Malcolm Dole

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Malcolm Dole
Malcolm Dole.jpg
BornMarch 4, 1903
DiedNovember 29, 1990 (1990-11-30) (aged 87)
ResidenceUnited States
NationalityUnited States
Alma materHarvard University
Known forDole effect
Glass electrodes
Polymer crosslinking
Electrospray ionization
Scientific career
FieldsPhysical chemistry
Polymer chemistry
InstitutionsNorthwestern University
Baylor University
Doctoral advisorTheodore William Richards
InfluencesPeter Debye
InfluencedJohn Bennett Fenn

Malcolm Dole (March 4, 1903 – November 29, 1990) was an American chemist known for the Dole Effect in which he proved that the atomic weight of oxygen in air is greater than that of oxygen in water[1] and for his work on electrospray ionization, polymer chemistry, and electrochemistry.[2][3]

Dole effect[edit]

The Dole effect is the inequality in the ratio of heavy oxygen isotope 18O to the more abundant 16O in the earth's atmosphere and in seawater. This effect was reported by Dole in 1935.[4][5] The effect is due to slightly different reaction rates for the two isotopes in respiration in plants and in animals which tends to retain the lighter 16O, which increases the relative concentration of 18O in the atmosphere.


Electrospray is a process in which a high voltage is applied to a liquid to create an aerosol containing highly charged droplets. Dole in 1968 was the first to use electrospray ionization with mass spectrometry.[6][7]


  • Dole, Malcolm (1935). Principles of Experimental and Theoretical Electrochemistry. LCCN 35014525.
  • Dole, Malcolm (1941). The Glass Electrode: Methods, Applications, and Theory. ASIN B0007DVA2W. LCCN 41016574.
  • Dole, Malcolm (1954). Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics. LCCN 54009934.
  • Dole, Malcolm (1972). The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-219802-6.
  • Dole, Malcolm (1989). My Life in the Golden Age of America. New York: Vantage Press. ISBN 0-533-07995-0.


  1. ^ Dole, M. (1935). "The relative atomic weight of oxygen in water and air". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57 (12): 2731. doi:10.1021/ja01315a511.
  2. ^ Klotz, Irving M.; Ratner, Mark (December 1991). "Obituary: Malcolm Dole". Physics Today. 44 (12): 100. Bibcode:1991PhT....44l.100K. doi:10.1063/1.2810380.
  3. ^ "Malcolm Dole Papers, 1924 - 1990" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-10-12.
  4. ^ Dole, Malcolm (1936). "The Relative Atomic Weight of Oxygen in Water and in Air". Journal of Chemical Physics. 4 (4): 268–275. Bibcode:1936JChPh...4..268D. doi:10.1063/1.1749834.
  5. ^ Morita, N. (1935). "The increased density of air oxygen relative to water oxygen". J. Chem. Soc. Japan. 56: 1291.
  6. ^ Dole M, Mack LL, Hines RL, Mobley RC, Ferguson LD, Alice MB (1968). "Molecular Beams of Macroions". Journal of Chemical Physics. 49 (5): 2240–2249. Bibcode:1968JChPh..49.2240D. doi:10.1063/1.1670391.
  7. ^ Birendra N. Pramanik; A.K. Ganguly; Michael L. Gross (28 February 2002). Applied Electrospray Mass Spectrometry: Practical Spectroscopy Series. CRC Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-8247-4419-9.