East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island. It consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah, closer to the Philippines than the west of the country, Sarawak in the west and the Federal Territory of Labuan. Labuan is an island in its small archipelago of the same name due north of Brunei; its closest land mass is with Sabah. It lies to the east of Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia), the part of the country on the Malay Peninsula. The two are separated by the South China Sea.
East Malaysia is less populated and overall less developed in its settlements than is West Malaysia, which contains Kuala Lumpur and Penang; its land mass, however, is larger and it has more of many natural resources including oil and gas reserves. City status award is restrained in the pan-regional style so reserved to Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, and Miri; Victoria, Labuan for example is an Offshore Financial Centre and major port. In ecology it has a significant proportion of the biodiverse Borneo lowland rain forests and Borneo montane rain forests.
Some parts of present-day East Malaysia, especially the coastal regions, were once part of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei. However, most parts of the interior region consisted of independent tribal societies.
In 1658, the northern and eastern coasts of Sabah were ceded to the Sultanate of Sulu while the west coast of Sabah and most of Sarawak remained part of Brunei. In 1888, Sabah and Sarawak together with Brunei became British protectorates. In 1946, they became separate British colonies.
Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) and Sarawak were separate British colonies from Malaya, and did not become part of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. However, each voted to become part of the new Federation of Malaysia along with the Federation of Malaya and Singapore in 1963. Previously, there were efforts to unite Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak under the North Borneo Federation but that failed after the Brunei Revolt occurred.
Sabah and Sarawak retained a higher degree of local government and legislative autonomy than other states in West Malaysia. For example, both states have their own immigration controls, requiring Malaysian citizens from West Malaysia to carry passports or identity cards when visiting East Malaysia.
Since 2010, there has been some speculation and discussion, at least on the ground level, about the possibility of secession from the Federation of Malaysia because of allegations of resource mishandling, illegal processing of immigrants, etc.
It has been a source of debate whether the states of Sabah and Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaysia as equal partners with Malaya and Singapore or whether they became merely equal partners of the states of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia). The consensus seems to be that Sabah and Sarawak are merely states of the federation with a slightly higher degree of autonomy compared to states in Peninsular Malaysia. For example, the East Malaysian states have separate laws regulating the entry of citizens from other states in Malaysia (including the other East Malaysian state), whereas, in Peninsular Malaysia, there are no restrictions on interstate travel or migration, including visitors from East Malaysia. There are also separate land laws governing Sabah and Sarawak, as opposed to the National Land Code, which governs Peninsular Malaysia.
With regard to the administration of justice, the courts in East Malaysia are part of the federal court system in Malaysia. The Constitution of Malaysia provides that there shall be two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction – The High Court in Malaya and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak (formerly the High Court in Borneo). The current Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak is David Wong Dak Wah from Sabah. His office is the fourth highest in the Malaysian judicial system (behind the Chief Judge of Malaya, President of the Court of Appeal, and Chief Justice of Malaysia).
Compared to West Malaysia, political parties in Sarawak and Sabah started relatively late. This first political party in Sarawak emerged in 1959 while the first political party in Sabah emerged in August 1961. Sarawak held its first local authorities election in 1959 and did not have any directly elected legislature until 1970. Sabah only held its first district council election in December 1962 and first direct election in April 1967. Both the states were new and had little experience in organised, competitive politics. Therefore, there had been the appearance and rapid disappearance of political parties in Sarawak and Sabah within a short period of time, with some parties took opportunistic moves to form alliances without a definite loyalty to a certain political alignment. The ethnic composition of East Malaysia is also different from West Malaysia. The indigenous people in both Sarawak and Sabah do not form an absolute majority, while the non-native population in East Malaysia mainly consisting of entirely Chinese. Political parties in Sarawak and Sabah were formed largely based on communal lines and can be categorised roughly into native non-muslim, native muslim, and non-native parties. With the support of the Malaysia federal government, native muslim parties in Sabah and Sarawak were strengthened. In Sabah, the native muslim party United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) first clinged on the chief minister post in 1965 and later consolidated its power in 1967. In Sarawak, native muslim party named Parti Bumiputera (which later regrouped into Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB) held the chief minister post since 1970.
In 1976, all the Sabah and Sarawak MPs supported the Malaysian parliament bill which downgraded both the states from equal partners to one of the 13 states in the federation.
Since 2008, East Malaysia played a more significant role in the national political landscape. The loss of two-third majority of Barisan Nasional (BN) governement in the West Malaysia caused the BN to rely on East Malaysian politicians to cling on power. After the conclusion of 2013 Malaysian general election, there was an increase in ministers and deputy ministers allocation for East Malaysia in the Malaysian Cabinet from 11 out of 57 portfolios in 2008 election to 20 out of 61 portfolios. However, there has been no prime minister or deputy prime minister coming from East Malaysia since 1963.
In October 2018, both Sabah and Sarawak chief ministers met to discuss common goals in demanding from the Malaysian federal government regarding the rights stipulated inside the Malaysia Agreement.
The total area of East Malaysia is 198,447 km2, representing approximately 60% of the total land area of Malaysia and 26.4% of the total area of Borneo, which is 50% bigger than Peninsular Malaysia at 132,156 square kilometres (51,026 sq mi), comparable with South Dakota or Great Britain.
East Malaysia contains the five highest mountains in Malaysia, the highest being Mount Kinabalu at 4095 m, which is also the highest mountain in Borneo and the 10th highest mountain peak in Southeast Asia. It also contains the two longest rivers in Malaysia – Rajang River and Kinabatangan River.
Banggi Island in Sabah and Bruit Island in Sarawak are the two largest islands that are located entirely within Malaysia. The largest island is Borneo, which is shared with Indonesia and Brunei. The second largest island is Sebatik Island, in Sabah, which is shared with Indonesia.
Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves within Gunung Mulu National Park. Its Sarawak Chamber is the largest known cave chamber in the world. The Gunung Mulu National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in November 2000.
Several oil and gas fields have been discovered offshore, including the Samarang oil field (1972) offshore Sabah, the Baronia oil field (1967) offshore Sarawak, and the Central Luconia natural gas fields (1968), also offshore Sarawak. The Baronia Field is a domal structural trap between two east-west growth faults, which produces from late Miocene sandstones interbedded with siltstones and clays at 2 km depth in 75 m of water.:431 The Samarang Field produces from late Miocene sandtones in an alternating sequence of sandstones, siltstones and clays in an anticline at a depth of about 3 km in water 9–45 m.:431 The Central Luconia Gas Fields produce from middle to late Miocene carbonate platform and pinnacle reefs from 1.25-3.76 km deep and water depths 60-100m.:436–437
The total population of East Malaysia in 2010 was 5.77 million (3.21 million in Sabah, 2.47 million in Sarawak, and 0.09 million in Labuan), which represents 20.4% of the population of Malaysia. A significant part of the population of East Malaysia today reside in towns and cities. The largest city and urban centre is Kuching, which is also the capital of Sarawak and has a population of over 600,000 people. Kota Kinabalu is the second largest, and one of the most important cities in East Malaysia. Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, and Miri are the only three places with city status in East Malaysia. Other important towns include Sandakan and Tawau in Sabah, Sibu and Bintulu in Sarawak, and Victoria in Labuan.
The earliest inhabitants of East Malaysia were the Dayak people and other related ethnic groups such as the Kadazan-Dusun people. These indigenous people form a significant portion, but not the majority, of the population. For hundreds of years, there has been significant migration into East Malaysia and Borneo from many parts of the Malay Archipelago, including Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, and Sulu. More recently, there has been immigration from India and China.
The indigenous inhabitants were originally animists. Islamic influence began as early as the 15th century, while Christian influence started in the 19th century.
The indigenous inhabitants are generally partisan and maintain culturally distinct dialects of the Malay language, in addition to their own ethnic languages. Approximately 13% of the population of Sabah, and 26% of the population of Sarawak, is composed of ethnic Chinese Malaysians.
However, the demography of Sabah has been altered dramatically with the alleged implementation of Project IC in the 1990s. Citizenships are alleged to be granted to immigrants of Indonesia and Philippines in order to keep the UMNO ruling party in power. Royal Commission of Inquiry (RCI) has been conducted from 11 August 2012 to 20 September 2013. The outcome of the investigation was submitted to the prime minister on 19 May 2014. The report was released on 3 December 2014 after 6 months delay. It stated that Project IC might have existed, which was responsible for a sudden spike in the state population. However, the report did not pinpoint any responsibility except for "corrupt officials" who took advantage of the system.
East Malaysia currently has two public universities, namely Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) and Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) also has branch campuses in both states. Labuan's own institution of higher education is Universiti Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus, which has a branch in Sepanggar Bay, Kota Kinabalu. All prospective university entrants from Sabah, Sarawak, and Labuan must sit the examinations of one matriculation college, Kolej Matrikulasi Labuan.
UCSI University, Sarawak Campus, University College of Technology Sarawak (UCTS) Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (Sabah campus), International University College Of Technology Twintech (Sabah campus), and Open University Malaysia (Sabah campus) have local private university branch campuses in East Malaysia. Curtin University, Malaysia and Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus are foreign university branch campuses in Sarawak.
The Pan Borneo Highway connects Sabah, Sarawak, and Brunei. The road has been poorly maintained since it was built. The narrow road is dark at night without any street lights and there are many danger spots, sharp bends, blind spots, potholes, and erosion. However, federal government funds have been allocated for the upgrade of the highway, which will be carried out in stages until completion in 2025.
The major airports in East Malaysia are Kuching International Airport, Labuan Airport and Kota Kinabalu International Airport. Kota Kinabalu International Airport has also become the second largest airport in Malaysia, with an annual capacity of 12 million passengers – 9 million for Terminal 1 and 3 million for Terminal 2. There are frequent air flights by including Malaysia Airlines (MAS) and AirAsia between East Malaysia and Peninsular Malaysia. Other ports of entry to East Malaysia include Sibu Airport, Bintulu Airport, and Miri Airport in Sarawak, Sandakan Airport and Tawau Airport in Sabah. MAS also operates international flights to major cities in East Malaysia.
The rural areas in Borneo can only be accessed by air or river boat. River transport is especially prevalent in Sarawak because there are many large and long rivers, with Rajang River being the most used. Rivers are used by boats and ferries for communications (i.e. mail) and passenger transport between inland areas and coastal towns. Timber is also transported via vessels and log carriers down the rivers of Sarawak.
The Labuan Ferry operates boat express and vehicle ferries from Labuan Island to Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. Ferries have overtaken air travel as the chief transportation mode on and off the island.
The state of Sabah has been subjected to attacks by Moro pirates and militants since the 1960s and intensification in 1985, 2000, 2013. The Eastern Sabah Security Zone (ESSZONE) and Eastern Sabah Security Command (ESSCOM) were established on 25 March 2013 to tighten security in the region. Since 2014, a 12-hour dusk-to-dawn curfew has been imposed on six Sabah east coast districts.
- The latter term is more commonly used in Malaysia to avoid the connotation of "East Malaysia" and "West Malaysia" (Peninsular Malaysia) being two separate countries, as in former East Germany and West Germany.
- "Malaysia urged to scrap coal plant in eco-sensitive Borneo". AFP. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
- "Location". Malaysia Travel.org.uk. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- "Malay Peninsula". HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- Saunders, Graham E. (2002), A History of Brunei, RoutlegdeCurzon, p. 45, ISBN 9780700716982, retrieved 5 October 2009
- Ranjit Singh (2000). The Making of Sabah, 1865–1941: The Dynamics of Indigenous Society. University of Malaya Press. ISBN 978-983-100-095-3.
- The Report: Sabah 2011. Oxford Business Group. 2011. p. 179. ISBN 9781907065361. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- Charles, de Ledesma; Mark, Lewis; Pauline, Savage (2003). Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Rough Guides. p. 723. ISBN 978-1-84353-094-7. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
In 1888, the three states of Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei were transformed into protectorates, a status which handed over the responsibility for their foreign policy to the British in exchange for military protection.
- Vernon L. Porritt (1997). British Colonial Rule in Sarawak, 1946–1963. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-983-56-0009-8. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- "British North Borneo Becomes Crown Colony". Kalgoorlie Miner. Trove. 18 July 1946. p. 1. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- Push for Sabah, S'wak's independence: Next stop UN Archived 7 September 2012 at Archive.today. Malaysia-today.net (2010-04-02). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
- http://www.sarawakwatch.com/?p=13661[dead link]
- "'Know Federal System' advice". Daily Express. 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 21 June 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- R.S, Milne; K.J, Ratnam (2014). Malaysia: New States in a New Nation. Routledge. pp. 69–72. ISBN 978-1-135-16061-6. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Chia, Jonathan (19 October 2016). "All round aye from Sabah, Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Meredith, L Weiss (17 October 2014). Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Malaysia. Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 9781317629597. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "20 ministers, deputy ministers from East Malaysia". Sin Chew Daily. 16 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "The new cabinet, by party and in numbers". Malaysiakini. 15 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Chieh, Yow Hong (27 October 2011). "East Malaysian DPM gratuitous, says Dr M". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Appoint DPMs from East M'sia, Putrajaya urged". Malaysiakini. 15 June 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Rintod, Luke (8 March 2012). "'Sabah, Sarawak's 'right' to have more parliament seats'". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Sharon, Ling (11 October 2018). "Sabah and Sarawak CMs meet, have common goals over Malaysian Agreement 1963". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Geography, Malaysiahistorical.com.my, archived from the original on 27 April 2010, retrieved 16 July 2010
- "Motorcycle tour description and itinerary for the Borneo-East Malaysia motorcycle tour". Asian Bike Tour. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Dive The Kakaban Island". De 'Gigant Tours. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Sebatik Island off Sabah, Malaysia 1965". The Band of Her Majesty's Royal Marines. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Gunung Mulu National Park". UNESCO.org. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- "Kinabalu Park". UNESCO.org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- Noreen (10 January 2010). "Diving at Sipadan Island, Borneo – An Untouched Piece of Art". Aquaviews: Online Scuba Magazine. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- Scherer, F.C., 1980, Exploration in East Malaysia Over the Past Decade, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0891813063, p. 424
- "Chart 3: Population distribution by state, Malaysia, 2010" (PDF). Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics 2010 (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 2 (p. 13 in PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "SPECIAL REPORT: Sabah's Project M (subscription required)". Malaysiakini. 27 June 2006. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "RCI report on Sabah's illegal immigrants handed to PM, Agong". The Malay Mail. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Chi, Melissa (3 December 2014). "'Corrupt officials' blamed for Sabah problems, but RCI says hands tied". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- "Institut Pendidikan Guru (Teachers' Training Institute)". Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (Malaysian Ministry of Education). Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
IPG Kampus Sarawak, IPG Kampus Tun Abdul Razak, IPG Kampus Batu Lintang(1st page), IPG Kampus Rajang (2nd page)
- Then, Stephen (13 September 2013). "Repair Pan Borneo Highway now, says Bintulu MP following latest fatal accident". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Pan Borneo Highway project will be carried out in stages, says minister". The Star (Malaysia). 14 November 2013. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Getting To Borneo By Air, By Car, By Train". Asia Web Direct. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- "New Ferry launched for Labuan-Sabah-Brunei sea route". http://www.thestar.com.my. 2 May 2015. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. External link in
- Chan, Julia (5 November 2014). "Sabah curfew renewed for the seventh time". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Virtual Malaysia – The Official Portal of the Ministry of Tourism, Malaysia
- Andrew Harding & James Chin, 50 years of Malaysia: Federalism revisited (Marshall Cavendish 2014)
- Cabinet Memorandum. Policy in regard to Malaya and Borneo. Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 29 August 1945
- Manila Accord (31 July 1963)
- Exchange of notes constituting an agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord of 31 July 1963
- Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Malaysia Act 1963
- Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore