Malaysia–Thailand relations

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Malaysia–Thailand relations
Map indicating locations of Malaysia and Thailand

Malaysia

Thailand
Diplomatic mission
Malaysian Embassy, BangkokThai Embassy, Kuala Lumpur
Envoy
Ambassador Jojie Samuel MC SamuelAmbassador Narong Sasitorn

Malaysia–Thailand relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Thailand; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–تايلاند; Thai: ความสัมพันธ์ไทย - มาเลเซีย Khwām s̄ạmphạnṭh̒ thịy - māleseīy) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Malaysia and Thailand. Thailand has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and consulate-general offices in George Town and Kota Bharu.[1] Malaysia maintains an embassy in Bangkok.[2]

Malaysia and Thailand usually co-operate in areas such as trade and investment, security, education and vocational training, youth and sports, tourism, connectivity and socio-economic development in border areas.[3][4][5] Due to the ethnically-Malay Pattani separatists in three southern provinces of Thailand, previously there have been claims by certain politicians in Thailand that some parties in Malaysia have taken an interest in the cause of their opponents in the war, which is vehemently refuted by the latter government although Malaysia has since assisting in peace talks between the Thai government and separatists.[6][7]

Royal Thai Consulate-General in George Town, Penang, Malaysia.

Country comparison[edit]

 Federation of Malaysia  Kingdom of Thailand
Coat of Arms Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg Emblem of Thailand.svg
Flag Malaysia Thailand
Population 31,360,000 67,959,000
Area 330,803 km2 (127,724 sq mi) 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi)
Population Density 92/km2 (240/sq mi) 132/km2 (340/sq mi)
Time zones 1 1
Capital Kuala Lumpur Bangkok
Largest City Kuala Lumpur – 1,768,000 Bangkok – 8,280,925
Government Federal parliamentary elective constitutional monarchy Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Established 31 August 1957 (Independence from the British Empire proclaimed for the Federation of Malaya)
16 September 1963 (Proclamation of Malaysia)
6 April 1782 (Foundation of the modern Rattanakosin Kingdom)
10 December 1932 (Establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy Kingdom)
Predecessor States Portuguese Colonial Period (1511–1641)
Portuguese Malacca (1511–1641)
Dutch Colonial Period (1641–1825)
Dutch Malacca (1641–1795; 1818–1825)
British Colonial Period (1771–1946)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
 Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (1909–1946)
 Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946)
Crown Colony of Labuan (1848–1946)
 British North Borneo (1881–1946)
Japanese Occupation Period (1942–1945)
Occupied Malaya (1942–1945)
Occupied British Borneo (1942–1945)
Si Rat Malai (1943–1945)
Interim Military Period (1945–1946)
Military Administration of Malaya (1945–1946)
Military Administration of Borneo (1945–1946)
Self–Government Period (1946–1963)
 Malayan Union (1946–1948)
 Federation of Malaya (1948–1957)
Crown Colony of North Borneo (1946–1963)
Crown Colony of Sarawak (1946–1963)
Federation Period (1963–present)
 Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Medieval Kingdom Period (1238–1782)
Kingdom of Sukhothai (1238–1438)
Kingdom of Ayutthaya (1351–1767)
Kingdom of Thonburi (1768–1782)
Modern Kingdom Period (1782–present)
 Kingdom of Thailand
First Leader Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan (Monarch)
Tunku Abdul Rahman (Prime Minister)
Sri Indraditya (historical)
Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok (de jure)
Head of State Monarch: Abdullah Monarch: Maha Vajiralongkorn
Head of Government Prime Minister: Mahathir Mohamad Prime Minister: Prayut Chan-o-cha
Deputy Leader Deputy Prime Minister: Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Deputy Prime Minister: Prajin Jantong
Legislature Parliament (Bicameral) National Assembly (Bicameral)
Upper House Senate
President: S. Vigneswaran
Senate
Lower House House of Representatives
Speaker: Mohamad Ariff Md Yusof
House of Representatives
Judiciary Federal Court
Chief Justice: Tengku Maimun Tuan Mat
Supreme Court
Chief Justice: Veerapol Tungsuwan
National language Malaysian Thai
GDP (nominal) $800.169 billion ($25,833 per capita) US$1.152 trillion ($16,706 per capita)

History[edit]

Chinese protection of Malays against Siam[edit]

The Sultanate of Malacca voluntarily became a protectorate and tributary state to Ming dynasty China, which protected Malacca against its enemies with military force, allowing the Muslim Sultanate to prosper. The Chinese warded off Siam and Majapahit from conquering Malacca, and also engaged in war against Portugal for conquering Malacca.

At the foundation of Malacca, the native peoples were the peoples with Hinduism and Buddhism influence. According to the annals record, at the time Parameswara founded Malacca, the country was often attacked by the old enemies Majapahit and the rivals from northern area of Malacca, Ayutthaya Kingdom. Malacca was able to hold position and fight back the enemies. Parameswara decided to send his ambassador to visit the Emperor of China, one of the superpower of the period, the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, and both agreed to become allies. Ever since the agreement between Malacca Empire and China Empire, the Thai Ayutthaya Kingdom and Majapahit Empire never intended to attack Malacca. Later, some records suggested that during the trade activities and arrival of the Chinese-Muslim admiral "Cheng Ho" or Zheng He, Parameswara converted to Islam and adopted an Islamic name, Sultan Iskandar Shah. The new religion spread quickly throughout his conversion and the voyage of Zheng He.

Ming dynasty China warned Thailand and the Majapahit against trying to conquer and attack the Malacca sultanate, placing the Malacca Sultanate under Chinese protection as a protectorate, and giving the ruler of Malacca the title of King. The Chinese strengthened several warehouses in Malacca. The Muslim Sultanate flourished due to the Chinese protection against the Thai and other powers who wanted to attack Malacca. Thailand was also a tributary to China and had to obey China's orders not to attack.[8][9][10][11]

Economic relations[edit]

Bilateral trade between Malaysia and Thailand has an upward trend. The 2011 trade value was at US$22.95 billion.[3] In 2015, both Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) and Bank of Thailand (BOT) agreed to promote the greater use of their currencies to settle trade between the two countries.[12] In 2016, the combined total trade was US$20 billion,[13] with border trade accounted for over 60% of the figure.[14] In March 2017, both countries are determined to see bilateral trade achieve US$30 billion by the following year.[15] The Thai side had submitted several proposals to boost border trade to achieve the U$30 billion target, such as proposing 24-hours or longer custom operation hours at the border to facilitate movement of goods and the improvement of facilities especially in transportation and logistic infrastructure at the border to further improve trade,[16] while Thailand also supporting the Malaysian side proposal for a better port connectivity.[17] In September 2017, the Kuala Lumpur Business Club (KLBC) made a business mission to Bangkok to strengthen further business relations and economic co-operation.[18] The delegation also seeking for more investments from Thailand.[19] There is also a Malaysian Thai Business Chamber of Commerce to facilitate trade between the two countries.[20] In December 2017 both countries and Indonesia agreed on a framework where trade between the three countries can be settled in local currencies instead of the US dollar.[21]

Security relations[edit]

Both countries participate in the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) annually together with other ASEAN countries such as Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore.[22] Both Malaysia and Thailand also announce a plan to replace their border fence into a wall border according to Thai Defence Minister Prawit Wongsuwan who got the idea from a recent meeting in Laos with Malaysian counterparts.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Royal Thai Embassy, Kuala Lumpur". Royal Thai Embassy, Malaysia. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
     • "Royal Thai Consulate-General, Penang, Malaysia". Royal Thai Embassy, Malaysia. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
     • "Royal Thai Consulate-General, Kota Bharu". Royal Thai Embassy, Malaysia. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Bangkok". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Anifah will host his Thai counterpart". Bernama. New Straits Times. 7 October 2012. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  4. ^ Vichada Pabunjerkit (14 September 2015). "Malaysia-Thai Trade Relations". BFM 89.9. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  5. ^ Sarika Dubey (5 October 2017). "Malaysia-Thailand Trade and Economic Relations". ASEAN Briefing. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  6. ^ Rohan Gunaratna; Arabinda Acharya (2013). The Terrorist Threat from Thailand: Jihad Or Quest for Justice?. Potomac Books, Inc. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-1-59797-582-7.
  7. ^ Chanintira na Thalang (26 January 2017). "Malaysia's role in two South-East Asian insurgencies: 'an honest broker'?". Australian Journal of International Affairs. 71 (4): 389–404. doi:10.1080/10357718.2016.1269147.
  8. ^ Warren I. Cohen (2000). East Asia at the center: four thousand years of engagement with the world (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-231-10109-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. One of the great beneficiaries of Chinese naval power in the early years of the fifteenth century was the city-state of Melaka...Perceiving threats from Majapahit and the Tai who were extending their power down the Malay peninsula, Paramesvara looked to the more distant Chinese as a counterweight. He responded quickly to Ming overtures, sent a tribute mission to China in 1405 and was invested as king of Melaka by the Ming emperor. Visits by Zheng He's fleets left little doubt in the region that Melaka had become a Chinese protectorate. Taking no chances, Paramesvara personally led tribute mission to Peking on two or three occasions.
  9. ^ Kenneth Warren Chase (2003). Firearms: a global history to 1700 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-521-82274-9. Retrieved 14 December 2011. The Chinese recognized Melaka as an independent state and warned the king of Thailand not to meddle with it... Nevertheless, the Chinese did not seek to establish colonies overseas, even when they anchored in places with large Chinese populations, like Sumatra and Java. They turned Melaka into a kind of protectorate and built a fortified warehouse there, but that was about it.
  10. ^ Colonial armies in Southeast Asia. Routledge. 21 December 2005. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-134-31476-8. Retrieved 14 December 2011. important legacy of Chinese imperialism... by intervening in the Melaka Straits in a way that facilitated the rise of Melaka, and protected it from depredations from Thailand (Siam) and from Java's state of Majapahit;...Melaka ...having been founded...by a ruler fleeing Singapore in the fact of Thai and Javanese hostility. Melaka repeatedly sent envoys to China. China in turn claimed the power to deter other tributary states, such as Thailand, from interfering with Melaka, and also claimed to have raised the 'chief' of Melaka to the status of king in 1405, and Melaka to a protected polity in 1410. Melaka as a Muslim Sultanate consolidated itself and thrived precisely in an era of Chinese-led 'globalisation'. which was gathering pace by the late fourteenth century, and peaked at this time.
  11. ^ Karl Hack, Tobias Rettig (2006). Karl Hack, Tobias Rettig (ed.). Colonial armies in Southeast Asia. Volume 33 of Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-415-33413-6. Retrieved 14 December 2011. important legacy of Chinese imperialism... by intervening in the Melaka Straits in a way that facilitated the rise of Melaka, and protected it from depredations from Thailand (Siam) and from Java's state of Majapahit;...Melaka ...having been founded...by a ruler fleeing Singapore in the fact of Thai and Javanese hostility. Melaka repeatedly sent envoys to China. China in turn claimed the power to deter other tributary states, such as Thailand, from interfering with Melaka, and also claimed to have raised the 'chief' of Melaka to the status of king in 1405, and Melaka to a protected polity in 1410. Melaka as a Muslim Sultanate consolidated itself and thrived precisely in an era of Chinese-led 'globalisation'. which was gathering pace by the late fourteenth century, and peaked at this time.
  12. ^ Yantoultra Ngui; Kim Coghill (27 August 2015). "Malaysia, Thailand seek to use their currencies in trade, investment". Reuters. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Malaysia to further strengthen business ties with Thailand". The Star. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  14. ^ "More cross-border activities to enhance Malaysia-Thai bilateral trade". Bernama. The Borneo Post. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Malaysia, Thailand eye bilateral trade boost". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 6 March 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  16. ^ "M'sia-Thai trade to hit US$30bil". Bernama. The Star. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Thai PM supports Malaysia's proposal for better port connectivity". Bernama. The Star. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  18. ^ "KLBC to strengthen business ties between Malaysia and Thailand". New Straits Times. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  19. ^ Kevin Wong (18 September 2017). "Johari: Malaysia to welcome more investments from Thailand". The Malaysian Reserve. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  20. ^ "Home". Malaysian Thai Business Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  21. ^ "Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand seek to boost local currency settlement". Reuters. 11 December 2017.
  22. ^ "CARAT 2016 Series Kicks Off in Malaysia, Aiming for Increased Complexity with Allies and Partners". Task Force 73 Public Affairs. United States Navy. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  23. ^ Teeranai Charuvastra (18 November 2016). "Prawit Wants to Build a Wall Along Border With Malaysia". Khaosod English. Retrieved 13 December 2017.