1999 Malaysian general election

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1999 Malaysian general election

← 1995 29 November 1999 (1999-11-29) 2004 →

All 193 seats to the Dewan Rakyat
97 seats needed for a majority
Registered9,564,071
Turnout6,631,094 (69.3%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Mahathir Mohamad addressing the UN 2003.jpg BA Penampang Sabah Joseph-Pairin-Kitingan-02.jpg
Leader Mahathir Mohamad Fadzil Noor Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Party BN Barisan Alternatif PBS
Leader since 28 June 1981 24 October 1999 (1999-10-24) 5 March 1985
Leader's seat Kubang Pasu Pendang Keningau
Last election 162 seats, 65.2% 30 seats, 32.8%[1] 8 seats, 3.33%
Seats won 148 45 3
Seat change Decrease 14 Increase 15 Decrease 5
Popular vote 3,748,511 2,667,818 143,342
Percentage 56.53% 40.23% 2.16%
Swing Decrease 8.7% Increase 7.4% Decrease 1.17%

Prime Minister before election

Mahathir Mohamad
BN

Prime Minister-designate

Mahathir Mohamad
BN

A general election was held on Monday, 29 November 1999 for members of the 10th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 193 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 394 state constituencies in 11 out of 13 states of Malaysia (except Sabah and Sarawak) on the same day. This was the last election for Mahathir Mohamad as Prime Minister and Chairman of Barisan Nasional, until 2018. This was also the first election held in a single day nationwide.

Results[edit]

Dewan Rakyat[edit]

6,631,094 out of 9,564,071 registered voters cast their vote in this election. Although Barisan Nasional maintained its majority in Parliament, its overall popular vote dropped to roughly 56%. The parliamentary results are as follows:

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 3,748,511 56.53 148 76.68 Decrease14
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 72 37.31 Decrease17
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 29 15.03 Decrease1
United Traditional Bumiputera Party PBB 100,062 1.55 11 5.70 Increase1
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 7 3.63 Steady
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 129,356 2.00 7 3.63 Steady
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 6 3.11 Decrease1
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak PBDS 51,659 0.80 6 3.11 Increase1
Sarawak National Party SNAP 45,519 0.71 4 2.07 Increase1
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation UPKO 3 1.55 New
Sabah Progressive Party SAPP 2 1.04 Steady
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 1 0.52 Steady
Barisan Nasional Direct Candidate 11,327 0.18 1 0.52
People's Progressive Party PPP 0 0.00 Steady
People's Justice Front AKAR 0 0.00 Steady
United Sabah People's Party PBRS 0 0.00 Steady
Parties in the informal coalition, Alternative Front[b] BA 2,667,818 40.23 42 21.76 Increase26
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 994,279 14.99 27 13.99 Increase20
Democratic Action Party DAP 830,870 12.53 10 5.18 Increase1
National Justice Party KeADILan 773,679 11.67 5 2.59 New
Malaysian People's Party PRM 68,990 1.04 0 0.00 Steady
United Sabah Party PBS 143,342 2.16 3 1.55 Decrease5
State Reform Party STAR 23,354 0.35 0 0.00 New
Malaysian Democratic Party MDP 8,001 0.12 0 0.00 New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front BERJASA 409 0.01 0 0.00 New
Malaysian People's Justice Front AKIM 274 0.00 0 0.00 Steady
Independents IND 39,385 0.59 0 0.00 Steady
Valid votes 6,455,714
Invalid/blank votes 175,380
Total votes (voter turnout: 69.3%) 6,631,094 100.00 193 100.00 +1
Did not vote 2,932,977
Registered voters 9,564,071
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above) 13,411,519
Malaysian population 22,549,627

Source: Nohlen et al. [1]

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. ^ Parties in the informal coalition, Alternatif Front (Barisan Alternatif). Contested using separate election symbol on the ballot papers.

Results by state[edit]

Johor[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Johor
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 20 20 100.00 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 13 13 65.00 0
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 6 6 30.00 0
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 1 1 5.00 0
Democratic Action Party DAP 9 0 0 0 0.00 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 11 0 0.00 0
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 20 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Johor's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Kedah[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Kedah
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 15 315,807 55.77 7 46.67 -8
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 13 260,565 46.01 5 33.33 -8
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 2 55,242 9.75 2 13.33 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 10 171,867 30.35 8 53.33 +8
National Justice Party KeADILan 4 65,371 11.54 0 0.00 New
Democratic Action Party DAP 1 13,258 2.34 0 0.00 0
Valid votes 566,303
Invalid/blank votes 19,152
Total votes (voter turnout: %) 585,455 100.00 15 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Kedah's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Kelantan[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Kelantan
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 11 228,325 47.48 10 71.43 +4
National Front[a] BN 14 187,094 38.91 1 7.14 -1
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 14 187,094 38.91 1 7.14 -1
National Justice Party KeADILan 3 64,763 13.47 3 21.43 New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front BERJASA 1 409 0.09 0 0.00 New
Malaysian People's Justice Front AKIM 1 274 0.06 0 0.00 0
Valid votes 480,865
Invalid/blank votes 11,634
Total votes (voter turnout: %) 492,499 100.00 14 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Kelantan's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Kuala Lumpur[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Kuala Lumpur
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN
United Malays National Organisation UMNO
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00   100.00  
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Kuala Lumpur's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Labuan[edit]

Malacca[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Malacca
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 5 4 80.00 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 3 3 60.00 0
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 2 1 20.00 0
Democratic Action Party DAP 1 20.00 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 0 0.00 0
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 5 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Malacca's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Negeri Sembilan[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Negeri Sembilan
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 7 7 100.00 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 4 4 57.14 0
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 2 2 28.57 0
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 1 1 14.29 0
Democratic Action Party DAP 0 0.00 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 0 0.00 0
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 7 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Negeri Sembilan's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Pahang[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Pahang
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 11 11 100.00 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 8 8 72.73 0
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 3 3 27.27 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 0 0.00 0
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 11 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Pahang's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Penang[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Penang
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 11 247,870 51.36 6 54.55 -2
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 3 84,698 17.55 1 9.09 -1
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 4 83,607 17.32 2 18.18 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 4 79,565 16.49 3 27.27 -1
Democratic Action Party DAP 7 169,973 35.22 4 36.36 +1
National Justice Party KeADILan 3 54,987 11.39 1 9.09 New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 1 8,810 1.83 0 0.00 0
Independents IND 1 942 0.20 0 0.00 0
Valid votes 482,582
Invalid/blank votes 12,355
Total votes (voter turnout: 76.68%) 494,937 100.00 11 100.00 0
Did not vote 150,514
Registered voters 645,451
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Penang's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Perak[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Perak
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 23 20 86.96 -3
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 9 39.13 -2
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 6 26.09 -1
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 3 13.04 0
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 2 8.70 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 2 8.70 +2
Democratic Action Party DAP 1 4.35 +1
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 23 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Perak's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Perlis[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Perlis
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 3 46,212 56.17 3 100.00 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 3 46,212 56.17 3 100.00 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 2 26,191 31.84 0 0.00 0
National Justice Party KeADILan 1 9,867 11.99 0 0.00 New
Valid votes 82,270
Invalid/blank votes 2,114
Total votes (voter turnout: %) 84,384 100.00 3 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Perlis's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Sabah[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Sabah
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 20 17 85.00 +5
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 14 14 70.00 +5
Sabah Progressive Party SAPP 3 2 10.00 0
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 3 1 5.00 0
United Sabah Party PBS 20 3 15.00 -5
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 20 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Sabah's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Sarawak[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Sarawak
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 28 338,013 65.95 28 100.00 +2
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 7 129,356 25.24 7 25.00 0
United Traditional Bumiputera Party PBB 10 100,062 19.52 10 35.71 +1
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak PBDS 6 51,749 10.10 6 21.43 0
Sarawak National Party SNAP 4 45,519 8.88 4 14.29 0
Barisan Nasional Direct Candidate 1 11,327 2.21 1 3.57
Democratic Action Party[b] DAP 7 75,992 14.81 0 0.00 New
National Justice Party[b] KeADILan 13 49,774 9.71 0 0.00 New
State Reform Party STAR 4 23,048 4.50 0 0.00 New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party[b] PAS 1 2,438 0.48 0 0.00 0
Independents IND 12 23,332 4.55 0 0.00 0
Valid votes 512,527
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 28 100.00 +1
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Sarawak's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. ^ a b c Parties in the informal coalition, Alternatif Front (Barisan Alternatif). Contested using separate election symbol on the ballot papers.

Selangor[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Selangor
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 17 17 100.00 0
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 8 8 47.06 0
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 6 6 35.29 0
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 3 3 17.65 0
Democratic Action Party DAP 9 0 0.00 0
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 8 0 0.00 0
Valid votes
Invalid/blank votes
Total votes (voter turnout: %)   100.00 17 100.00 0
Did not vote
Registered voters  
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Selangor's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

Terengganu[edit]

Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results in Terengganu
Party Candidates Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 7 161,052 52.01 7 87.50 +6
National Front[a] BN 8 127,700 41.24 0 0.00 -7
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 8 127,700 41.24 0 0.00 -7
National Justice Party KeADILan 1 20,715 6.69 1 12.50 New
Independents IND 1 175 0.06 0 0.00 0
Valid votes 309,642
Invalid/blank votes 6,398
Total votes (voter turnout: 81.23%) 316,040 100.00 8 100.00 0
Did not vote 73,042
Registered voters 389,082
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)  
Terengganu's population  

Source:

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.

State Assemblies[edit]

The opposition won a total of 113 state assembly seats, 98 of which went to the PAS, 11 to the DAP and 4 for Keadilan.[2] In the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the PAS won by a huge margin–41-2 against Barisan Nasional out of a total of 43 seats and 28-4 out of a total of 32 seats respectively, hence allowing them to form the state governments in these states. In addition, PAS also captured one-third of the state seats in Kedah, with the remaining two-thirds going to Barisan Nasional (UMNO won 16 seats, MCA 2 seats in Kedah).

The election results were seen as a great gain for PAS, who previously had no state seats in Kedah and capturing only one seat in Terengganu in the 1995 General Elections. Observers attributed this to the neglect by the Federal Administration in the states of Terengganu and Kelantan due to administration by different parties.[3]

References[edit]

  • Chin, James (2000). "A New Balance: The Chinese Vote in the 1999 Malaysian General Election". South East Asia Research. 8 (3): 281–299. doi:10.5367/000000000101297299.
  • "Malaysia unlikely to go fundamentalist: Lee Kuan Yew". (Dec. 13, 1999). Agence France Presse.
  1. ^ The previous election was contested under separate parties, mainly PAS and DAP
  2. ^ "PILIHAN RAYA UMUM 1999 - DEWAN UNDANGAN NEGERI". Archived from the original on 2017-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
  3. ^ Swee-Hock Saw, K. Kesavapany (2006). Malaysia recent trends and challenges. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 97–8. ISBN 981-230-339-1.

External links[edit]