|Prime Minister of Malaysia|
|Perdana Menteri Malaysia |
ڤردان منتري مليسيا
|Government of Malaysia|
Prime Minister's Department
Yang Amat Berhormat
The Right Honourable
(within the Commonwealth)
|Residence||Seri Perdana, Putrajaya|
|Seat||Perdana Putra, Putrajaya|
|Appointer||Yang di-Pertuan Agong|
|Term length||Five years, renewable|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Malaysia|
|Inaugural holder||Tunku Abdul Rahman|
|Formation||31 August 1957|
|Salary||RM22,826.65/US$ 5,106 per month|
|This article is part of a series on the|
The Prime Minister of Malaysia (Malay: Perdana Menteri Malaysia; Jawi: ڤردان منتري مليسيا) is the head of government of Malaysia. The prime minister directs the executive branch of the federal government. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the prime minister as a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs. This person is usually the leader of the party winning the most seats in a general election.
According to the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint a prime minister to preside over the Cabinet. The prime minister is to be a member of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives), and who in his majesty's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House. This person must be a Malaysian citizen, but cannot have obtained their citizenship by means of naturalisation or registration. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall appoint other ministers from either the Dewan Rakyat or Dewan Negara (Senate) with the prime minister's advice.
The prime minister and his cabinet ministers must take and subscribe to the oath of office and allegiance as well as the oath of secrecy in the presence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong before they can exercise functions of office. The Cabinet is collectively accountable to the Parliament of Malaysia. The members of the Cabinet shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, business or profession that will cause a conflict of interest. The Prime Minister's Department (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister's Office) is the body and ministry in which the prime minister exercises his/her functions and powers.
In the case where a government cannot get its appropriation (budget) legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or when the House passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the prime minister is bound by convention to resign immediately. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's choice of replacement prime minister will be dictated by the circumstances. All other ministers shall continue to hold office by the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless if the appointment of any minister is revoked by his majesty upon the advice of the prime minister. Any minister may resign his office.
Following a resignation in other circumstances, defeat in an election, or the death of a prime minister, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong would generally appoint as the new leader of the governing party or coalition as new Prime Minister.
The power of the prime minister is subject to a number of limitations. Prime ministers removed as leader of his or her party, or whose government loses a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives, must advise a new election of the lower house or resign the office. The defeat of a supply bill (one that concerns the spending of money) or unable to pass important policy-related legislation is seen to require the resignation of the government or dissolution of Parliament, much like a non-confidence vote, since a government that cannot spend money is hamstrung, also called loss of supply.
The prime minister's party will normally have a majority in the House of Representatives and party discipline is exceptionally strong in Malaysian politics, so passage of the government's legislation through the House of Representatives is mostly a formality.
Under the Constitution, the prime minister's role includes advising the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on:
- the appointment of the federal ministers (full members of cabinet);
- the appointment of the federal deputy ministers, parliamentary secretaries (non-full members of cabinet);
- the appointment of 44 out of 70 Senators in the Dewan Negara;
- the summoning and adjournment of sittings of the Dewan Rakyat;
- the appointment of judges of the superior courts (which are the High Courts, the Court of Appeal, and the Federal Court);
- the appointment of the attorney-general and the auditor-general; and
- the appointment of the chairmen and members of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, Election Commission, Police Force Commission, Education Service Commission, National Finance Council, and Armed Forces Council;
Under Article 39 of the Constitution, executive authority is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, Article 40(1) states that in most cases, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is bound to exercise his powers on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. Thus, in practice, actual governing authority is vested in the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
Acting prime minister
From time to time, prime ministers are required to leave the country on business and a deputy is appointed to take their place during that time. In the days before jet aeroplanes, such absences could be for extended periods. However, the position can be fully decided by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the king of Malaysia when the position remains empty following the sudden resignation or death of the prime minister.
Caretaker prime minister
Under Article 55(3) of Constitution of Malaysia, the lower house of Parliament, unless sooner dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong with his own discretion on the advice of the prime minister, shall continue for five years from the date of its first meeting. Article 55(4) of the Constitution permits a delay of 60 days of general election to be held from the date of dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than 120 days from the date of dissolution. Conventionally, between the dissolution of one Parliament and the convening of the next, the prime minister and the cabinet remain in office in a caretaker capacity.
List of prime ministers of Malaysia
Colour key (for political coalitions/parties):
|Term of office||Mandate[a]||Party[b]||Government||Monarch(s)|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
Tunku Abdul Rahman
تونکو عبد الرحمن
MP for Kuala Kedah
|13 years, 23 days||1955||Alliance (UMNO)||Rahman I||Abdul Rahman|
Abdul Razak Hussein
عبد الرزاق حسين
MP for Pekan
|5 years, 115 days||–||Alliance (UMNO)||Razak I||Abdul Halim|
|1974||BN (UMNO)||Razak II|
MP for Sri Gading
|5 years, 183 days||–||BN (UMNO)||Hussein I||Yahya Petra|
MP for Kubang Pasu
|22 years, 107 days||—||BN (UMNO)||Mahathir I||Ahmad Shah|
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
عبد الله احمد بدوي
MP for Kepala Batas
|5 years, 155 days||—||BN (UMNO)||Abdullah I||Sirajuddin|
Mizan Zainal Abidin
|6||Dato' Sri Haji
MP for Pekan
|9 years, 37 days||—||BN (UMNO)||Najib I||Mizan Zainal Abidin|
MP for Langkawi
|1 year, 291 days||2018||PH (BERSATU)||Mahathir VII||Muhammad V|
|During this interval, the incumbent Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad was the Interim Prime Minister. (24 February–1 March 2020)||Abdullah|
|8||Tan Sri Dato' Haji
محيي الدين ياسين
MP for Pagoh
|1 year, 169 days||—||PN (BERSATU)||Muhyiddin|
|During this interval, the incumbent Prime Minister, Muhyiddin Yassin was the Caretaker Prime Minister. (16–21 August 2021)|
Ismail Sabri Yaakob
اسماعيل صبري يعقوب
MP for Bera
|1 year, 96 days||—||BN (UMNO)||Ismail Sabri|
MP for Tambun
|Incumbent||1 year, 14 days||(2022)||PH (PKR)||Anwar|
- Legend for mandate portion of column:
- a year
- indicates a general election won by the government or that led to the formation of a government (the year links to the election's article);
- a parenthesised year
- indicates an election resulting in no single party or coalition winning a parliamentary majority (the year links to the election's article);
- a dash
- indicates the formation of a majority government without an election.
- This column names only the Prime Minister's party. The government may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; those are not listed here.
- Died in office.
- Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
- Air transports of heads of state and government
- Official state car
- Spouse of the Prime Minister of Malaysia
- Leader of the Opposition (Malaysia)
- Chief Ministers in Malaysia
- "CPPS Policy Factsheet: Remuneration of Elected Officials in Malaysia" (PDF). Centre for Public Policy Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- "Malaysia Gelar Pemilu Hari Ini". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 19 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.