abs.gov.au. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  2. ^ a b N22 Malak Malak at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies  (see the info box for additional links)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Northern Daly". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Green, I. "The Genetic Status of Murrinh-patha" in Evans, N., ed. "The Non-Pama-Nyungan Languages of Northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent’s most linguistically complex region". Studies in Language Change, 552. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 2003.
  5. ^ Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)
  6. ^ N31 Patjtjamalh at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  7. ^ Harvey, M. (2003). "The evolution of verb systems in the Eastern Daly language family." In N. Evans ed. The Non-Pama Nyungan languages of Northern Australia. Canberra, Pacific Linguistics. pp. 159-184.
  8. ^ Cahir, P. (2006). "Verb functions and Argument Structure in MalakMalak: a Northern daly Language of the Daly River Region, Northern Territory." Honours Thesis. University of Melbourne.
  9. ^ Nordlinger, Rachel (2017). "Chapter 37: The languages of the Daly region (Northern Australia)". In Fortescue, Michael; Mithun, Marianne; Evans, Nicholas (eds.). Oxford Handbook of Polysynthesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 782–807.
  10. ^ http://www.dalylanguages.org/view_language.php?id=7
  11. ^ Tryon, D. T. (1974). Daly family languages, Australia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 24–41.
  12. ^ Hoffmann, Dorothea (in prep), MalakMalak Sketch Grammar
  13. ^ Hoffmann, Dorothea (in prep), MalakMalak Sketch Grammar
  14. ^ "Collection Items". wurin.lis.soas.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
  15. ^ "Dorothea Hoffmann: "Complex Predicates and Serialization in the Daly River Languages (and beyond?)"". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
  16. ^ "Dorothea Hoffmann. (MUR). "Mapping Worlds: Frames of Reference in MalakMalak". In Proceedings to the 39th Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society 2013. University of California: Berkeley". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  17. ^ "Dorothea Hoffmann. (in prep). "Usage Patterns of Spatial Frames of Reference and Orientation: Evidence from three Australian languages"". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  18. ^ a b c Levinson, Stephen; Wilkins, David (2006). Grammars of Space: Explorations in cognitive diversity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–21.
  19. ^ Tryon, Darrell T. "The Daly River Languages: A Survey". In Aguas, E.F. and Tryon, D. editors, Papers in Australian Linguistics No. 3. A-14:21-49. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1968. doi:10.15144/PL-A14.21

External links[edit]