Malaysian Malay

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Malaysian Malay
Bahasa Melayu Malaysia
بهاس ملايو مليسيا
Standard Malay
Bahasa Melayu Standard
‌بهاس ملايو ستندرد
Pronunciation[baˈhasə məlaju mə'lejsiə]
Native toMalaysia, Singapore, Brunei
Native speakers
Spoken by the vast majority of those in Malaysia, although most learn a local Malay dialect or another native language first.[1]
Early forms
Old Malay
Latin (Rumi)
Arabic (Jawi)[4]
Malaysian Braille
Malaysian Sign Language
Official status
Official language in
 Malaysia
 Brunei
 Singapore
Regulated byDewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature)
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Brunei Language and Literature Bureau)[5]
Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Singapore Malay Language Council)[6]
Language codes
ISO 639-3zsm
Glottologstan1306
Malay language Spoken Area Map v1.png
  Official language, majority spoke (Malaysia)
  Official language, minority spoke (Singapore & Brunei)
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Malaysian Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Malaysia), also known as Standard Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Standard), Bahasa Malaysia (English translation: Malaysian language), or simply Malay, is a standardized form of Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the variety used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the "Indonesian" language). Malaysian Malay is standardized from the Johore-Riau dialect of Malay. It is spoken by much of the Malaysian population, although most learn a vernacular form of Malay or another native language first.[1] Malay is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools.[7]

Status[edit]

In Malaysia[edit]

Article 152 of the Federation designates "Malay" as the official language,[8] but the term "Malaysian" or bahasa Malaysia is used on official contexts from time to time. Between 1986 and 2007, the term bahasa Malaysia was replaced by "bahasa Melayu". Since then, to recognize that Malaysia is composed of many ethnic groups (and not only the ethnic Malays), the term bahasa Malaysia has once again become the government's preferred designation for the bahasa kebangsaan (national language) and the bahasa perpaduan/penyatu (unifying language).[9][10][11][12] However, both terms remain in use, as the terms Malay and bahasa Melayu are still very popular.[13][14] The language is also referred to as BM.

English continues to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts.

In Brunei & Singapore[edit]

The national standard variety of Malay employed in Brunei largely follows the Malaysian standard, the main differences being minor variation in pronunciation and some lexical influence from Brunei Malay, the local non-standard variety of Malay.[15]: 72  Also in Singapore, the Malaysian standard form of Malay is employed.[15]: 85

Writing system[edit]

Comparison of the Malay language written in Rumi and Jawi with other languages
Traffic signs in Malaysian: Warning sign "Level crossing" and regulatory sign "Stop".

The script of the Malaysian language is prescribed by law as the Latin alphabet, known in Malay as Rumi (Roman alphabets), provided that the Arabic alphabet called Jawi (or Malay script) is not proscribed for that purpose. Rumi is official while efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use in Malaysia.[16][17][18] The Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.

Borrowed words[edit]

The Malaysian language has most of its borrowings absorbed from Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindustani, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Sinitic languages, Arabic and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms). Modern Malaysian Malay has also been influenced lexically by the Indonesian variety, largely through the popularity of Indonesian dramas, soap operas, and music.[19]

Grammar[edit]

Colloquial and contemporary usage[edit]

Colloquial and contemporary usage of Malay includes modern Malaysian vocabulary, which may not be familiar to the older generation, such as:

  • Awek (means girl, in place of perempuan).
  • Balak (means guy, in place of jantan).
  • Cun (means pretty, in place of cantik / jelita).

New plural pronouns have also been formed out of the original pronouns popularly nowadays and the word orang (person), such as:

  • Korang (kau + orang, "you all", in place of kalian / kamu semua (or hangpa / ampa in Kedahan)).
  • Kitorang (kita + orang, the exclusive "we", in place of kami).
  • Diorang (dia + orang, the exclusive "they", in place of mereka (or depa in Kedahan)).

In addition, Arabic terms that is originally used in Standard Malay nowadays has been popularly changed where some of the words and pronunciations in the involved terms have been added by the local conservative Muslims by disputing the terms suggested by the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP), claiming that the involved terms with implementation of the additional words and pronunciations is the real correct terms as same as stated in the Qur'an, where it is predominantly used by the local Muslim netizens in the social medias nowadays. The several involved terms in comparison to Standard Malay that is popularly used, such as:

  • Ramadhan (means the holy fasting month, in place of Ramadan).
  • Aamiin (means asking Him to verify the prayer (Du'a); real term is Ameen, in place of Amin).
  • Fardhu (means obligatory (in Islam), in place of Fardu).
  • Redha (means accepting, in place of Reda).
  • Mudharat (means harm, in place of Mudarat).
  • Dhaif (means poverty, in place of Daif).
  • Zohor (means mid-day or noon time, in place of Zuhur).
  • Hadith (means Prophet (Mohamed) terms or speeches, in place of Hadis).

Code-switching between English and Malaysian and the use of novel loanwords is widespread, forming Bahasa Rojak. Consequently, this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of linguistic purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold use of the prescribed standard language.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Malaysian Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander (2000). "Malay: A Short History". Oriente Moderno. 19 (2): 234. JSTOR 25817713.
  3. ^ Mukhlis Abu Bakar (2019). "Sebutan Johor-Riau dan Sebutan Baku dalam Konteks Identiti Masyarakat Melayu Singapura" [Sebutan Johor-Riau and Sebutan Baku in the Context of the Singapore Malay Identity]. Issues in Language Studies (in Malay). 8 (2): 61–78. doi:10.33736/ils.1521.2019.
  4. ^ "Kedah MB Defends Use of Jawi on Signboards". The Star Online. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
  5. ^ Clynes, Adrian; Deterding, David (2011). "Standard Malay (Brunei)". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 41 (2): 259–268. doi:10.1017/S002510031100017X. S2CID 146544336.
  6. ^ "Standard Malay made simple / Liaw Yock Fang - BookSG - National Library Board, Singapore".
  7. ^ "Soalan Lazim Berkaitan Dasar Memartabatkan Bahasa Malaysia Memperkukuh Bahasa Inggeris (MBMMBI)" [Frequently Asked Questions Related to the Policy to Uphold Bahasa Malaysia and to Strengthen the English Language (MBMMBI)]. Portal Rasmi Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (in Malay). Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  8. ^ Federal Constitution of Malaysia  – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ Wong, Chun Wai; Edwards, Audrey (4 June 2007). "Back to Bahasa Malaysia". The Star Online. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  10. ^ "Mahathir Regrets Govt Focussing Too Much on Bahasa". Daily Express. 2 October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  11. ^ "Bahasa Rasmi". MyGovernment (in Malay). Retrieved 19 April 2021. Perkara 152 Perlembagaan Persekutuan menjelaskan bahawa bahasa Melayu yang dikenali juga sebagai bahasa Malaysia adalah bahasa rasmi yang tidak boleh dipertikai fungsi dan peranannya sebagai Bahasa Kebangsaan.
  12. ^ Encik Md. Asham bin Ahmad (8 August 2007). "Malay Language Malay Identity". Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  13. ^ Fernandez, Kathleen (1 June 2016). "The History of Bahasa Melayu / Malaysia: The Language of the Malay(sian) People". ExpatGo. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  14. ^ Williamson, Thomas (2002). "Incorporating a Malaysian Nation" (PDF). Cultural Anthropology. 17 (3): 401. doi:10.1525/can.2002.17.3.401.
  15. ^ a b Steinhauer, Hein (2005). "Colonial History and Language Policy in Insular Southeast Asia and Madagascar". In Adelaar, Alexander; Himmelamnn, Nikolaus (eds.). The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge. pp. 65–86. ISBN 9780700712861.
  16. ^ "Malay". Baystate Interpreters. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  17. ^ "Use of Jawi Should Be Encouraged, Not Condemned — Faidhur Rahman Abdul Hadi and Fatihah Jamhari". Malay Mail. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  18. ^ "Khat to Be Included in School Curriculum". The Star. 30 July 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  19. ^ Sneddon, James N. (2003). The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. Sydney: UNSW Press. ISBN 0-86840-598-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]