Malayan Declaration of Independence

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Declaration of Independence
Pemasyhuran Kemerdekaan Malaya 1957.jpeg
LocationNational Archives of Malaysia
SignatoriesTunku Abdul Rahman
PurposeTo announce the independence of Malaya from United Kingdom

The Malayan Declaration of Independence (Malay: Pemasyhuran Kemerdekaan Tanah Melayu Jawi: ڤمشهوران كمرديكاءن تانه ملايو), was officially proclaimed on 31 August 1957, by Tunku Abdul Rahman, the first Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya. In a ceremony held at the Merdeka Stadium, the proclamation document was read out at exactly 0930 a.m in the presence of thousands of Malayan citizens, Malay Rulers and foreign dignitaries. The proclamation acknowledges the establishment of an independent and democratic Federation of Malaya, which came into effect on the termination of the British protectorate over nine Malay states and the end of British colonial rule in two Straits Settlements, Malacca and Penang.

The document of the declaration was signed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, who was appointed as the nation's first Prime Minister. The event is celebrated annually in Malaysia with national day Hari Merdeka.

Date of Independence[edit]

The date for Federation of Malaya's Independence on 31 August 1957 was determined after Tunku Abdul Rahman, Haji Sulaiman Palestin, Haji Ahmad Badawi, and a number of other UMNO leaders sought the views of Syeikh Abdullah Fahim, a notable Ulama from Kepala Batas, Penang. According to Syeikh Abdullah Fahim, if the British would not grant independence to Malaya on 31 August 1957, the next fitting date should be 31 August 1962. The Saturday 31 August 1957 was referred by Syeikh Abdullah Fahim as am khair atana (عام خير اتانا) in Arabic which means 'Good Year Has Come to Us'. It was confirmed in a February 1956 Alliance rally in Melaka after the Tunku had just arrived from the United Kingdom.

Declaration ceremony[edit]

On the night of 30 August 1957, crowds gathered at the Royal Selangor Club Padang in Kuala Lumpur to witness the handover of power from the British. Prime Minister-designate Tunku Abdul Rahman arrived at 11:58 p.m. and joined members of the Alliance Party's youth divisions in observing two minutes of darkness.[1] On the stroke of midnight, the lights were switched back on, and the Union Flag in the square was lowered as the royal anthem God Save The Queen.[2] The new Flag of Malaya was raised as the national anthem Negaraku was played. This was followed by seven chants of "Merdeka" by the crowd.[1][2] Tunku Abdul Rahman later gave a speech hailing the ceremony as "greatest moment in the life of the Malayan people".[1] Before giving the address to the crowd, he was given a necklace by representatives of the Alliance Party youth in honour of this great occasion in history, with a map of Malaya inscribed on it. The event ended at one in the morning the next day.

On the morning of 31 August 1957, the festivities moved to the newly completed Merdeka Stadium. More than 20,000 people witnessed the ceremony, which began at 9:30 a.m. Those in attendance included rulers of the Malay states, foreign dignitaries, members of the federal cabinet, and citizens.[3] The Queen's representative, the Duke of Gloucester presented Tunku Abdul Rahman with the instrument of independence.[3] Tunku then proceeded to read the declaration, which culminated in the chanting of "Merdeka!" seven times with the crowd joining in. The ceremony continued with the raising of the National Flag of Malaya accompanied by the national anthem being played by a military band and a 21-gun salute, followed by an azan call and a thanksgiving prayer in honour of this great occasion.[3]

The day followed with the solemn installation of the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, at Jalan Ampang, and the first installation banquet in his honour in the evening followed by a beating retreat performance and a fireworks display. Sports events and other events marked the birth of the new nation.

The document[edit]

The document of the declaration was written in both Malay in Jawi script and English.

Malay in Jawi English
دڠن نام الله يڠ مها ڤموره لاڬي مڠاسيهاني، سڬالا ڤوجي باڬي الله يڠ مها بركواس دان صلوات دان سلام ك اتس سكالين رسول-ڽ In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe and may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon His Messengers.
بهاواسڽ كران تله تيباله ماسڽ باڬي اومت ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو اين منچاڤأي تارف سواتو بڠسا يڠ مرديك لاڬي بردولت سام ستيمڤل كدودوكنڽ دڠن سڬالا بڠسا سلوروه دنيا Whereas the time has now arrived when the people of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu will assume the status of a free independent and sovereign nation among nations of the World
دان بهاواسڽ كران دڠن ڤرجنجين يڠ دسبوت نامڽ ڤرجنجين تانه ملايو تاهون 1957 يڠ دڤربوات انتارا دولي يڠ مها مليا بڬيندا قوين دڠن دولي-دولي يڠ مها مليا راج-راج ملايو، مك، تله دڤرستوجوي بهاوا نڬري-نڬري ملايو، ايايت جوهر، ڤهڠ، نڬري سمبيلن، سلاڠور، قدح، ڤرليس، كلنتن، ترڠڬانو، دان ڤراق سرتا نڬري يڠ دهولوڽ ديناماكن نڬري سلت، ايايت ملاك دان ڤولاو ڤينڠ، مولاي 31 هاري بولن اوڬوس تاهون 1957، هندقله منجادي سبواه ڤرسكوتوان بهارو باڬي نڬري-نڬري يڠ برنام ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو And whereas by an agreement styled the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1957, between Her Majesty the Queen and Their Highnesses the Rulers of the Malay States it was agreed that the Malay States of Johor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu and Perak and the former Settlements of Malacca and Penang should as from the 31st day of August, 1957, be formed into a new Federation of States by the name of Persekutuan Tanah Melayu
دان بهاواسڽ كران تله برستوجو ڤولا انتارا كدوا-دوا ڤيهق دالم ڤرجنجين ترسبوت، ايايت ملاك دان ڤولاو ڤينڠ هندقله درڤد تاريخ ترسبوت ايت تمت درڤد منجادي سباهاڬين درڤد ججاهن تعلوق بڬيندا قوين، دان دولي يڠ مها مليا بڬيندا قوين تيدق لاڬي برحق منجالنكن اڤا٢ كدولتن بڬيندا ك اتس كدوا-دوا بواه نڬري يڠ ترسبوت ايت And whereas it was further agreed between the parties to the said agreement that the Settlements of Malacca and Penang aforesaid should as from the said date cease to form part of Her Majesty’s dominions and that Her Majesty should cease to exercise any sovereignty over them.
دان بهاواسڽ كران تله برستوجو ڤولا انتارا كدوا-دوا ڤيهق يڠ ترسبوت، ايايت ڤرجنجين ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو تاهون 1948، دان سڬالا ڤرانجين يڠ لاين يڠ اد سكارڠ انتارا دولي يڠ مها مليا بڬيندا قوين دڠن دولي-دولي يڠ مها مليا راج-راج اتاوڤون ساله سأورڠ درڤد بڬيندا ايت سبلوم تاريخ يڠ ترسبوت هندقله دبطلكن مولاي درڤد تاريخ ايت، دان سموا كوات كواس دان حق دولي يڠ مها مليا بڬيندا قوين اتاوڤون ڤرليمين نڬري اونيتد كيڠدوم دالم نڬري-نڬري سلت اتاوڤون ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو سلوروهنڽ اداله تمت دڠن سنديريڽ And whereas it was further agreed by the parties aforesaid that the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1948, and all other agreements subsisting between Her Majesty the Queen and Their Highnesses the Rulers or any one of them immediately before the said date should be revoked as from the date and that all powers and jurisdiction of Her Majesty or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in or in respect of the Settlements aforesaid or the Malay States or the Federation as a whole should come to an end
دان بهاواسڽ كران دولي يڠ مها مليا بڬيندا قوين، دولي-دولي يڠ مها مليا راج-راج ملايو، ڤرليمين نڬري اونيتد كيڠدوم دان مجليس-مجليس اوندڠن ڤرسكوتوان دان نڬري-نڬري ملايو تله ملولوسكنڽ، ڤرجنجين ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو تاهون 1957 ايت برجالن كوات كواساڽ And whereas effect has been given to the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1957, by Her Majesty the Queen, Their Highnesses the Rulers, the Parliament of the United Kingdom and the Legislatures of the Federation and of the Malay States
دان بهاواسڽ كران سواتو ڤرلمباڬان باڬي كراجأن ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو تله دتنتوكن منجادي سواتو كانون يڠ معتمد باڬيڽ And whereas a constitution for the Government of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu has been established as the supreme law thereof
دان بهاواسڽ كران ڤرلمباڬان ڤرسكوتوان يڠ ترسبوت ايت، مك، اد دسدياكن شرط اونتوق منجاڬ كسلامتن حق-حق دان كاوتامأن دولي-دولي يڠ مها مليا راج-راج سرتا حق-حق اساسي دان كبيبسن سكالين رعيت دان اونتوق مماجوكن ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو دڠن امان دان داماي سرتا تراتور سباڬاي سبواه كراجأن يڠ ممڤوڽاءي راج يڠ برڤرلمباڬان يڠ برداسركن ديموكراسي چارا ڤرليمين And whereas by the Federal Constitution aforesaid provision is made to safeguard the rights and prerogatives of Their Highnesses the Rulers and the fundamental rights and liberties of the people and to provide for the peaceful and orderly advancement of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu as a constitutional monarchy based on Parliamentary democracy
دان بهاواسڽ كران ڤرلمباڬان ڤرسكوتوان يڠ داداكن اوليه مجليس اوندڠن ڤرسكوتوان يڠ ترسبوت ايت تله دلولوسكن اوليه سواتو اوندڠ-اوندڠ يڠ داداكه اوليه مجليس اوندڠن ڤرسكوتوان سرتا دڠن اوندڠ-اوندڠ يڠ داداكن اوليه نڬري-نڬري ملايو دان دڠن كتتڤن-كتتڤن دالم مجليس اوندڠن نڬري ملاك دان ڤولاو ڤينڠ، دڠن دمكين ڤرلمباڬان ايت تله برجالن كوات كواساڽ ڤد 31 هاري بولن اوڬوس تاهون 1957 And whereas the Federal Constitution aforesaid having been approved by an Ordinance of the Federal Legislatures, by the Enactments of the Malay States and by resolutions of the Legislatures of Malacca and Penang has come into force on the 31st day of August 1957, aforesaid.
مك، دڠن نام الله يڠ مها ڤموره لاڬي مها مڠاسيهاني، ساي تونكو عبدالرحمن ڤوترا ابن المرحوم سلطان عبدالحميد حاليم شه، ڤردان منتري باڬي ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو، دڠن ڤرستوجوان دان ڤركنن دولي-دولي يڠ مها مليا راج-راج نڬري-نڬري ملايو دڠن اين ممشهوركن دان مڠيشتهاركن باڬي ڤيهق اومت ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو بهاوا مولاي تيڬ ڤولوه ساتو هاري بولن اوڬوس تاهون سريبو سمبيلن راتوس ليما ڤولوه توجوه، مك ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو يڠ مڠاندوڠي نڬري جوهر، ڤهڠ، نڬري سمبيلن، سلاڠور، قدح، ڤرليس، كلنتن، ترڠڬانو، ڤراق، ملاك دان ڤولاو ڤينڠ دڠن ليمڤه رحمة الله سبحانه وتعالى اكن ككل منجادي سبواه نڬارا يڠ مرديك دان بردولت سرتا برداسركن كبيبسن دان كعاديلن دان سنتياس منجاڬ دان مڠوتاماكن كسجهترأن دان كسنتوسان رعيتڽ دان مڠكلكن كامانن انتارا سڬالا بڠسا Now, In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful, I Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, Prime Minister of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, with the concurrence and approval of Their Highnesses the Rulers of the Malay States do hereby proclaim and declare on behalf of the people of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu that as from the thirty first day of August, nineteen hundred and fifty seven, the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu comprising the States of Johor, Pahang, Negeri Semblian, Selangor, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu, Perak, Malacca and Penang is and with Allah’s blessing shall be for ever a sovereign democratic and independent State founded upon the principles of liberty and justice and ever seeking the welfare and happiness of its people and the maintenance of a just peace among all nations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "1957: Malaya celebrates independence". BBC. 31 August 1957. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Detik Jam Tengah Malam Di Padang Kelab Selangor" (in Malay). National Archive of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  3. ^ a b c "Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan Tanah Melayu" (in Malay). National Archives of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.