Malaysian general election, 1999

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Malaysian general election, 1999
1995 ←
29 November 1999 (1999-11-29) → 2004

All 193 seats to the Dewan Rakyat
and all 394 state legislature seats in 11 (out of 13, except Sabah and Sarawak) states of Malaysia

97 seats needed for a majority
Registered 9,564,071
Turnout 6,631,094 (69.3%)
  First party Second party
  Mahathir 2007.jpg BA
Leader Mahathir Mohammad Fadzil Noor
Party Barisan Nasional Barisan Alternatif
Leader since 16 July 1981 (1981-07-16) 24 October 1999 (1999-10-24)
Leader's seat Kubang Pasu Pendang
Last election 162 seats, 65.2% 30 seats, 32.8%[1]
Seats won 147 45
Seat change Decrease 15 Increase 15
Popular vote 3,748,511 2,667,818
Percentage 56.5% 40.2%
Swing Decrease 8.7% Increase 7.4%

Prime Minister before election

Mahathir Mohammad
Barisan Nasional

Prime Minister-designate

Mahathir Mohamad
Barisan Nasional

Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

The 1999 Malaysian General Election was held on 29 November 1999 as stipulated by the laws of Malaysia for general elections. As expected, the Barisan Nasional coalition maintained its majority in parliament, and thus, its grip on the post of Prime Minister.

However, due to the Anwar Ibrahim scandal, the win was one of the lowest experienced by the ruling coalition over the years, since independence, with the exception of the 1969 general election.

It was the last general election for Mahathir as the Prime Minsiter before resigning effective on 31 October 2003.


Parliamentary results[edit]

6,631,094 out of 9,564,071 registered voters cast their vote in this election. Although Barisan Nasional maintained its majority in Parliament, its overall popular vote dropped to roughly 56%. The parliamentary results are as follows:

e • d Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Political Party Votes % of vote Seats % of seats +/–
National Front BN 3,748,511 56.53 147 76.56 Decrease19
United Malays National Organisation UMNO - - 71 36.98 Decrease22
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA - - 29 15.10 -
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC - - 7 3.65 -
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan - - 6 3.13
People's Progressive Party PPP - - - - -
Parties in Sarawak - - 28 14.58
Parties in Sabah - - 6 3.13 Steady
Alternative Front BA 2,667,818 40.23 42 21.88 Increase26
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 994,279 14.99 27 14.06 Increase19
Democratic Action Party DAP 830,870 12.53 10 5.21 Increase3
National Justice Party1 KeADILan 773,679 11.67 5 2.60 1
Malaysian People's Party PRM 68,990 1.04 0 0.00 0
United Sabah Party2 PBS 143,342 2.16 3 1.56 Decrease5
State Reform Party2 STAR 23,354 0.35 0 0 Steady
Malaysian Democratic Party MDP 8,001 0.12 0 0.0 Steady
Pan Malaysian Islamic Front BERJASA 409 0.01 0 0
Malaysian People's Welfare Party AKIM 274 0.00 0 0.0 Steady
Independents and others 39,385 0.59 0 0 Decrease1
Valid votes 6,455,714
Invalid/blank votes 175,380
Total votes (voter turnout: 69.3%) 6,631,094 100.0 193 100.0 +1
Did not vote 2,932,977
Registered voters 9,564,071
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above) 13,411,519
Malaysian population 22,549,627

Source: Nohlen et al. [1]
1This is the first election taken part by KeADILan
2Pending to join Barisan Alternatif, but STAR have managed to negotiate with the component parties of BA over all the seats in Sarawak, while PBS could not fully manage the negotiation in Sabah.

State assembly results[edit]

The opposition won a total of 113 state assembly seats, 98 of which went to the PAS, 11 to the DAP and 4 for Keadilan.[2] In the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the PAS won by a huge margin–41-2 against Barisan Nasional out of a total of 43 seats and 28-4 out of a total of 32 seats respectively, hence allowing them to form the state governments in these states. In addition, PAS also captured one-third of the state seats in Kedah, with the remaining two-thirds going to Barisan Nasional (UMNO won 16 seats, MCA 2 seats in Kedah).

The election results were seen as a great gain for PAS, who previously had no state seats in Kedah and capturing only one seat in Terengganu in the 1995 General Elections. Observers attributed this to the negelect by the Federal Administration in the states of Terengganu and Kelantan.[3]

Post elections cabinet appointments[edit]

After the elections, Mahathir Mohamad was re-elected as the Prime Minister and formed a cabinet. Among his prominent was to appoint a non-politician and an academic, Dr. Musa Mohamed to spearhead the Education Ministry. The cabinet consists of 30 full ministers from Barisan Nasional. [4]

Portfolio Minister
Prime Minister of Malaysia Mahathir Mohamad
Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia Abdullah Badawi
Minister of Finance and Special Functions Mahathir Mohamad
Minister of Home Affairs Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Minister of Defence Najib Razak
Minister of Education Dr. Musa Mohamad
Minister of Foreign Affairs Syed Hamid Albar
Minister of International Trade and Industry Rafidah Aziz
Minister of Health Chua Jui Meng
Minister of Works Samy Vellu
Minister of Transport Ling Liong Sik
Minister of Agriculture Mohd Effendi Norwawi
Minister of Energy, Communications and Multimedia Leo Moggie Anak Irok
Minister of Human Resource Fong Chan Onn
Women, Family and Community Development Minister Shahrizat Abdul Jalil
Culture, Arts and Heritage Minister Rais Yatim
Science, Technology and Innovation Minister Dr. Jamaluddin Jarjis
Entrepreneurial and Cooperative Development Minister Mohamed Khaled Nordin
Higher Education Minister Mustapa Mohamed
Natural Resources and Environment Minister Azmi Khalid
Rural and Regional Development Minister Abdul Aziz Shamsuddin
Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs Minister Shafie Apdal
Plantation Industries and Commodities Minister Peter Chin Fah Kui
Youth and Sports Minister Azalina Othman
Health Minister Ong Ka Ting(acting)

Dr Chua Soi Lek (resigned after sex scandal)

Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Bernard Dompok
Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz
Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Dr Abdullah Md Zin
Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Dr Maximus Ongkili
Information minister Zainuddin Maidin
Minister in the Prime Minister's Department Mohd Effendi Norwawi
Tourism Minister Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor
Federal Territories Minister Zulhasnan Rafique


  1. ^ The previous election was contested under separate parties, mainly PAS and DAP
  3. ^ Swee-Hock Saw, K. Kesavapany (2006). Malaysia recent trends and challenges. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 97–8. ISBN 981-230-339-1. 
  4. ^ Template:Http://

External links[edit]