Malate dehydrogenase 2

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MDH2
Protein MDH2 PDB 1mld.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases MDH2, M-MDH, MDH, MGC:3559, MOR1, Malate dehydrogenase 2
External IDs MGI: 97050 HomoloGene: 55938 GeneCards: MDH2
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE MDH2 213333 at fs.png

PBB GE MDH2 209036 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001282403
NM_001282404
NM_005918

NM_008617

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001269332
NP_001269333
NP_005909

NP_032643.2
NP_032643

Location (UCSC) Chr 7: 76.05 – 76.07 Mb Chr 5: 135.78 – 135.79 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial also known as malate dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MDH2 gene.[3]

Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, utilizing the NAD/NADH cofactor system in the citric acid cycle. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondria and may play pivotal roles in the malate-aspartate shuttle that operates in the metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria.[4]

Structure[edit]

The protein encoded by MDH2 exists as a dimer, which indicate the important connection between protein stability and enzymatic activity. Each subunit contains two structurally and functionally distinct domains. The first is the NAD-binding domain, which exists in the amino-terminal half of each molecule, and contains a parallel-sheet structure, otherwise known as a Rosman fold motif. The core dinucleotide binding structure is composed of four beta-sheets and one alpha-helix. The other domain is a carboxy-terminal domain that contains the substrate binding site and amino acids that are necessary for catalysis. The active site of these enzymes is in a cleft between two domains.[5] Crystallography reveals the dimer interface, which consists mainly of interacting alpha-helices that form a compact interaction. The active sites in these dimeric proteins are well separated from each other.[6]

Function[edit]

Because malate dehydrogenase is closely tied to the citric acid cycle, regulation is highly dependent on TCA products.[7] Citrate also affects MDH activity by very complex manner. It inhibits the reduction of oxaloacetate under all conditions. Citrate also inhibits malate oxidation, but only at low malate or NAD concentrations. When both malate and NAD concentrations are high (10 mmol/l and 5 mmol/l, respectively), citrate can actually augment MDH2 activity.[8] All three effectors (malate, oxaloacetate and citrate) bind to the same putative allosteric site.[9] Recent studies of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase are focused into the nature of the inactivation processes. The oligomeric structure of MDH2 has a variety of biological implications. Some researches have suggested that the dimeric structure is critical for enzymatic activity. It was first proposed that the reciprocating compulsory ordered mechanism where each subunit alternates as the active and the helper subunit, but both are needed for activity. This mechanism predicts an inactive monomer, and was corroborated by studies that showed a dramatic reduction of enzymatic activity.[10] Studies with mitochondrial MDH2 have shown that this enzyme is allosterically regulated as a complex as well. Binding experiments indicate that mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase can associate with the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and that mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase can associate with this binary complex to form a ternary complex. Formation of this ternary complex enables low levels of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, in the presence of the aminotransferase, to reverse inhibition of malate oxidation by glutamate. Thus, glutamate can react with the aminotransferase in this complex without glutamate inhibiting production of oxalacetate by the malate dehydrogenase in the complex. The conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate could also be facilitated because in the trienzyme complex, oxalacetate might be directly transferred from malate dehydrogenase to the aminotransferase. In addition, association of malate dehydrogenase with these other two enzymes enhances malate dehydrogenase activity due to a marked decrease in the Km of malate. The potential ability of the aminotransferase to transfer directly alpha-ketoglutarate to the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in this multienzyme system plus the ability of succinyl-CoA, a product of this transfer, to inhibit citrate synthase could play a role in preventing alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate from accumulating in high levels. This would maintain the catalytic activity of the multienzyme system because alpha-ketoglutarate and citrate allosterically inhibit malate dehydrogenase and dissociate this enzyme from the multienzyme system.[11]

Clinical Significance[edit]

Mutations in the MDH2 gene have been associated with several cancers, including uterine cancer, prostate cancer, pheochromocytoma and other paragangliomas.[12][13] In particular, MDH2 has been found to be overexpressed in doxorubicin-resistant uterine cancer cells and may contribute to drug resistance. Since MDH2 plays a major role in malate-aspartate shuttling in ATP production, its overexpression likely supplies additional energy for P-glycoprotein to pump chemotherapeutic drugs out of the cells. Likewise, MDH2 contributes to docetaxel resistance in prostate cancer cells via the JNK pathway, and its knockdown reduced ATP levels as well as increased drug sensitivity.Thus, MDH2 may be an effective therapeutic target to enhance drug treatments for cancer.[12]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]
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TCACycle_WP78 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to article go to article go to article
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TCACycle_WP78 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article Go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to HMDB go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to article go to article go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=TCA Cycle edit]]
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "TCACycle_WP78". 
Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]
[[File:
GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
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GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit]]
Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Habets GG, van der Kammen RA, Willemsen V, Balemans M, Wiegant J, Collard JG (1992). "Sublocalization of an invasion-inducing locus and other genes on human chromosome 7". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 60 (3-4): 200–5. doi:10.1159/000133336. PMID 1505215. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: MDH2 malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial)". 
  5. ^ Hall MD, Levitt DG, Banaszak LJ (Aug 1992). "Crystal structure of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase. A complex of the apoenzyme and citrate at 1.87 A resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. 226 (3): 867–82. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90637-Y. PMID 1507230. 
  6. ^ Breiter DR, Resnik E, Banaszak LJ (Nov 1994). "Engineering the quaternary structure of an enzyme: construction and analysis of a monomeric form of malate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli". Protein Science. 3 (11): 2023–32. doi:10.1002/pro.5560031115. PMID 7703849. 
  7. ^ Mullinax TR, Mock JN, McEvily AJ, Harrison JH (Nov 1982). "Regulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Evidence for an allosteric citrate-binding site". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (22): 13233–9. PMID 7142142. 
  8. ^ Gelpí JL, Dordal A, Montserrat J, Mazo A, Cortés A (Apr 1992). "Kinetic studies of the regulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase by citrate". The Biochemical Journal. 283 (1): 289–97. doi:10.1042/bj2830289. PMC 1131027Freely accessible. PMID 1567375. 
  9. ^ Mullinax TR, Mock JN, McEvily AJ, Harrison JH (Nov 1982). "Regulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Evidence for an allosteric citrate-binding site". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (22): 13233–9. PMID 7142142. 
  10. ^ Harada K, Wolfe RG (Aug 1968). "Malic dehydrogenase. VII. The catalytic mechanism and possible role of identical protein subunits". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (15): 4131–7. PMID 4299102. 
  11. ^ Fahien LA, Kmiotek EH, MacDonald MJ, Fibich B, Mandic M (Aug 1988). "Regulation of malate dehydrogenase activity by glutamate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and multienzyme interaction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (22): 10687–97. PMID 2899080. 
  12. ^ a b Lo, YW; Lin, ST; Chang, SJ; Chan, CH; Lyu, KW; Chang, JF; May, EW; Lin, DY; Chou, HC; Chan, HL (April 2015). "Mitochondrial proteomics with siRNA knockdown to reveal ACAT1 and MDH2 in the development of doxorubicin-resistant uterine cancer.". Journal of cellular and molecular medicine. 19 (4): 744–59. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12388. PMC 4395189Freely accessible. PMID 25639359. 
  13. ^ Cascón, A; Comino-Méndez, I; Currás-Freixes, M; de Cubas, AA; Contreras, L; Richter, S; Peitzsch, M; Mancikova, V; Inglada-Pérez, L; Pérez-Barrios, A; Calatayud, M; Azriel, S; Villar-Vicente, R; Aller, J; Setién, F; Moran, S; Garcia, JF; Río-Machín, A; Letón, R; Gómez-Graña, Á; Apellániz-Ruiz, M; Roncador, G; Esteller, M; Rodríguez-Antona, C; Satrústegui, J; Eisenhofer, G; Urioste, M; Robledo, M (11 March 2015). "Whole-exome sequencing identifies MDH2 as a new familial paraganglioma gene.". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 107 (5). doi:10.1093/jnci/djv053. PMID 25766404.