Maleficium (sorcery)

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Maleficium (plural: maleficia) as a Latin term, "An act of witchcraft performed with the intention of causing damage or injury; the resultant harm." In general, the term applies to any magical act intended to cause harm or death to people or property. Its use in English comes from "Early 17th century; earliest use found in George Abbot (1562–1633), archbishop of Canterbury. From classical Latin maleficium evil deed, injury, sorcery from maleficus + -ium". In general, the term applies to any magical act intended to cause harm or death to people or property.[1]

According to the Witchcraft of Illinois, Maleficium can involve the act of poisoning or drugging someone.[2] Practitioners of maleficium are not exclusively females, although popular culture of witchcraft favors it.[1] Those accused of maleficium were punished by being imprisoned or even executed.[3] Maleficium also used the practice of torture, and it was generally considered to be performed through the power of the Devil.[2]

In 1970, new research on witch-hunts and charges of witchcraft was conducted in the last couple of years. It discussed all of the fears, accusations, etc. that happened in the villages. There were different charges of maleficium that were placed due to suspicion. Lewis and Russell stated, "Maleficium was a threat not only to individuals but also to public order, for a community wracked by suspicions about witches could split asunder".[4]

"Sorcery, the practice of malevolent magic, derived from casting lots as a means of divining the future in the ancient Mediterranean world".[5] Most scholars always assume that sorcery as a whole is always malevolent, but that witch craft can be good or evil. Usually, the sorcerer and sorcery are feared by society.

During the 14th century, sorcery was more connected with cultures in India and Africa. A person that performs sorcery is referred to as a sorcerer, and they are thought of as someone that tries to reform the world through an occult. Sorcerers were feared and respected throughout many societies and used many practices to achieve their goals. "Witches or sorcerers were usually feared as well as respected, and they used a variety of means to attempt to achieve their goals, including incantations (formulas or chants invoking evil spirits), divination and oracles (to predict the future), amulets and charms (to ward off hostile spirits and harmful events), potions or salves, and dolls or other figures (to represent their enemies)".[4]

Sorcery was also thought to sometimes rely on other gods, spirits and/or demons to get their power. They sometimes did this by performing rituals. One of the rituals that they performed was the slaughtering of an animal in a field to promote fertility. Sorcerers would do this with the assisted help or power of a god, spirit, or demon.

During the 13th century, sorcery was involved in many deaths. They were thought to be done with magic, but were usually a result of poisoning. In 1324, there was a very famous case involving a series of events caused by sorcery in Ireland. Author George Melton wrote, "Lady Alice Kyteller was charged with performing magical rites, having sexual intercourse with demons, attempting to divine the future, and poisoning her first three husbands. In the Malleus Maleficarum (1486, "The Hammer of Witches"), the famous witch-hunter’s manual, Dominicans Heinrich Krämer and Jacob Sprenger associated the practice of sorcery with a group of "witches" who allegedly practiced Satanism".[5] After this, many believed that magic had to deal with the devil rather than other gods and spirits.

In the Byzantine Empire astrologers (Lat. mathematici) were considered magical wrongdoers and so were heretics.[6]

The term appears in several historically important texts, notably in the Formicarius (printed 1475) and in the Malleus Maleficarum (1487).[citation needed]

The Knights Templar were accused by Philip IV of France of maleficium. The trial of the Knights Templar set a social standard for the popular belief in maleficium and witchcraft that contributed to the great European witch hunts.[7][page needed] In early New England, more men would get accused of such maleficium that was "non-malefic".[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kierner, Cynthia A. (2015). Virginia Women: Their Lives and Times. University of Georgia Press. p. 19. ISBN 0820347418. 
  2. ^ a b "Sorcery | occult practice". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-05-12. 
  3. ^ a b Kent, E. J. (2005). "Masculinity and Male Witches in Old and New England, 1593–1680". History Workshop Journal (60): 69–92. JSTOR 25472816. 
  4. ^ a b "Witchcraft". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-05-12. 
  5. ^ a b "maleficium | Definition of maleficium in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2018-05-12. 
  6. ^ Gordon, Richard L.; Simón, Francisco Marco (2010). "Chapter Three. Heretical texts and maleficium in the Codex Theodosianum (CTh. 16.5.34)". Magical Practice in the Latin West: Papers from the International Conference Held at the University of Zaragoza, 30 Sept. – 1st Oct. 2005. Leiden: Brill. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9004179046. Retrieved 19 April 2017. 
  7. ^ Cohn, Norman (2005). Europe's Inner Demons: The Demonization of Christians In Medieval Christendom (New ed.). London: Pimlico. ISBN 0712657576.