Malappuram district

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Malappuram district
Kottakkunnu Hills in 2009, Malappuram
Kottakkunnu Hills in 2009, Malappuram
Location in Kerala, India
Location in Kerala, India
Malappuram district is located in Kerala
Malappuram district
Malappuram district
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 11°02′N 76°03′E / 11.03°N 76.05°E / 11.03; 76.05Coordinates: 11°02′N 76°03′E / 11.03°N 76.05°E / 11.03; 76.05
Country India
State Kerala
Headquarters Malappuram
 • Collector Amit Meena IAS
 • Total 3,550 km2 (1,370 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,110,956
 • Rank 1
 • Density 1,158/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code [[ISO 3166-2:IN|IN-KL-MLP]]
Vehicle registration KL-10, KL-53, KL-54, KL-55, KL-65, KL-71
Sex ratio 1096 /
Literacy 93.55%

Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India. The district was formed on 16 June 1969. Malappuram district is composed of portions of the former Palakkad and Kozhikode districts: Ernad taluk and portions of Tirur taluk in Kozhikode district, and portions of Perinthalmannna and Ponnani taluks in Palakkad district.

Historically a stronghold of orthodox Brahminical Hinduism many famous scholars like Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri who composed the Narayaneeyam in Sanskrit, poonthanam namboodiri and Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan came from Malappuram. The ancient Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics though mainly centred in Thrissur also had namboodiri and nair scholars coming from malappuram. Today the district includes Thirunavaya, the classic medieval centre of Vedic learning; Kottakkal, home of Ayurveda medicine. Islam came to Malappuram early in prophet Mohammed's era itself. Ponnani, one of the oldest centres of Islamic education in the region is located here.

In 1921 the present-day Malappuram district was part of the Moplah rebellions, followed by decades of stagnant economic, social and political development. In the early years of Communist rule in Kerala, Malappuram experienced land reform under the Land Reform Ordinance. During the 1970s Persian Gulf oil reserves were opened to commercial extraction, and thousands of unskilled workers migrated to the Gulf. They sent money home, supporting the rural economy, and by the late 20th century the region had First World health standards and near-universal literacy.[1]

Malappuram district contains abundant wildlife and a number of small hills, forests, rivers and streams flowing to the west, backwaters and paddy, arecanut, cashew nut, pepper, ginger, pulses, coconut, banana, tapioca, and rubber plantations. Malappuram is one of two Muslim-majority districts in south India. The Hindu temples and Moplah mosques of the region are known for their colorful festivals, and it is the most populous district in Kerala.[2] Religions practised in the district include Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and tribal religions.[3]


Malappuram, meaning "terraced place atop the hills", derives from the geography of the district headquarters. Before the district's formation, the region was known as Eranad, Valluvanad, Vettathunad etc.

The district has a rich cultural and political heritage. The port of Ponnani (roughly identified with Tyndis) was a centre of trade with Ancient Rome. After the Chera Dynasty a number of dynasties controlled the area, and by the ninth century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states emerged, including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu (Tanur), Parappanad and Nediyiruppu (ruled by the Zamorins). During the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district.

European colonial powers first landed in Malabar during the 15th century, and the Samoothiris often allied with foreign powers. During the 18th century, the de facto Mysore kingdom rulers Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan marched into the Samoothiris’ districts.

Older man in traditional dress, looking left
Ali Musliyar, one of the chief Moplah rebels

Malappuram has been part of movements such as Khilafat Movement and Moplah Rebellion in the early 20th century. Before Indian independence in 1947, Malappuram was part of Malabar District in the Madras Presidency of British India. The present district was administered as parts of Kozhikode, Eranad taluk, Valluvanad Taluk and Ponnani taluk. Malabar District remained part of Madras state for some time after independence, but on 1 November 1956 it merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the state of Kerala. Large-scale changes in the territorial jurisdiction of the region took place in 1957 and 1969. On 1 January 1957, Tirur taluk was formed from portions of Eranad taluk and Ponnani taluk. Another portion of Ponnani taluk was transferred to the new Chavakkad taluk in Thrissur district, and the remainder is present-day Ponnani taluk. Perinthalmanna taluk was formed from the former Valluvanad Taluk. Of these, Eranad Taluk and Tirur remained in Kozhikode District and Perinthalmanna Taluk and Ponnani taluk remained in Palakkad District. The new district of Malappuram was formed with four taluks (Eranad, Perinthalmanna, Tirur and Ponnani), four towns, fourteen developmental blocks and 100 panchayats. Two more taluks, Tirurangadi, Nilambur and Kondotty were formed from Tirur Taluk and Eranad taluk.


Peaceful, tree-lined river
Kadalundi River

The district, in northern Kerala, is bounded on the northeast by Wayanad and northwest by Kozhikkode districts, on the northeast by Tamil Nadu, on the southeast and south by Palakkad District, on the southwest by Thrissur District and on the west by the Arabian Sea.


In Tirur and Ponnani taluks, the villages of Biyyam, Veliyancode, Manur and Kodinhi have fishing and boating facilities.


Religions in Malappuram District
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions
Source: 2011 Census.

In the 2011 census the district had a population of 4,112,920.[2]

Malappuram is the 50th-most-populous of India's 640 districts,[2] with a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000/sq mi).[2] Its population-growth rate from 2001 to 2011 was 13.39 percent.[2] Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 women to 1000 men,[2] and its literacy rate is 93.55 percent.[2]


Malayalam is the district's principal language. Minority Dravidian languages are Allar (350 speakers)[4] and Aranadan, kept alive by the low education level of its 200 speakers.[5]


Indian Parliament Constituencies[edit]

  • Malappuram
  • Ponnani
  • Wyanad (part)


  • Ernad
  • Tirur
  • Tirurangadi
  • Ponnani
  • Perintalmanna
  • Nilambur
  • Kondotty

Kerala Assembly Constituencies[edit]

Malappuram, Manjeri, Kondotty, Eranad, Mankada, Perinthalmanna, Thirurangadi, Vengara, Vallikkunnu, Tirur, Tanur, Kottakkal, Nilambur, Wandoor, Ponnani and Tavanur


Tourist Places[edit]

Map of Malappuram district
Chola Check Dam, near Perinthalmmana
Kolmanna river, 5 km from Malappuram
Downhill, Malappuram, India.

Areas of particular interest to tourists are:

  • Malappuram — This historic place is the district capital. The District Collectorate, Civil Station and District Police force are headquartered here. The city is mainly divided into four parts : Uphill, Downhill, Melmuri, and Panakkad. Malappuram has been the headquarters of European and British troops. The present Civil Station was the permanent military station of the British Army. Their Cantonment Hill is now a major tourist spot, Kottakunnu (Fort Hill in English) is now one of the major tourism destination in the state with wide variety of leisure facilities. The burials of the Martyrs (known as the Malappuram Shaheeds) of war with erstwhile chieftain Paranambi is at Malappuram Valiya Palli at Valiyangadi in the city, it is one of the oldest Masjids in Kerala built in traditional architecture. Malabar Special Police, which is the second largest paramilitary force in India after the Assam Rifles were established in 1921 and is headquartered in Uphill. The headquarters of India's largest Gramin bank, the SMG Bank, is on Ahmed Kurikkal Road in the Middle Hill of the city. Arimbra Hills, Malappuram is also one of the sought after tourism destination near city. It is a high altitude area with green mountains. Another attraction is Shanthitheeram located near civil station which is a riverside park with facilities for boating and walking.
  • Kottakkal — Famous center of Ayurveda, located 10 km from Down hill
  • Manjeri— District court is seated at here. It is located 12 km northeast of the district headquarters.
  • Perinthalmanna— Known for various hospital facilities. It is 20 km from the district capital, on the Coimbatore route.
  • Tirur—Birthplace of Thunchan Ramanujan Ezhuthchan and location of Malayalam University
  • Kuttayi beach and estuary is the major tourist attracted area in Malappuram district.
  • Nilambur—Famous for being the World's only Teak Museum at Canoly plot.
  • Tanur Beach and Keraladeshpuram Temple
  • Thirumandhamkunnu Temple—an important pilgrim centre in Malappuram, located at Angadipuram. A memorial for the martyrs of Mamankam is preserved near the temple.
  • Thirunavaya—Famous for Mamankam
  • Kondotty—Birthplace of the great Mappila poet Moyinkutty Vaidyar
  • Mampuram—One of the biggest pilgrim centres of Kerala, a main centre of the Moplah Rebellion against the British colonialists
  • Kadalundipuzha River with the Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary
  • Devi Temple, Kadampuzha
  • Vairamkode—Famous for Vairamkode Bhagavathi Temple and Vela/Theeyaattu Temple Festival.
  • Karuvarakundu—Famous for kalkkundu water falls and cherumb eco village.

The Karipur International Airport and the University of Calicut are located in Malappuram.

New Amarambalam Wildlife Sanctuary or New Amarambalam Reserved Forest is a reserve forest situated in the Nilambur taluk of Malappuram District. It is only 22 km from Nilambur and 56 km from the district headquarters Malappuram.It forms a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. It has a variety of Fauna and Flora. It is also one of the largest reserve forest in Kerala. It continues southwards and joins Silent Valley National Park of the Palakkad District.

Art and culture[edit]

Thunchath Ezhuthachan, the father of Malayalam literature, was born in Trikkandiyur _Tirur]]). Mampuram was a centre of the Moplah Rebellion of 1921, and Mampuram Thangal is buried there. It is the birthplace of Omar Qazi, a Muslim scholar and a leader of anti-British movements. Kathakali musician Tirur Nambissan was born in Ezhoor, and the poets Mahakavi Vallathol Narayana Menon, V.C. Balakrishna Paniker and Moyinkutty Vaidyar were born in Malappuram. Malappuram is also the birthplace of Poonthanam, remembered for his poetic masterpiece "Jnanappana".

Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics[edit]

Mathematicians from Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, Achyuta Pisharati and Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji were born in Thrikandiyur in Tirur. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri is known for his Narayaneeyam.

Fairs and festivals[edit]

Low, square building with a decorated wood-shingle roof
Thriprangodu Shiva Temple

The eleven-day Thirumandhamkunnu pooram, in March or April, is a temple festival in central Malabar. Tirumanthamkunnu Temple is, with Kodungallur and Panayarakavu, one of Kerala's three main Bhagavati temples. Vairamkode Vela (temple festival), or Theeyaattu, is a six-day festival held in February from Sunday to Friday featuring processions, fireworks and markets. Kottakkal is also noted for its March–April temple festival, Kottakkal pooram, where Indian classical artists perform. The Nilambur Pattu is a week-long festival, held in January at its Kovilakam. The Malaparamba Perunnal is a church festival in Malaparamba, near Angadipuram, and there are also summer church festivals in Pariyapuram, Chungathara and Edakkara.

Kondotty Nercha is a week-long festival in March at the 18th-century Pazhayangadi Mosque. The tomb of the Sufi Mohammed Shah is near the Mughal-style mosque. The Andu Nercha of Puthenpalliis held at Perumpadappu, in the southwestern part of the district. During the festival, ney choru (rice with ghee) is distributed to devotees and the poor. The Omanoor Nercha is a mosque festival which commemorates martyrs.


About 1,000 people are aided annually under a self-employment programme. There are KINFRA food-processing and IT industrial estates in Kakkancherry, Inkel SME Park at Panakkad for Small and Medium Industries and a rubber plant and industrial estate in Payyanad. MALCOSPIN, The Malappuram Spinning Mills Limited is one of the oldest industrial establishment in the district under state Government. Wood-related industries are common in Kottakkal, Edavanna, Vaniyambalam, Karulai, Nilambur and Mampad. Sawmills, furniture manufacturers and the timber trade are the most important businesses in the district. Employees' State Insurance has its branch office at Malappuram. Wood-related industries are in Kottakkal, Edavanna, Vaniyambalam, Karulai, Nilambur and Mampad. Sawmills, furniture manufacturers and the timber trade are the most important businesses in the district. Employees' State Insurance has a branch office in Malappuram.

As of July 2013, Malappuram is the highest beneficiary in receiving donations from migrants abroad among all the districts in Kerala.[6]


Kottakkal in Malappuram is famous for authentic Ayurvedic treatment with the Vaidyaratnam P.S.Varier Arya Vaidya Saala, a world-famous institution situated at down hill Kottakkal. There is an Ayurveda College functioning under its aegis, V.P.S.V. Ayurveda College situated on the national highway, in between Changuvetty and Edarikode. Malappuram currently has two Medical colleges, Government Medical College, Manjeri and MES Medical College. All the towns of the district has multiple quality hospitals both in government and private sector. Out of which the towns of Perinthalmanna and Kottakkal attracts a large number of patients under general as well as health tourism category. Considering the number of health related institutions established and upcoming in the district, Government of Kerala has decided to promote the region as Health city under Vision 2030.

Presently, Malappuram is one of the leading district in India which have most number of medical students as undergraduates studying at various colleges across the country and abroad.


Modern, glass-fronted buildings
Karipur International Airport


Calicut International Airport is in Karipur, 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the Malappuram town centre.


Two railway lines pass through the district. The Mangalore-Madras line runs along the coast, with stations (from north to south) at Vallikkunnu, Parappanangadi, Tanur, Tirur, Tirunavaya and Kuttippuram. The Nilambur–Shoranur railway line runs through the eastern part of the district, with stations at Nilambur, Vaniyambalam, Thuvur, Melattur, Pattikkad, Angadipuram and Cherukara.


Bus service is available throughout the district, with 93 routes operated by Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) on major roads and 300 intercity routes passing through the district. There are four KSRTC bus stations, at Malappuram Depot, Ponnani, Perinthalmanna and Nilambur.[citation needed]

National Highway 17, renumbered NH 66, enters the district at Idimuzhikkal in the north and runs for 82 kilometres (51 mi) through Calicut University, Kottakkal, Valanchery, Kuttipuram, Thavanur, Ponnani, Puduponnani, Veliyancode and Kadikkad before entering Thrissur district in the south. National Highway 213, renumbered NH 966, enters the district at Iykarappadi (near Ramanattukara) and runs for 68 kilometres (42 mi) through Kondotty, Malappuram and Perinthalmanna to Karinkallathani.

Fish being brought into a harbor
Ponnani Harbor

State highways such as Tirur-Malappuram-Manjeri, Malappuram-Parappanangadi, Valanchery-Nilambur and the Kozhikode-Nilambur-Gudalur road pass through the district. The district has 208 kilometres (129 mi) of state highway, 1,220 kilometres (760 mi) of major district roads, 102 kilometres (63 mi) of other district roads and 160 kilometres (99 mi) of rural roads.

The Chaliyar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha and Thutha rivers and their tributaries flow through the district, requiring a number of road bridges. Bridges include the Kuttippuram, Thutha and Pulamanthole bridges across the Bharathapuzha, bridges at Kottakadavu, Parakkadav, Thayyilakadav, Panampuzha, Koomankallu, Nooradi, Kottilangadi, Aanakkayam, Melattur, Kalikavu, Olipram Kadavu, Koomankallu, Kuzhipram Kadavu and Panakkadu across the Kadalundi River, bridges at Areekode, Edavanna, Mampad, Vadapuram, Myladi, Karimpuzha, Koorad, Kattadikadavu, Cherupuzha, Kadungallur and Poonkudi across the Chaliyar and its tributaries and bridges at Edakulam, Thalakadathur, Tirur, Unniyal, Mangattiri, Ettirikkadavu across the Tirur River.

Proposed projects[edit]

  • Formation of a Malappuram Development Authority for the sustainable development of Malappuram and its surrounding panchayats, similar to the development authorities of other cities in the state
  • A Kozhikode-Malappuram-Angadipuram-Ottappalam railway line connecting Malappuram with Karippur Airport and Kozhikode.
  • Expediting construction of the KSRTC bus terminal and shopping complex in Uphill
  • Expediting Edu-Health City construction in Panakkad, including a cancer hospital
  • Modernisation and relocation of Down Hill Market and bus stand to Down Hill bypass area
  • Completion of the Kottappadi Bypass
  • A new road from Malappuram to Valanchery, as proposed in Malappuram District Urbanization Report by state planning department.
  • Two new National Highways: Malappuram-Manjeri-Gudalur and Malappuram-Kolathur-Pulamanthol-Thrissur


The district has four education districts (Tirur, Malappuram, Wandoor and Tirurangadi) and 17 education sub-districts. The University of Calicut is in Thenjipalam, and AMU (Aligarh Muslim University) Malappuram Centre is in Chelamala. Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University is in Tirur Thunchan Parambu, 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the Malappuram city centre.

Medical colleges[edit]

Nursing Colleges[edit]

  • Almas College Nursing
  • Al Shifa College of Nursing
  • EMS Memorial Cooperative Hospital College of Nursing
  • Moulana Hospital College of Nursing
  • MES Medical College College of Nursing[9]

Engineering colleges[edit]

  • Calicut University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Thenhipalam
  • Eranad Knowledge City Technical Campus (EKC), Cherukulam, Manjeri
  • Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tavanur
  • M.E.S. Engineering College, Kuttippuram
  • M.E.A. Engineering College, Perinthalmanna
  • Veda Vyasa Institute of Technology, Karadparamba
  • Cochin College of Engineering and Technology, Valancheri

Arts & Science Colleges[edit]


  • Unity women's college, Manjeri
  • Ma'din Arts and Science college, Malappuram
  • PSMO college, [ Tirurangadi]
  • PMST Arts and science college, [Kundoor]
  • Emea arts and science college, Kondotty
  • Priyadarshini College, Malappuram
  • Government College, Mankada
  • Government college,[Vilayil], Kondotty
  • Sullamussalam Arabic college, Areakode
  • KAHM Unity Women's College, Manjeri
  • SAFI College, Vazhayur
  • SAFA College of arts and science, valanchery
  • MES KVM College, Valanchery
  • Empire College, kuttippuram
  • GEMS College of arts and science Ramapuram Puzhakkattiri
  • SNDP YSS College, Perinthalmanna
  • Majlis Arts & Science College, Valanchery
  • Al Salama Group Of Institutions, Hospital Road, Perinthalmanna
  • PTM Gov't College, Perintalmanna
  • Mar Thoma College Chungathara
  • MES Ponnani College, Ponnani
  • Regional college, Mundamparamb kizhisseri
  • Sree Sastha Arts and Science College,Elankur {Manjeri}
  • Najath College of Science And Technology


  • Govt. Arts & Science College, Tavanur
  • Darul Uloom Arabic college, Vazhakkad.
  • markazul tharbiyathul islamiyya, karthala,valanchery
  • shuhada islamic college, puthanangadi,angadippuram

Law Colleges[edit]

  • MCT College of Legal studies, Malappuram
  • KMCT Law College, Kuttippuram


There are 1,472 schools in Malappuram District including 254 high schools.

  • Govt HSS Thiruvali
  • Pmsamahs School, Chemmankadavu
  • Govt HSS Karuvarakundu
  • A.U.P School, Up Hill
  • Vidyanagar Public School, Panakkad
  • Ma'din Public School, Melmuri
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya, Up Hill
  • GBHSS, Down Hill
  • Sree Arunodaya Vidyanikethan, Munduparamba
  • MSP HSS,Malappuram

Post and telecommunications[edit]

The district has two postal divisions (Manjeri and Tirur), four head post offices Malappuram, Manjeri, Tirur, Ponnani, 120 post sub-offices and 284 branch post offices. Speed post facilities are in Malappuram, Manjeri, Perinthalmanna, Calicut University, Karipur, Ponnani, Kottakkal, Kuttippuram and Edappal.

For telecommunications, the district is in the Malappuram Secondary Switching Area. Divisional offices are in Manjeri, Nilambur, Perinthalmanna, Tirur, Ponnani and Parappanangadi.


The morning daily newspapers Suprabhaatham, Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Chandrika and Deshabhimani have printing centres in the district. Prahelika and the Flash are the evening dailies. Monthly, fortnightly and weekly periodicals, primarily devoted to religion and culture, are also published. Local cable-TV channels include Malabar Times, Malappuram Cable Vision (MCV), Asianet Cablevision (ACV) and Den Malabar Vision. The Malappuram Press Club is in Up Hill. Doordarshan has relay stations at Malappuram and Manjeri, and All India Radio has an FM station at Manjeri.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Summer Journey 2011". Time. 21 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  3. ^ pp. 396, Malayala Manorama Yearbook 2006, Kottayam, 2006 ISSN 0970-9096
  4. ^ M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Allar: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28. 
  5. ^ M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Aranadan: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28. 
  6. ^ "Gulf money fueling Muslim extremism in Kerala; IUML grows more militant to take on other radical islamist parties". The Economic Times. 3 July 2013. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Educare Institute of Dental Sciences". Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  9. ^

External links[edit]