xkcd

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xkcd
Xkcd philosophy.png
Panel from "Philosophy" (#220)
Author(s) Randall Munroe
Website xkcd.com
Current status / schedule Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays
Launch date September 2005[1]
Genre(s) Geek humor

xkcd, sometimes stylized as XKCD,[‡ 1] is a webcomic created by Randall Munroe. The comic's tagline describes it as a "A webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language"[2] (formerly a "Stick-figure strip featuring humour about technology, science, mathematics and relationships").[3] Munroe states on the comic's website that the name of the comic is not an acronym but "just a word with no phonetic pronunciation".

The subject matter of the comic varies from statements on life and love to mathematical and scientific in-jokes. Some strips feature simple humor or pop-culture references. Although it has a cast of stick figures,[4][5] the comic occasionally features landscapes, intricate mathematical patterns such as fractals (for example, strip No. 17 "What If"[‡ 2] shows an Apollonian gasket), intricate graphs and charts, or imitations of the style of other cartoonists (as during "Parody Week").[6]

xkcd is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License.[‡ 3] New comics are added three times a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays,[‡ 1][7] although on some occasions they have been added every weekday.

Since July 2012, there has been a branch of xkcd called xkcd What-If, which answers reader-submitted unusual science questions in a light-hearted but scientifically grounded way.[8] What If? is presented in the format of an article rather than a comic strip.[9][10] On March 12, 2014, a book was announced containing new and expanded What-Ifs titled What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions. The book came out on September 2, 2014[11][12][13] and on September 10, 2014, the What If? book became number one on the New York Times nonfiction hardcover best-seller list.[14] On May 13, 2015, Randall Munroe announced another new book, Thing Explainer. Based on comic No. 1133, known as "'Up Goer-Five", Thing Explainer, "is full of detailed diagrams of interesting objects, along with explanations of what all the parts are and how they work". Most notably, the diagrams and explanations use only the one thousand most commonly used words in English. Thing Explainer will be released on November 24, 2015.[15]

History[edit]

Randall Munroe, the creator of xkcd

The comic began in September 2005 when Munroe decided to scan doodles from his school notebooks and put them on his webpage. Eventually the comic was split off into its own website, where Munroe started selling T-shirts based on the comic. He currently works full-time on the comic, making Munroe one of the few professional webcomic artists.[‡ 1][16]

According to Munroe, the comic's name has no particular significance and is simply a four-letter word without a phonetic pronunciation, something he describes as "a treasured and carefully guarded point in the space of four-character strings." The name of the comic is spelled in all lowercase letters, or all capitals.[‡ 1]

In May 2007, the comic garnered widespread attention by depicting online communities in geographic form.[17] Various websites were drawn as continents, each sized according to their relative popularity and located according to their general subject matter.[17] This put xkcd at number two on the Syracuse Post-Standard's "The new hotness" list.[18]

In October 2008, The New Yorker magazine online published an interview and "Cartoon Off" between Randall Munroe and Farley Katz. For the "Cartoon-Off", Katz and Munroe each drew: "the Internet, as envisioned by the elderly", "String Theory", "1999", and "your favorite animal eating your favorite food".[19]

In March 2010, a puzzle hidden inside of the collection xkcd: Volume 0 was cracked by many members of the xkcd forums. The solution was "<3<3<3 2010-06-26 14:28:57 37°46′10″N 122°28′59″W / 37.769573°N 122.483123°W / 37.769573; -122.483123"—ASCII art hearts, followed by the timestamp for June 26, 2010, 2:28:57 pm, and the coordinates Google Earth specifies for Golden Gate Park.[‡ 4] At the specified time, date, and location, Munroe met with fans and handed out 255 limited edition prints of xkcd: Volume 0, titled xkcd: Volume 0 Service Pack 1.[‡ 5]

For April Fools Day 2012, comic No. 1037 ("Umwelt") displayed different comics depending on browser, location, and IP address range.[‡ 6][‡ 7]

On September 19, 2012, comic No. 1110 ("Click and Drag"), featured a panel which can be explored via clicking and dragging its insides.[‡ 8] It immediately triggered positive response on social websites and forums.[20] The large image measures 165,888 pixels wide by 79,822 pixels high.[21]

Comic No. 1190 ("Time") began publication at midnight EDT on March 25, 2013, with the comic's image updating every 30 minutes until March 30, when they began to change every hour, lasting for over four months. The images constitute time lapse frames of a story, with the mouseover text originally reading "Wait for it.", later changed to "RUN." and changed again to "The end." on July 26. The story began with a male and female character building a sandcastle complex on a beach who then embark on an adventure to learn the secrets of the sea. On July 26, the comic superimposed a frame (3094) with the phrase "The End". Tasha Robinson of The A.V. Club wrote of the comic: "[...] the kind of nifty experiment that keeps people coming back to XKCD, which at its best isn't a strip comic so much as an idea factory and a shared experience".[22] Cory Doctorow mentioned "Time" in a brief article on Boing Boing on April 7, saying the comic was "coming along nicely". The 3,099-panel "Time" comic ended on July 26, 2013, and was followed by a blog post summarizing the journey.[23]

For April Fools Day 2013, comic No. 1193 ("Externalities") changed its text content over that day, depending on various external values, from the amount of money donated to the Wikimedia Foundation via a link in the comic, to the school of first- and third-place winners of an xkcd hash-finding competition.[24]

For April Fool's Day 2015, comic No. 1506 ("XKCloud") was an interactive, where users help match images and texts of fake Facebook posts.[25]

Recurring items[edit]

While there is no specific storyline to the comic, there are some recurring themes and characters,[26] many of which are touched on in an xkcd parody of the Discovery Channel's I Love the World advertising campaign,[‡ 9] which was later reenacted by Neil Gaiman, Wil Wheaton, and Cory Doctorow,[27] directed and recorded by musician Olga Nunes.

Themes[edit]

"Wikipedian Protester", with mouseover text "SEMI-PROTECT THE CONSTITUTION"

A large number of the strips contain mathematics or computer science jokes. These jokes often feature university-level subjects, although many are written in such a way that a clear understanding of the subject is not required to get the punchline.

Romance is another subject often visited in the comic, with many strips not intended to be humorous;[26] Munroe is a self-declared fan of artist Kurt Halsey's bleak romances. There are also many strips opening with "My Hobby:" and usually depicting the nondescript narrator character describing some type of humorous or quirky behavior often involving language games.[‡ 10][‡ 11][‡ 12][‡ 13]

"Malamanteau",[‡ 14] with mouseover text "The article has twenty-three citations, one of which is an obscure manuscript from the 1490s and the other twenty-two are arguments on Language Log."

References to Wikipedia articles or to Wikipedia as a whole have occurred several times in xkcd[‡ 14][‡ 15][‡ 16][‡ 17][‡ 18][‡ 19][‡ 20][‡ 21] which has on occasion triggered vandalism on Wikipedia.[28] A facsimile of a made-up Wikipedia entry for "malamanteau" (a stunt word created by Munroe to poke fun at Wikipedia's writing style)[‡ 14] provoked a controversy within Wikipedia that was picked up by various media.[29][30]

xkcd frequently makes reference to Munroe's "obsession" with potential raptor attacks,[31] and has used many "your mom" jokes.[‡ 22][‡ 23][‡ 24][‡ 25] Multiple earlier strips featured "Red Spiders",[‡ 26][‡ 27][‡ 28][‡ 29] and others refer to Joss Whedon's science fiction series Firefly.[‡ 30] Munroe at one point drew several strips addressing his fiancee's ongoing treatment for breast cancer.[‡ 31]

xkcd has parodied the iPhone and Android phones with the "xkcd Phone".[32][33][34][35][36][37]

Every comic except for 1506 and 1525 have a tooltip (specified using the title attribute in HTML). The text usually contains a secondary punchline or annotation related to that day's comic.[38]

Characters[edit]

"Little Bobby Tables" redirects here. For the general subject, see SQL injection.

Although Munroe does not maintain a list of characters on his web site, some recurring characters can be identified by their visual features (for example, hats) and mannerisms.

  • Black Hat, or Black Hat Guy, is a man who looks like a normal stick-figure xkcd character, but for the addition of a black hat, a reference to Aram from the now-defunct webcomic Men in Hats, not to black hat hackers as is often supposed.[39][‡ 32] This character first appeared in the comic "Poisson" (the twelfth comic published on the website)[‡ 33] and is one of the most frequently appearing characters of the comic. The Telegraph has described Black Hat as a "diabolical genius".[40]
  • A recurring female character, known as Megan. She is first referred to by name in comic No. 159 – "Boombox",[‡ 34] and again several times afterward,[‡ 35][‡ 36][‡ 37] although she may have appeared earlier as an unnamed character notably in comic No. 108 - "M.C. Hammer Slide".[‡ 38] She is recognized by her short, dark hair.
  • A beret-wearing male often referred to as Beret Guy, existentialist and eccentric who displays a charming, childlike optimism and naivete. He is first seen in the "Nihilism" comic,[‡ 39] and often has odd behaviors, ideas and activities underway.
  • Psychotic female, distinguished by long dark hair, a general proximity to Black Hat Guy and a tendency towards excessive violence, both verbal and physical. Her first appearance is in comic 377, "Journal 2".[‡ 40] She has been a recurring character since then, in some form of relationship with the equally psychotic Black Hat Guy, causing chaos, damage, vandalism and abuse with no apparent remorse or reason.

Inspired activities[edit]

A fan of "Wikipedian Protester" on a playground in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2007
Hoax attack on Richard Stallman by students dressed as ninjas.
Inspired by "Open Source"[‡ 41]

On several occasions, fans have been motivated by Munroe's comics to carry out, in real life, the subject of a particular drawing or sketch. Some examples include:

  • If Siri is instructed "Sudo make me a sandwich," it will respond with "Okay", inspired by "Sandwich".[‡ 42]
  • Richard Stallman was sent a katana[‡ 43] and was confronted by students dressed as ninjas before speaking at the Yale Political Union[41][42]—inspired by "Open Source".[‡ 41]
  • On September 23, 2007, hundreds of people gathered at Reverend Thomas J. Williams Park, 42°23′44″N 71°07′50″W / 42.39561°N 71.13051°W / 42.39561; -71.13051, in North Cambridge, Massachusetts, whose coordinates were mentioned in "Dream Girl".[‡ 44] Munroe appeared, commenting, "Maybe wanting something does make it real," reversing the conclusion he drew in the last frame of the same strip.[43] This park is recognized by NASA's Spot The Station program, which provides information on viewing opportunities for the International Space Station.[44]
  • Entering "sudo make me a sandwich" into the DuckDuckGo search engine will return "Okay", inspired by "Sandwich".
  • When Cory Doctorow won the 2007 EFF Pioneer Award, the presenters gave him a red cape, goggles and a balloon[‡ 45] – inspired by "Blagofaire".[‡ 46]
  • xkcd readers began sneaking chess boards onto roller coasters after "Chess Photo" was published.[45][‡ 47] – inspired by "Chess Photo".[‡ 48]
  • The game of "geohashing"[‡ 49] has gained more than 1,000 players,[‡ 50] who travel to random coordinates calculated by the algorithm described in "Geohashing".[‡ 51]
  • In October 2007, a group of researchers at University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute conducted a census of the Internet and presented their data using a Hilbert curve, which they claimed was inspired by an xkcd comic that used a similar technique.[46][47][‡ 52] Inspired by the same comic, the Carna Botnet used a Hilbert curve to present data in their 2012 Internet Census.[48]
  • YouTube has placed a feature on comments that plays back the comment aloud on "Audio Preview", possibly based on the strip "Listen to Yourself".[‡ 53][49][50]
  • Running the following code is an easter egg in Python 2.7 and on: import antigravity, inspired by the strip "Python".[‡ 54][51] In Python 3, the module also contains a geohashing function, and in 3.4, Python opens the page of the comic when run with no other code.
  • In the xkcd cartoon "Troll Slayer",[‡ 55] 4chan's /b/ boards are taken over by Twilight lovers. In response to this, /b/ was temporarily renamed "Twilight Appreciation Station", and included the text "We have met the enemy and he is us", which appears in the cartoon as a note added by Randall Munroe. In order to prevent /b/ from trolling the xkcd forums, registration was blocked for several days after the comic appeared.
  • In November 2010, in response to the comic "Malamanteau", several Wikipedia editors attempted to create a Wikipedia article of the same name, which led to a large debate about what does and does not belong in the encyclopedia.[52]
  • GNU Emacs 23.1 introduced a M-x butterfly easter egg, in response to "Real Programmers".[‡ 56][53]
  • Drupal's command-line utility Drush has a make-me-a-sandwich command, which requires sudo access, just like in "Sandwich".[‡ 42][54]
Cory Doctorow wears a red cape, goggles and a balloon as he receives the 2007 EFF Pioneer Award
Inspired by "Blagofaire"[‡ 46]
  • RepRap/Makerbot operator Allan Ecker was inspired by xkcd "Infrastructures"[‡ 57] to actually design a tiny open source violin, available on Thingiverse.[55]
  • Based on "Packages",[‡ 58] programmers have set up programs to automatically find an item for sale on the Internet for $1.00 every day.[56][57]
  • "Rule 34"[‡ 59] has the characters commenting on the lack of pornography featuring women in the shower playing electric guitar. Randall Munroe subsequently created the website WetRiffs.com, which used to host submitted pictures of men and women in showers playing guitars.[‡ 60]
  • In response to "Password Strength",[‡ 61] Dropbox shows two messages reading "lol" and "Whoa there, don't take advice from a webcomic too literally ;)" when attempting to register with the password "correcthorsebatterystaple".[58] ArenaNet recommended that Guild Wars 2 users create passwords following the guidelines of the same comic.[59]
  • Following "Approximations",[‡ 62] the equation for the White House switchboard constant described in the comic was added to WolframAlpha database.[60]
  • Inspired by "Network",[‡ 63] a virus aquarium was created.[61]

Awards and recognition[edit]

xkcd has been recognized at the Web Cartoonists' Choice Awards. In the 2008 Awards, it was nominated for "Outstanding Use of the Medium", "Outstanding Short Form Comic", and "Outstanding Comedic Comic", and won "Outstanding Single Panel Comic".[62] xkcd was also voted Best Comic Strip by readers in the 2007 Weblog Awards[63] and 2008 Weblog Awards.[64] It was also nominated for a 2009 NewNowNext Award in the category 'OMFG Internet Award'.[65][66] Randall Munroe was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist in both 2011 and 2012.[67][68] He won a Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story in 2014, for "Time".[69]

Translations[edit]

xkcd comics have been translated into a number of languages. One group of readers has translated the first 729 comics into French[‡ 64] and nearly half of the comics have been translated into Russian.[‡ 65] One reader has translated many of the comics into Spanish; translations exist for comics that, according to the translator, can be translated without losing their humor.[‡ 66] Various xkcd comics have also been translated into German,[‡ 67] Finnish,[‡ 68] Czech,[‡ 69] Portuguese,[‡ 70] Esperanto,[‡ 71] Lojban,[‡ 72] and Yiddish.[‡ 73]

Books[edit]

In September 2009, Munroe released a book, entitled xkcd: volume 0, containing selected xkcd comics.[‡ 74] The book was published by breadpig, under a Creative Commons license, CC BY-NC 3.0,[70] with all of the publisher's profits donated to Room to Read to promote literacy and education in the developing world. Six months after release, the book had sold over 25,000 copies. The book tour in New York City and Silicon Valley was a fundraiser for Room to Read that raised $32,000 to build a school in Salavan Province, Laos.[71][72]

In October 2012, xkcd: volume 0 was included in the Humble Bundle eBook Bundle. It was available for download only to those who donated higher than the average donated for the other eBooks. The book was released DRM-free, in two different-quality PDF files.[73]

On March 12, 2014, Randall Munroe announced the book What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions. The book was released September 2, 2014. The book expands on the What-If series on the website.[‡ 75][74]

On May 13, 2015, Randall announced a new book titled "Thing Explainer" set to be released late 2015.[75] The book is an expansion of comic 1133 "Up goer five" and uses only the thousand most commonly used words to explain different devices.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chivers, Tom (November 6, 2009). "The 10 best webcomics, from Achewood to XKCD". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  2. ^ "xkcd". Randall Munroe. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  3. ^ Arthur, Charles; Schofield, Jack; Keegan, Victor et al. (December 17, 2008). "100 top sites for the year ahead". The Guardian. Retrieved December 4, 2014. 
  4. ^ Guzmán, Mónica (May 11, 2007). "What's Online". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. p. D7. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Created by math and programming geek Randall Munroe, the xkcd comic updates every Monday with a new adventure for its cast of oddball stick figures. 
  5. ^ "Ad Lib, Section: Ticket". Kalamazoo Gazette. August 17, 2006. 
  6. ^ "xkcd.com search: "parody week"". Ohnorobot.com. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  7. ^ Fernandez, Rebecca (November 25, 2006). "xkcd: A comic strip for the computer geek". Red Hat Magazine. Retrieved March 6, 2007. 
  8. ^ "Creator of web comic xkcd addresses absurd hypotheticals". Wired UK. 
  9. ^ Coffin, Ariane (July 13, 2012). "XKCD Answers Your Hypothetical Questions With Physics | GeekMom". Wired. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  10. ^ Garber, Megan (September 26, 2012). "A Conversation With Randall Munroe, the Creator of XKCD". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  11. ^ http://whatif.xkcd.com/book/
  12. ^ What if I wrote a book? | xkcd
  13. ^ XKCD ‘What if?’ book announced by Randall Munroe | News | Geek.com
  14. ^ Noam Cohen, The New York Times, We’re All Nerds Now, September 13, 2014.
  15. ^ http://blog.xkcd.com/2015/05/13/new-book-thing-explainer
  16. ^ Cohen, Noam (May 26, 2008). "This Is Funny Only if You Know Unix". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  17. ^ a b Tossell, Ivor (May 18, 2007). "We're looking at each other, and it's not a pretty sight". Globe and Mail (Canada). p. 2. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 
  18. ^ Cubbison, Brian (May 5, 2007). "PostScript: Upstate Blogroll, New Hotness, and more". Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  19. ^ Katz, Farley (October 15, 2008). "Cartoon-Off: XKCD". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  20. ^ "'Click And Drag,' XKCD Webcomic, Rewards Explorers (IMAGES)". Huffington Post. September 9, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Everything You Need to Know About xkcd Comic "Click and Drag"". Geekosystem. September 19, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012. 
  22. ^ Dyess, Phil. "Check out XKCD’s epic multi-day animation comic · The A.V. Club". Avclub.com. Retrieved November 20, 2013. 
  23. ^ Hudson, Laura (August 2, 2013). "Creator of xkcd Reveals Secret Backstory of His Epic 3,099-Panel Comic". Wired (magazine). Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  24. ^ Das, Debarghya (April 2, 2013). "The April Fools' XKCD Alma Mater Challenge". Retrieved November 27, 2013. 
  25. ^ xkcd: xkcloud
  26. ^ a b Moses, Andrew (November 21, 2007). "Former NASA staffer creates comics for geeks". The Gazette (University of Western Ontario). Retrieved November 22, 2007. 
  27. ^ "Neil Gaiman, Wil Wheaton Reenact ‘XKCD’ Strip". Comicsalliance.com. February 8, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2013. 
  28. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wood&oldid=224146762
  29. ^ "Wikipedia Is Not Amused By Entry For xkcd-Coined Word". Slashdot. Retrieved May 17, 2010. 
  30. ^ McKean, Erin (May 30, 2010). "One-Day Wonder". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 31, 2010. 
  31. ^ O'Kane, Erin (April 5, 2007). "Geek humor: Nothing to be ashamed of". The Whit Online. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2007. 
  32. ^ xkcd.com/1363
  33. ^ xkcd.com/1465
  34. ^ xkcd.com/1549
  35. ^ gizmodo.com/would-you-buy-the-xkcd-smartphone-1570756920
  36. ^ boingboing.net/2014/05/02/some-considerations-for-potent.html
  37. ^ http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2015/07/the-xkcd-phone-3-so-good-they-made-another-one
  38. ^ Peter Trinh (September 14, 2007). "A comic you can’t pronounce". Imprint Online. Retrieved September 16, 2007. 
  39. ^ Zelinsky, Joshua (March 4, 2008). "Randall Munroe, writer of xkcd, talks about the comic, politics and the internet" (Interview). Wikinews. Retrieved September 22, 2008. 
  40. ^ Chivers, Tom (2009-11-06). "The 10 best webcomics, from Achewood to XKCD". Telagraph.co.uk. 
  41. ^ "Stallman trumpets free software". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved October 19, 2007. 
  42. ^ "Richard Stallman Debate". Blog of the YPU. October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  43. ^ Cohen, Georgiana (September 26, 2007). "The wisdom of crowds". The Phoenix. Retrieved September 27, 2007. 
  44. ^ "NASA Spot The Station". Retrieved July 18, 2014. 
  45. ^ Chun Yu (November 12, 2007). "The man [hiding] behind the raptor". The Tartan. Retrieved November 12, 2007. 
  46. ^ Paul McNamara (October 9, 2007). "Researchers ping through first full 'Internet census' in 25 years". Buzzblog. Networkworld.com. Retrieved October 10, 2007. 
  47. ^ "62 Days + Almost 3 Billion Pings + New Visualization Scheme = the First Internet Census Since 1982". Information Science Institute. October 9, 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007. 
  48. ^ "Internet Census 2012: Port scanning /0 using insecure embedded devices". Retrieved May 8, 2014. 
  49. ^ Moore, Matthew (October 10, 2008). "YouTube 'play back' feature to humiliate inane commenters". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved October 10, 2008. 
  50. ^ McNamara, Paul (October 9, 2008). "YouTube Takes a Page From xkcd". PC World. Retrieved October 10, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Source of antigravity.py". October 15, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2009. 
  52. ^ McKean, Erin (May 30, 2010). "One-day wonder: How fast can a word become legit?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 10, 2014. 
  53. ^ "emacs 23 has been released!". July 28, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009. 
  54. ^ "sandwich.drush.inc". Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Tiny Open Violin by MaskedRetriever". Thingiverse. May 21, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  56. ^ "csKw:projects:cheepcheep". Shaunwagner.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  57. ^ "xkcd #576". bieh.net. November 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2012. 
  58. ^ "Correcthorsebatterystaple – the guys at Dropbox are funny | Naked Security". Nakedsecurity.sophos.com. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  59. ^ "Mandatory Password Change is Coming". GuildWars2.com. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  60. ^ "white house switchboard constant - Wolfram-Alpha". Wolfram Alpha LLC. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  61. ^ "We.CanHas.TheTechnology - A Virus Farm". Virus Farm. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  62. ^ "2008 List of Winners and Finalists". Web Cartoonists' Choice Awards. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  63. ^ Aylward, Kevin (November 11, 2008). "The 2007 Weblog Award Winners". Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  64. ^ Aylward, Kevin (January 15, 2009). "The 2008 Weblog Awards Winners". Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  65. ^ "2009 NewNowNext Awards | accessdate =June 14, 2009 | publisher=Viacom International Inc.| unused_data=The Best in Gay & Lesbian Pop Culture|Logo Online". 
  66. ^ Warn, Sarah (May 21, 2009). "Photos: 2009 NewNowNext Awards". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2009. 
  67. ^ "Hugo Awards Page". Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Hugo Awards Page". Retrieved April 20, 2014. 
  69. ^ "2014 Hugo Award Winners". Retrieved August 19, 2014. 
  70. ^ "Sidekick for Hire — xkcd: volume 0". Breadpig. Retrieved November 20, 2013. 
  71. ^ Alexis Ohanian (March 15, 2010). "The xkcd school in Laos is complete! Rejoice!". Breadpig. Archived from the original on 2010-03-22. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  72. ^ Randall Munroe (October 11, 2009). "School". Randall Munroe. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  73. ^ Humble Indie Bundle (October 16, 2012). "Humble eBook Bundle is Now Five Times More Hilarious!". Humble Indie Bundle. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  74. ^ "XKCD ‘What if?’ book announced by Randall Munroe - News - Geek.com". @geekdotcom. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  75. ^ http://blog.xkcd.com/2015/05/13/new-book-thing-explainer/

Individual comics, translations and other affiliated sources[edit]

In the text these references are preceded by a double dagger: ‡

  1. ^ a b c d Munroe, Randall (July 17, 2014). "About xkcd". xkcd. Retrieved March 25, 2011. 
  2. ^ Munroe, Randall. "What If". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  3. ^ Munroe, Randall (May 4, 2010). "License". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  4. ^ "aspragg" (March 9, 2009). "xkcd • View topic – Puzzles from the xkcd book (big puzzle SOLVED!)". xkcd.com. Retrieved April 21, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Aaeriele" (June 27, 2010). "xkcd • View topic – OFFICIAL! MEETUP: San Francisco, CA – June 26, 2010". Retrieved April 21, 2011. 
  6. ^ Munroe, Randall. "Umwelt". xkcd. 
  7. ^ "xkcd • View topic – 1037: "Umwelt"". April 1, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2012. 
  8. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 19, 2012). "Click and Drag". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  9. ^ Munroe, Randall (June 27, 2008). "xkcd Loves the Discovery Channel (#442)". xkcd. Retrieved June 27, 2008. 
  10. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 1, 2006). "Hyphen". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  11. ^ Munroe, Randall (May 16, 2007). "Collecting Double Takes". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  12. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 23, 2006). "Hobby". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  13. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 8, 2010). "Control". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c Munroe, Randall (May 12, 2010). "Malamanteau". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  15. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 24, 2007). "The Problem with Wikipedia". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  16. ^ Munroe, Randall (November 16, 2011). "Citogenesis". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  17. ^ Munroe, Randall (July 4, 2007). "Wikipedian Protester". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  18. ^ Munroe, Randall (July 7, 2008). "In Popular Culture". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  19. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 30, 2013). "Star Trek into Darkness". xkcd. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  20. ^ Munroe, Randall (April 1, 2013). "Externalities". xkcd. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  21. ^ Munroe, Randall. "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles". xkcd.com. Retrieved August 25, 2014. 
  22. ^ Munroe, Randall (June 16, 2006). "City". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  23. ^ Munroe, Randall (October 27, 2006). "Before Sunrise". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  24. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 4, 2008). "Your Mom". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  25. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 24, 2007). "28-Hour Day". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  26. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 1, 2006). "Red Spiders". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  27. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 1, 2006). "Red Spiders 2". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  28. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 9, 2006). "Counter-Red Spiders". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  29. ^ Munroe, Randall (July 10, 2006). "Red Spiders Cometh". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  30. ^ Munroe, Randall (May 4, 2009). "The Race". xkcd. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  31. ^ Munroe, Randall. "Blag post about cancer". xkcd. 
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  33. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 1, 2006). "Poisson". xkcd. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  34. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 20, 2006). "Boombox". xkcd. Retrieved November 26, 2008. 
  35. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 26, 2007). "Letting Go". xkcd. Retrieved November 26, 2008. 
  36. ^ Munroe, Randall (May 7, 2007). "Jealousy". xkcd. Retrieved November 26, 2008. 
  37. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 19, 2008). "The Staple Madness". xkcd. Retrieved November 26, 2008. 
  38. ^ Munroe, Randall. "M.C. Hammer Slide". xkcd. 
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  42. ^ a b Munroe, Randall. "Sandwich". xkcd. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  43. ^ "Life Imitates xkcd, Part II: Richard Stallman". April 19, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007. 
  44. ^ Munroe, Randall (March 26, 2007). "Dream Girl". xkcd. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Cory Doctorow, Part II". March 28, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007. 
  46. ^ a b Munroe, Randall (March 23, 2007). "Blagofaire". xkcd. Retrieved November 17, 2007. 
  47. ^ "People Playing Chess on Roller Coasters". Retrieved August 20, 2007. 
  48. ^ Munroe, Randall (April 16, 2007). "Chess Photo". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Geo Hashing". xkcd. Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Geohashing maps and statistics". xkcd. Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
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  54. ^ Munroe, Randall (December 5, 2007). "Python". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
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  56. ^ Munroe, Randall (February 2008). "Real Programmers". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  57. ^ Munroe, Randall (May 21, 2010). "Infrastructures". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
  58. ^ Munroe, Randall (May 1, 2009). "Packages". xkcd. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 
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  62. ^ Munroe, Randall. "Approximations". xkcd. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  63. ^ Munroe, Randall (November 28, 2007). "Network". xkcd. Retrieved July 21, 2014. 
  64. ^ "xkcd en français". 
  65. ^ "ru_xkcd". Retrieved November 7, 2008. 
  66. ^ "xkcd-es – Un webcómic sobre romance, sarcasmo, mates y lenguaje". Es.xkcd.com. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  67. ^ "xkcDE". 
  68. ^ "xkcd suomeksi". 
  69. ^ "xkcd česky". 
  70. ^ "xkcd em português". 
  71. ^ "xkcd en Esperanto". 
  72. ^ "jbotcan". 
  73. ^ "xkcd in Yiddish". 
  74. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 10, 2009). "Book! « xkcd". Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  75. ^ "What if I wrote a book?". Randall Munroe. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]