Malakula languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Malakula
Malekula
Geographic
distribution
Malakula Island in central Vanuatu
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Glottologmala1539[1]

The Malakula languages are a group of Central Vanuatu languages spoken on Malakula Island in central Vanuatu. Unlike some earlier classifications, Lynch (2016) considers the Malakula languages to form a coherent group.[2]

Classification[edit]

Lynch (2016) divides the Malakula languages into three primary subgroups, namely Northern, Eastern, and Western, all three of which are linkages. Lynch (2016) recognizes 32 languages.[2]

The Central-Western linkage is only very weakly defined, while Ninde and Nāti have similarities with both the Northwestern and Southwestern linkages.

The positions of the Sörsörian, Rerep, Vivti, and Nitita languages were not addressed.

Languages[edit]

François (2015:18-21) lists the following 42 Malakula languages.

No. Language Other names Speakers Ethnologue ISO 639-3
65 Axamb Ahamb 750 ahb ahb
66 Lendamboi Small Nambas, Letemboi 800 nms nms
67 Nasvang 275
68 Sörsörian 3
69 Avok 500 , Avok
70 Uliveo Maskelynes 1100 klv klv, Maskelynes
71 Port Sandwich Lamap 1200 psw psw
72 Nisvai Vetbon 200
73 Burmbar Banam Bay, Vartavo 900 vrt vrt
74 Mbwenelang <10
75 Aulua 750 aul aul
76 Niolean Repanbitip 90 rpn rpn
77 Rerep Pangkumu, Tisman 380 pgk pgk
78 Unua Onua 520 onu onu
79 Vivti <5
80 Nitita <5
81 Avava Katbol, Navava, Bangsa’ 700 tmb tmb
82 Neverver Lingarak, Nevwervwer 1250 lgk lgk
83 Litzlitz Naman 15 lzl lzl
84 Uripiv Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin, Northeast Malakula 9000 upv upv, Atchin, Uripiv
85 Rutan ?
86 Botovro Mpotovoro 430 mvt mvt
87 Vao 1900 vao vao, Vao
88 Alovas ?
89 Vovo 475
90 Nese Matanvat 160
91 Najit <5
92 Malua Bay Middle Nambas 500 mll mll
93 Njav 10
94 Tirax Mae, Dirak 1000 mme mme
95 V'ënen Taut Big Nambas 3350 nmb nmb
96 Tape Maragus 15 mrs mrs
97 Larëvat Laravat, Larevat 680 lrv lrv
98 Neve'ei Vinmavis 500 vnm vnm
99 Nivat <10
100 Nasarian 5 nvh nvh
101 Aveteian Dixon Reef 50 dix dix
102 Ninde Labo 1100 mwi mwi
103 Nahavaq South West Bay, Siesip 700 sns sns
104 Nāti 25
105 Naha'ai Malvaxal, Malfaxal 600 mlx mlx
106 Navwien 5

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malakula". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Lynch, John (December 2016). "Malakula Internal Subgrouping: Phonological Evidence". Oceanic Linguistics. University of Hawai'i Press. 55 (2): 399–431. doi:10.1353/ol.2016.0019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]