The Maldiyal is a Mughal clan, living in Azad Kashmir and Rawalpindi division of Punjab, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir division, and Punjab regions of India. It is a major land-holding tribe in Bagh District and Tehsil Abbaspur of the Poonch District and Tehsil Mendhar of District Poonch of Indian Jammu and Kashmir. The main village of Maldiyal is birpani, Topi Kothian & Narr Sher Ali Khan, moere than 95% population of these areas is Maldiyal The word "Maldyal" is derived from the name of Mirza Moloud Baig, Father of Maldyals and a great warrior of Poonch State.
- Shajra Khandan-e Mughalia Taimooriaa
Umar Sheikh Gorgani was the ruler of Farghana, which is nowadays known as Russian Turkistan. On 6th Moharram, 888 Hijri, 1482 AD Babar was born who was named Zahiruddin Muhammad Babar. His father i.e. Umar Sheikh Ajwan, expired in 899 Hijri, 1494 AD.
Zahiruddin Babar became the Emperor of Farghana in 5th Ramzan 899 Hijri, 6-6-1494 AD. He married with his cousin in 905 Hijri (1499 AD). Babar came to Balkh in 910 Hijri (1503 AD) where his cousin brothers Mirza Wazir Khusru Shah happened to be a ruler. The Mughal army of Khusru joined Babar, and as such Babar came to have a powerful army of 8000 soldiers, and it was very easy for Babar to conquer Kabul.
Mohammed Muqeem, the Emperor of Kabul, surrendered the fort to Babar. In 1525 AD (932 Hijri), Babar left Kabul with an intention to invade Hindustan. He reached Sialkot after crossing rivers Sing, Jhelum and Chinab. He invaded Hindustan four times and in every invasion he expanded his empire. On 21-4-1526 AD, he defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the battle of Panipat, and in this way, he founded the rule of Mughlia Dynasty in Hindustan, and he was called the Emperor of Hindustan. He left for his heavenly abode on 26-12-1530 AD. His son Humayun sat on the throne in 1530 AD (937 Hijri) and he expired in 1555 AD (963 Hijri). Thereafter, Emperor Jalal-Ud-Din Muhammad Akbar, the son of Emperor Humayun, sat on the throne in 1555 AD (963 Hijri). He ruled until his death in 1605 AD (1014 Hijri). Thereafter, his son, Nuruddin Mohammed Jahangir, sat on the throne in 1605 AD (Hijri 1014) and was called the Emperor of Hindustan. He ruled till 1628 AD (Hijri: 1037). Thereafter, Dawar Buksh 1627–1628 AD (Hijri 1037) and after him Shahjahan 1627 AD (1037 Hijri) were called the Emperor of Hindustan, and they ruled until 1657 AD (1068 Hijri). Morad Buksh 1057 AD (1068 Hijri) in Gujrat and Shuja in Bengal 1657–1660 AD (1067-1670 Hijri) been the ruler. The Emperor Aurangzeb sat on the throne in 1658 AD, and he expired in 19-04-1707 AD on the day of Friday (1118 Hijri). He ruled for a period of 50 years and three months (was buried at Khuldabad, District: Aurngabad). Azam Shah (1706 AD, 1118 Hijri), Farukhsher (1712 AD, 1124 Hijri), and thereafter Rafiulizzat (1718 AD, 1131 Hijri) sat on the throne. Thereafter, brother of Rafiulizzat, Rafiuddaulah (1718 AD, 1131 Hijri) sat on the throne. After ruling for a period of three months, Rafiuddin left for his heavenly abode. Nekusar sat on the throne in 1718 AD (1131 Hijri.) Thereafter Mohammad Shah at the age of 18 years, in 1719 AD (1131 Hijri) was enthroned at the palace of Fatehpur. Sawan Khan (Kharal Maldyalian, whose descendants are recognize by the name of sanwnal).
- Shajra of Mirza Moloud Baig
Ameer Taimoor Gorgania Barlasi, the great Mughal Emperor
- Ameerzada Umer Sheikh Gorgani
- Mirza Baiqra
- Ghiaath-Ud-Din Mansoor Mirza
- Ghazi Hussain Mirza
- Badih-Uz-Zaman Mirza
- Muhammad Yaadgar Mirza
- Mirza Tahir Baig
- Mirza Mouloud Baig
The tribe has a history of bravery and martiality. The tribe is descended from Prince Mirza Tahir Baig, who immigrated from Herat in Afghanistan, which was the largest province of Taimoorid Sultanat, and settled in Srinagar. Later, the Maldyal Tribe settled in Poonch.
War of Independence of 1831
Shams Khan Maldiyal was the Raja of Poonch, at the time of AapRaji (just before the foundation of modern state of Jammu and Kashmir by Gulab Singh). Rajwali was the nephew of the Shams Khan, gallant pahari warrior of Kashmir who went into revolt against Gulab Singh along with the Sudhan and other Pahari tribes in 1837.
During that revolt, Sabz Ali and Mallee Khan (both Sudhan Pathan), along with many companions were flayed alive in Mang (Palandri). Hundreds of Maldyal Mughal and Sudhan Pathan children and women were taken to Jammu as prisoner. Shams Khan and Rajwali were killed by a traitor Nur Khan Terola in the Daigwal village.
In Pahari language, the story of these gallant heroes of Kashmir is sung as a Waar[a] or ballad, with the name "Shams Khan, Sabz Ali teh Mallee Khan née waar". The English translation by Bawa Satinder Singh, produced from his book Jammu Fox, is given below:
- Song of the Pahari warriors of Kashmir
- Shams te Malli Sabz Ali di Warr
- Praised be the lord and his black-robed prophet.
- Praised be the saint of Baghdad who rescued the wrecked ships from the sea.
- Great was the Raja Rustam, lord of all Poonch, after him was born Raj Wali Shams khan the warrior, who from his youth dreamt of the independence.
- He mounted a black stallion and rode to Jammu.
- Where Gulab Singh inquired, "you are soldier? from what state?"
- "O,Raja" said Shams, "Poonch is my land and I am a warrior of the Maldyal tribe"
- And Gulab Singh bestowed on him a robe of honor, a horse and a pair of gold bangles.
- The Shams Khan daringly demanded, "hand over the administration of Poonch to me" the Raja agreed but warned him, "Do not steal my revenues".
Shams promised to remit the taxes faithfully. Shams returned home, opened free kitchens for the poor, and arranged feasts. But soon, the village elders and accountants met to determine the amount of revenue owed to Gulab Singh. "Thirty-six thousand rupees", the told Shams, "are due". Stung by such oppressive taxation, Shams and his nephew Raj Wali decided to rebel. "Let us recruit a force of valiant soldiers", they said.
The forts of Tatwala and Bhalangai wala Shams took by storm. A dozen other fortresses fell, and Tara Dogra was captured. He begged for mercy in the name of God and offered submission.
Shams Khan then sent emissaries to the tribe of Kakka and Bamba, which gave Shams their full support. When news of revolt reached Gulab Singh, he became exceedingly angry. He commanded Dewan Dhannoo with five hundred soldiers to march on Poonch. Shams advanced to meet him. Looking scornfully at the Dogra commander he exclaimed,
- "I know you are Dewan Dhannoo , But I am Shams Khan the warrior. I shall give you such a battle that people will sing tale about it..., I shall rip you apart with my sword and scatter your limbs around".
Dewan Dhannoo beat a hasty retreat down the hill from Chappra and galloped back to Jammu, there he raised a hue and cry and told Gulab Singh,
- "O Raja, if you remain at Jammu, you shall have to wash your hands of Poonch. Shams has risen to open rebellion."
When Gulab Singh heard this, he trembled with rage. At once, he ordered his forces to return from Kishtwar. He recruited additional soldiers and collected laborers to work as porters. The iron of the blacksmiths was confiscated for casting shells; The yarn of the weavers was taken for making tents. Gulab Singh himself assumed command and hastened to Poonch. Hearing this, many of the camp followers deserted Shams.
The raja first marched to Pindi Jhelum and then entered Poonch. His other camps were established at the village of Mang and Bagh. He flayed alive Malli and Sabz Ali and stuffed their skins with straw at Mang. Even innocent young children he flayed alive.
Then the raja searched for Shams and questioned Muzaffar Khan of Uri, who feigned complete ignorance to save his own skin. But fate led Shams and Rajwali to the village of Dhagwala, where Nur Khan Terola, the chief, invited them to dinner, in order to ensnare and disarm them.
At midnight, Raj Wali woke and cried,
- "O, Uncle! I had a terrible dream. I have seen myself being served a dish full of blood. Surely it is a sign that our death is near."
The ill-omened dream foretold the truth; they were betrayed. Shams felt deep chagrin at the way he had been tricked, and in the dead of night tried to escape over the wall, but Nur Khan saw him and dragged him down.
The cornered rebel looked to the left and looked to the right but no friend did he find. "Alas! Who could be his ally at this, his final hour?" Shams turned to the Nur Khan and cried,
- "O, Brother! You seem determined to commit this treachery. But remember that valiant soldiers are not afraid to sacrifice their lives for the sake of holy Quran".
His enemies remained unmoved. They beheaded Shams and Raj Wali and carried their heads to Bagh.
There, Gulab Singh saw the severed heads and was filled with joy, "Praise be to your mother, O, Shams Khan; a son like you no other mother will ever bear." After this, a huge number of Maldyal warriors, elders, children and women were brutally assassinated in order to teach the lesson to other tribes. There was also sardar Kala Khan, whose bravery in Poonch district was recognised by Indian commander in 1947 and was given command of 50 soldiers in 1947. His nephew now resides in Canada and teaches flying in Manitoba, Canada.
Location and villages
A remarkable number of Maldiyal Mughal are settled in the USA, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E., UK, Canada, New-Zealand, Australia, Germany, France, and all over the world as well as in Pakistani cities Rawalpindi, Gujar Khan, Islamabad, Lahore, Feysalabad, Gujranwala, Karachi, Multan, Sahiwal, Kallar Syyedan, and Kashmir Poonch, Srinagar, Uri, Tehsil Mendhar, SurnKot,New Shakrial Islamabad etc.
The Maldyal Mughals, mostly educated and brave, are in majority in 84 villages of District & Tasil --Bagh, out of 132 total villages, where they enjoy brotherly relations with all other tribes. The main village of Maldyals is Birpani, Gehlan and others are [Nar Sher Ali Khan], Panyali,kotteri najam khan and Chowki, Dharay, Salyian Maldyalan, Naryullah, Kalori, Chitra Topi, Sullot, Kothian, Salhian Maldyalain, Kharl Maldyalain, Kotehri Najam Khan, Kotehri Tughloo Khan, KotehRa Mast Khan, Choki, Dhokan Rawali, Noor gala, Maldhara, Saver, Panially, Rawalyi, Bhurka Maira, Khawaja, Ratnoi, Jabbarh, Kotla (رتنوئی،جبڑ،کوٹلہ), Seekot, Koteeri Najam Khan,Bangran, khotian, Swang, Samni kawel khan,Ramikot Rehra, Dhulli, Chattar Paddar, Kotere najam khan,SHUJA ABAD,Gehalan, Chattar no.2,Batangi, Chatra, Polas, Bhount, Namjar in abbaspur,Potha in Abbaspur, Khori Channa, Trar Dewan In Rawalakot, Kakutta in Tehsil Hajira, Sehra in Tehsil Hajira, Nawan in Tehsil Sehnsa,Kotli & Goi Tehsil Nakial,Kotli and many more also in district Muzaffarabad etc.
Languages, culture and religion
[a] - Background Information: The waar (ballad) is a type of poem in Pahari language of Kashmir, existing in shape of folk songs narrating the events of some war. A type of history recording or paying tribute to the heroes is an example of the resistant literature of Kashmir. This particular waar is about the event of flaying alive of the leaders of the resistance against Gulab Singh in Mang (Dist. Palandri) about 150 years ago. This famous waar was translated into English by Bawa Satinder Singh and was published in Jammu Fox as appendix A, with the title "A folk song of the Poonch warriors".