|Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Vietnam, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara|
The Malayo-Sumbawan languages
The languages in Cambodia, Vietnam, Hainan, and the northern tip of Sumatra are Chamic languages (purple). The Ibanic languages (orange) are found mostly inland in western Borneo, perhaps the homeland of the Malayic peoples, and across Sarawak. The Malayan languages (dark red) range from central Sumatra, across Malaya, and throughout coastal Kalimantan. Sundanese (pink), Madurese (ocher), and the Bali–Sasak languages (green) are found in and around Java.
The Malayo-Sumbawan languages are a proposed subgroup of the Austronesian languages that unites the Malayic and Chamic languages with the languages of Java and the western Lesser Sunda Islands, except for Javanese (Adelaar 2005). If valid, it would be the largest demonstrated family of Malayo-Polynesian outside Oceanic. The Malayo-Sumbawan subgroup is however not universally accepted, and is rejected e.g. by Blust (2010) and Smith (2017).
- Sundanese (1 or 2 languages of western Java; incl. Baduy)
- Madurese (2 languages of eastern Java and Madura Island, including Kangean)
- Chamic (a dozen languages, including Acehnese in Aceh of Indonesia, and Cham in South Vietnam, Cambodia and Hainan island of China)
- Malayic (a dozen languages dispersed from either western Borneo or central Sumatra, including Malay (Malaysian/Indonesian), Minangkabau in central Sumatra, and Iban of western Borneo)
- Bali–Sasak–Sumbawa (3 languages)
- Moklenic (2 languages)
Javanese is specifically excluded; the connections between Javanese and Bali–Sasak are mainly restricted to the 'high' register, and disappear when the 'low' register is taken as representative of the languages. This is similar to the case of English, where more 'refined' vocabulary suggests a connection with French, but basic language demonstrates its closer relationship to Germanic languages such as German and Dutch. Moken is also excluded.
Larish (1999) classifies the two languages Moken and Moklen as part of a larger Moklenic-Acehnese-Chamic-Malayic ("MACM") subgroup. However, Smith (2017: 459) considers Moklenic to be a primary splits from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malayo-Sumbawan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Adelaar, Alexander. 2005. Malayo-Sumbawan. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Dec., 2005), pp. 357-388.
- K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005
- Blust, Robert (2010). "The Greater North Borneo Hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 49 (1): 44–118. doi:10.1353/ol.0.0060. JSTOR 40783586.
- Smith, Alexander D. (2017). "The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem". Oceanic Linguistics. 56 (2): 435–490. doi:10.1353/ol.2017.0021.
- Larish, Michael David. 1999. The Position of Moken and Moklen Within the Austronesian Language Family. Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa.
- Karl Andebeck, 2006. 'An initial reconstruction of Proto-Lampungic'
- Smith, Alexander (2017a). The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification. PhD Dissertation: University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
- Gil, David (2012). "The Mekong-Mamberamo Linguistic Area".