Mali (GPU)

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The Mali series of graphics processing units (GPUs) and multimedia processors are semiconductor intellectual property cores produced by ARM Holdings for licensing in various ASIC designs by ARM partners.

Mali GPUs were developed by Falanx Microsystems A/S, which was spun off a research project from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.[1] Arm Holdings acquired Falanx Microsystems A/S on June 23, 2006 and renamed the company to Arm Norway.[2]

Technical details[edit]

Like other embedded IP cores for 3D rendering acceleration, the Mali GPU does not include display controllers driving monitors, in contrast to common desktop video cards. Instead, the Mali ARM core is a pure 3D engine that renders graphics into memory and passes the rendered image over to another core to handle display.

ARM does, however, license display controller SIP cores independently of the Mali 3D accelerator SIP block, e.g. Mali DP500, DP550 and DP650.[3]

ARM also supplies tools to help in authoring OpenGL ES shaders named Mali GPU Shader Development Studio and Mali GPU User Interface Engine.

Display controllers such as the ARM HDLCD display controller are available separately.[4]

Variants[edit]

The Mali core grew out of the cores previously produced by Falanx and currently constitute:

Model Micro-
archi-
tecture
Type Launch date Shader core count Fab (nm) Die size (mm2) Core clock rate (MHz) L2 cache size Fillrate Bus width (bits) GFLOPS
(per core)
API (version) Fused
multiply–
add
Usage in SoCs Usage
M△/s GT/s (GP/s) Vulkan OpenGL ES OpenVG OpenCL Direct3D
Mali-55/110 ? Fixed function pipeline[5] 2005[permanent dead link] 1 ? ? ? N/A 2.8 0.1 ? ? N/A 1.1 1.0 N/A N/A No Rockchip RK2818 Graphics
Mali-200 Utgard[6] Programmable pipeline[7] 2007[8] 1 ? ? ? N/A 5 0.2 ? ? 2.0 1.1
Mali-300 ? 1 40
28
? 500 8 KiB 55 0.5 ? 5 K1892VM14Ya
Mali-400 MP 2008 1–4 40
28
? 200–600 256 KiB 55 0.5 ? 1.2–5.4 Allwinner A10, A10s, A13, A20, A33, H3, A64
Mali-450 MP 2012 1–8 40
28
? 300–750 512 KiB 142 2.6 ? 4.5–11.9 Amlogic S805, S802, S812, S905, Allwinner H5, RK3328
Mali-470 MP 2015 1–4 40
28
? 250–650 8–256 KiB 71 0.65 ? ? ?
Mali-T604[9] Midgard 1st gen Unified shader model +

SIMD ISA

? 1–4 32
28
? 533 32–256 KiB 90 0.533 ? 17 3.1 Full Profile 1.1 11
(FL 9_3)
Yes Exynos 5250 Graphics
& Compute
Mali-T658[9] ? 1–8 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mali-T622 Midgard 2nd gen ? 1–2 32
28
? 533 ? ? 8.5
Mali-T624 Aug 2012 1–4 32
28
? 533–600 ? ? 17-19.2
Mali-T628 Aug 2012 1–8 32
28
? 533–695 ? ? 17–23.7 Kirin 930/935
Mali-T678[10] Aug 2012 1–8 28 ? ? ? ? ?
Mali-T720 Midgard 3rd gen Oct 2013 1–8 28 ? 400–700 32–256 KiB[11] 650 (MP8@650MHz) 5.2 (MP8@650MHz) ? 6.8–11.9 Exynos 7580, MT6735, MT6753
Mali-T760 Oct 2013 1–16 28 / 14 1.75 mm 2 per shader core at 14 nm[12] 600–772 256–2048 KiB[13] 1300 0.6-12.6

GTexel/s

(bilinear)[14]

10.4 ? 17–26.2 1.0[15] 3.2[16] Full Profile 1.2 11
(FL 11_1) [17]
Exynos 7420, Exynos 5433, MT6752, MT6732, RK3288
Mali-T820 Midgard 4th gen Q4 2015 1–4 28 ? 600 32–256 KiB[13] 400 ? 2.6 ? 10.2 11
(FL 9_3)
Amlogic S912
Mali-T830 28 ? 600–950 32–256 KiB[13] 400 ? 2.6 ? 20.4–32.3 Kirin 650/655, Exynos 7870, Exynos 7880
Mali-T860 1–16 28 ? 350–700 256–2048 KiB[13] 1300 ? 10.4 ? 11.9–23.8 11
(FL 11_1)
RK3399 (MP4), Serge S1 (MP4), RK3399 (MP4), Helio P10 (MP2), MT6750 (MP2)
Mali-T880 Q2 2016 1–16 16 ? 650–1000 256–2048 KiB[13] 1700 ? 13.6 ? 22.1–34 Exynos 8890, Helio P20 (MT6757), Helio P25, Helio X20 (MT6797), Kirin 950/955
Mali-G31 Bifrost 1st gen Unified shader model + Unified memory +

scalar, clause-based ISA

Q1 2018 1-6 (1 EU per core)[18] 28 ? 650 32kB-512kB ? 1.3 10.4 1.1[19] Full Profile 2.0 Rockchip RK3326[20][21]AmLogic S905Y2, S905X2, S905D2
Mali-G51[22] Q4 2016 1-6 (1 uni to 3 dual)[23] 28
16
14
12
10
? 650 ? 3.9 11
(FL 9_3)
HiSilicon Hi3751V811, HiSilicon Kirin 710
Mali-G71 Q2 2016 1–32 16
14
10
? 700-1037 128–2048 KiB 1850 0.7-24.7

GTexel/s

(bilinear)[24]

27.2 18.56-28.9[25] 11
(FL 11_1)
Kirin 960, Exynos 5 7872[26], Exynos 7 7885[27], Exynos 9 8895[28], Helio P23, Helio P30
Mali-G52 Bifrost 2nd gen Q1 2018 1-4 (2 or 3 EU per core) 16 ? 850 ? 6.8 27.2 @ 850 MHz per core (2 EU)

40.8 @ 850 MHz per core (3 EU)

AmLogic S922X, Rockchip RK3530, Kirin 810
Mali-G72 Q2 2017 1–32 16
12
10
1.36 mm 2 per shader core at 10 nm[29] 572-800 128–2048 KiB 27.2 30.54 12
(FL 11_1)
Kirin 970, Exynos 9 9810, Exynos 7 9610, Helio P60, Helio P70
Mali-G76 Bifrost 3rd gen Q2 2018 4-20 12
8
7
? 600-800 512–4096 KiB ? ? ? ? Kirin980, Kirin 990, Exynos 9 9820, Exynos 9 9825, Helio G90/G90T
Mali-G77 Valhall 1st gen Superscalar engine + Unified memory +

simplified scalar ISA

Q2 2019 4-16 7 850 512–4096 KiB
Model Micro-
archi-
tecture
Type Launch date Shader core count Fab

(nm)

Die size (mm2) Core clock rate (MHz) Max L2 cache size Fillrate (Max core count) Bus width (bits) FP32 GFLOPS
(per core)
Vulkan Open
GL/ES
Open
VG
Open
CL
Direct
3D
Fused multiply-add Usage in SoCs Usage

Some Microarchitectures (or just some Chips?) support cache coherency for the L2 cache with the CPU.[30][31]

Adaptive Scalable Texture Compression (ASTC) is supported by Mali-T620, T720/T760, T820/T830/T860/T880 [32] and Mali-G series.

Implementations[edit]

The Mali GPU variants can be found in the following systems on chips (SoCs):

Vendor SoC name Mali version
Allwinner Allwinner A1X (A10, A10s, A13) Mali-400 MP[33][34][35] @ 300 MHz
A20, A23, A33, H2, H3, A64, H64, R8, R16, R40, R18 Mali-400 MP2[36] @ 350/350/350/600/600/?/?/?/?/?/? MHz
H5 Mali-450 MP4
H6 Mali-T720 MP2
Amlogic 8726-M series (8726-M1, 8726-M3, 8726-M6, 8726-MX) Mali-400 MP/MP2[37] @ 250/400 MHz
8726-M8 series (M801, M802, S801, S802, S812) Mali-450 MP6[37] @ 600 MHz
8726-M8B series (M805, S805) Mali-450 MP2[37] @ 500 MHz
S905, S905X/D/L Mali-450 MP3 @ 750 MHz
S905X2, S905Y2, S905D2 Mali-G31 MP2
S912 Mali-T820 MP3 @ 600 MHz
S922X Mali-G52 MP4
T966 Mali-T830 MP2 @ 650 MHz
Asus Tinkerboard, Tinkerboard S Mali-T760
Baikal Electronics Baikal-M Mali-T628 MP8[38]
CSR Quatro 5300 Series Mali-400 MP
InfoTM iMAP×15 Mali-400
iMAP×820 Mali-400 MP2
iMAP×912 Mali-400 MP2
HiSilicon Kirin 620 Mali-450 MP4 @ 533 MHz
Kirin 650/655/658/659 Mali-T830 MP2 @ 900 MHz
Kirin 710 Mali-G51 MP4 @ 1000MHz
Kirin 810 Mali-G52 MP6 @ 820MHz
Kirin 910/910T Mali-450 MP4 @ 533/700 MHz
Kirin 920/925/928 Mali-T628 MP4 @ 600/600/? MHz
Kirin 930/935 Mali-T628 MP4 @ 600/680 MHz
Kirin 950/955 Mali-T880 MP4 @ 900 MHz
Kirin 960 Mali-G71 MP8 @ 1037 MHz
Kirin 970 Mali-G72 MP12 @ 746 MHz
Kirin 980 Mali-G76 MP10 @ 720 MHz
Kirin 990/990 5G Mali-G76 MP16 @ 600 MHz
Leadcore LC1810, LC1811, LC1813, LC1913 Mali-400[39][40][41][42]
LC1860, LC1860C, LC1960 Mali-T628 MP2 @ 600 MHz
MediaTek MT5595, MT5890 Mali-T624 MP3
MT5596, MT5891 Mali-T860 MP2 [43]
MT6571, MT6572, MT6572M Mali-400 MP1 @ ?/500/400 MHz
MT6580 Mali-400 MP1 @ 500 MHz
MT6582/MT6582M Mali-400 MP2 @ 500/416 MHz
MT6588, MT6591, MT6592, MT6592M, MT8127 Mali-450 MP4 @ 600/700/600/600 MHz[44]
MT6732, MT6732M, MT6752, MT6752M Mali-T760 MP2 @ 500/500/700/700 MHz[45]
MT6735, MT6735M, MT6735P Mali-T720 MP2 @ 600/500/400 MHz
MT6737, MT6737T Mali-T720 MP2 @ 550/600 MHz
MT6750 Mali-T860 MP2 @ 520 MHz
MT6753 Mali-T720 MP3 @ 700 MHz[46]
MT6755 (Helio P10), MT6755M, MT6755T Mali-T860 MP2 @ 700/650/800 MHz
MT6757 (Helio P20), MT6757CD Mali-T880 MP2 @ 900 MHz/1.0 GHz
MT6797, MT6797D, MT6797T, MT6797X Mali-T880 MP4 @ 780/850/875 MHz
MT8735 Mali-T720 MP2 @ 450 MHz
Helio P23 Mali-G71 MP2 @ 770 MHz[47]
Helio P25 Mali-T880 MP2 @ 1GHz[48]
Helio P30 Mali-G71 MP2 @ 950 MHz[49]
Helio P60 Mali-G72 MP3 @ 800 MHz[50]
Helio P70 Mali-G72 MP3 @ 900 MHz[51]
Helio G90/G90T Mali-G76 MP4 @ 800MHz
NetLogic Au1380, Au1350 Mali-200[52][53]
Nufront NS2816, NS2816M Mali-400 MP
NS115, TL7688, TL7689 Mali-400 MP2
Realtek RTD1294, RTD1295, RTD1296 Mali-T820 MP3[54]
Rockchip RK2818 Mali-200
RK2926, RK2628, RK3036, RK3229 Mali-400 MP @ 400/400/500/600 MHz[55]
RK3026, RK3126, RK3128 Mali-400 MP2 @ 500/600/600 MHz
RK3066, RK3188, RK3188T Mali-400 MP4 @ 266/533/~400 MHz[56][57]
RK3288 Mali-T760 MP4 @ 600 MHz
RK3326 Mali-G31 MP2[20][21]
RK3328 Mali-450 MP2
RK3399 Mali-T860 MP4 @ 600 MHz
RK3530 Mali-G52[58]
RK3588
Samsung Exynos 3 Quad (3470), Exynos 4 Dual, Quad (4210, 4212 and 4412) Mali-400 MP4[59]
Exynos 5 Dual (5250) Mali-T604 MP4[60]
Exynos 5 Hexa (5260) Mali-T624 MP3
Exynos 5 Octa (5420, 5422, 5430 and 5800) Mali-T628 MP6
Exynos 5 Hexa (7872) Mali-G71 MP1 @ 1.2GHz
Exynos 7 Octa (5433/7410) Mali-T760 MP6
Exynos 7 Octa (7420) Mali-T760 MP8 @ 772MHz
Exynos 7 Quad (7570),Exynos 3 Quard(3475) Mali-T720 MP1
Exynos 7 Octa (7580) Mali-T720 MP2
Exynos 7 Octa (7870) Mali-T830 MP1
Exynos 7 Octa (7880) Mali-T830 MP3
Exynos 7 Series 7885 Mali-G71 MP2 @1300MHz
Exynos 8 Octa (8890) Mali-T880 MP10 (Lite) / Mali-T880 MP12 @650MHz
Exynos 9 Octa (8895) Mali-G71 MP20 @ 546MHz[61][62]
Exynos 7 Series 9610 Mali-G72 MP3[63]
Exynos 9 Series 9810 Mali-G72 MP18 @ 572MHz[64]
Exynos 9 Series 9820 Mali-G76MP12 @ 702MHz
S5P6450 Vega Mali-400 MP[65]
Sigma Designs SMP8750 Series Mali-400 MP4 @ 350 MHz[66]
Socle-Tech Leopard-6 Mali-200[67]
Spreadtrum SC68xx, SC57xx, SC77xx, SC8xxx, SC983x Mali-400 MP Series[68]
SC9860, SC9860GV Mali-T880 MP4
ST-Ericsson NovaThor U9500, U8500, U5500 Mali-400 MP[69]
STMicroelectronics SPEAr1340 Mali-200[70]
STi7108, STiH416 Mali-400 MP[71][72]
Telechips TCC8803, TCC8902, TCC8900, TCC9201 Mali-200[37][73]
WonderMedia WM8750 Mali-200
WM8850, WM8950 Mali-400 MP[74]
WM8880, WM8980 Mali-400 MP2
WM8860 Mali-450
Xiaomi Surge S1 Mali-T860 MP4 @ 800 MHz[75][76]
Surge S2 Mali-G71 MP12 @ 900 MHz (?)[77]

Mali Video Processors[edit]

Mali Video is the name given to ARM Holdings' dedicated video decoding and video encoding ASIC. There are multiple versions implementing a number of video codecs, such as HEVC, VP9, H.264 and VP8. As with all ARM products, the Mali Video Processor is a semiconductor intellectual property core licensed to third parties for inclusion in their chips. Real time encode-decode capability is central to videotelephony. An interface to ARM's TrustZone technology is also built-in to enable Digital Rights Management of copyrighted material.

Mali-V500[edit]

The first version of a Mali Video processor was the V500, released in 2013 with the Mali-T622 GPU.[78] The V500 is a multicore design, sporting 1–8 cores, with support for H.264 and a protected video path using ARM TrustZone. The 8 core version is sufficient for 4K video decode at 120 frames per second (fps). The V500 can encode VP8 and H.264, and decode H.264, H.263, MPEG4, MPEG2, VC-1/WMV, Real, VP8.

Mali-V550[edit]

Released with the Mali-T800 GPU, ARM V550 video processors added both encode and decode HEVC support, 10-bit color depth, and technologies to further reduced power consumption.[79] The V550 also included technology improvements to better handle latency and save bandwidth.[80] Again built around the idea of a scalable number of cores (1–8) the V550 could support between 1080p60 (1 core) to 4K120 (8 cores). The V550 supported HEVC Main, H.264, VP8, JPEG encode, and HEVC Main 10, HEVC Main, H.264, H.263, MPEG4, MPEG2, VC-1/WMV, Real, VP8, JPEG decode.

Mali-V61[edit]

The Mali V61 video processor (formerly named Egil) was released with the Mali Bifrost GPU in 2016.[81][82] V61 has been designed to improve video encoding, in particular HEVC and VP9, and to allow for encoding either a single or multiple streams simultaneously.[83] The design continues the 1–8 variable core number design, with a single core supporting 1080p60 while 8 cores can drive 4Kp120. It can decode and encode VP9 10-bit, VP9 8-bit, HEVC Main 10, HEVC Main, H.264, VP8, JPEG and decode only MPEG4, MPEG2, VC-1/WMV, Real, H.263.[84]

Mali-V52[edit]

The Mali V52 video processor was released with the Mali G52 and G31 GPUs in March 2018.[85] The processor is intended to support 4K (including HDR) video on mainstream devices.[86]

Mali-V76[edit]

The Mali V76 video processor was released with the Mali G76 GPU and Cortex-A76 CPU in 2018.[87] The V76 was designed to improve video encoding and decoding performance. The design continues the 2–8 variable core number design, with 8 cores capable of 8Kp60 decoding and 8Kp30 encoding. Relative to the V61, support was added for 10-bit HDR H.264 encode and decode. However, the AV1 codec is not supported.

Comparison[edit]

Mali Video V500 V550 V61 V52 V76
Announced June 2, 2013[88] October 27, 2014[89] October 31, 2016[90] March 6, 2018[91] May 31, 2018[87]
Recommended GPU Mali-T800-series Mali-G51
Mali-G72
Mali-G31
Mali-G52
Mali-G76
Recommended DPU Mali-DP500 Mali-DP550
Mali-DP650
Mali-DP650
Mali-D71
Mali-D52
Memory system MMU
Bus interface AMBA 3 AXI
AMBA 4 ACE Lite
AMBA AXI AMBA4 AXI
Performance (enc) 1080p60 (1 core) to 4K120 (8 core) 1080p60 (1 core) to 4K60 (4 core) 1080p60 (1 core) to 8K30 (8 core)
Performance (dec) 1080p120 (1 core) to 4K120 (4 core) 1080p120 (1 core) to 8K60 (8 core)
Decode & Encode
H.264 8-bit D & E D & E D & E D & E D & E
H.264 10-bit - - - D & E D & E
VP8 D & E D & E D & E D & E D & E
JPEG - D & E D & E D & E D & E
HEVC Main - D & E D & E D & E D & E
HEVC Main 10 - D D & E D & E D & E
VP9 8-bit - - D & E D & E D & E
VP9 10-bit - - D & E D & E D & E
AV1 - - - - -

Mali Display Processors[edit]

Mali-D71[edit]

The Mali-D71 added Arm Framebuffer Compression (AFBC) 1.2 encoder, support for ARM CoreLink MMU-600 and Assertive Display 5. Assertive Display 5 has support for HDR10 and Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG).

Mali-D77[edit]

The Mali-D77 added features including Asynchronous timewarp (ATW), Lens Distortion Correction (LDC) and Chromatic Aberration Correction (CAC). The Mali-D77 is also capable of 3K (2880x1440) @ 120Hz and 4K @ 90Hz.[92]

Mali Display DP500[93][94] DP550[95] DP650[96][97] D71[98][99][100] D51 D77[101][102]
Announced May 8, 2010 October 27, 2014 January 20, 2016 October 31, 2017 March 6, 2018 May 15, 2019
Optimized res n/a 720p (HD) to 1080p (FHD) 1440p (QHD) 1440p (QHD) to 2160p (UHD/4K) 1080p (FHD) to 1440p (QHD) 2880x1440 @ 120Hz
Maximum res 2160p (4K) 2160p (4K) 2160p (4K) 2160p (4K) up to 120fps 4096x2048 up to 60fps 4320x2160 @ 120Hz
Launched Alongside Cortex-A17 core Mali-T800 series GPU, V550 Video Processor CoreLink MMU-600, Assertive Display 5 Mali-G31, Mali-G52, Mali-V52

Mali Camera[edit]

Mali-C71[edit]

On April 25th 2017 the Mali-C71 was announced, ARM's first Image Signal Processor (ISP).[103][104][105]

Mali-C52 & Mali-C32[edit]

On January 3th 2019 the Mali-C52 and C32 where announced, aimed at everyday devices including drones, smart home assistants and security, and internet protocol (IP) camera.[106]

Comparison[edit]

Mali Camera C32 C52 C71
Announced January 3, 2019 April 25, 2017
Throughput 600 MP/s 1,2 GP/s
Camera support 4x, total 16 MP 4x 4096x4096
Dynamic Range 24 stops
Channel support RGGB, RGBlr RGGB, RCCC, RGBIr, RCCB, RCCG
up to 16 channels
ASIL compliance ASIL D

The Lima and Panfrost FOSS drivers[edit]

On January 21, 2012, Phoronix reported that Luc Verhaegen is driving a reverse-engineering attempt aimed at the Mali series of GPUs, specifically the Mali 200 and Mali 400 versions. The project will be known as Lima and support OpenGL ES 2.0.[107] The reverse-engineering project was presented at FOSDEM, February 4, 2012,[108][109] followed by the opening of a website demonstrating some renders. On February 2, 2013, Verhaegen demonstrated Quake III Arena in timedemo mode, running on top of the Lima driver.[110] In May 2018, a Lima developer posted the driver for inclusion in the Linux kernel.[111] As of May 2019, the Lima driver is part of the mainline Linux kernel.[112]

Panfrost is a reverse-engineered driver effort for Mali Txxx (Midgard) and Gxx (Bifrost) GPUs. Introducing Panfrost talk was presented at X.Org Developer's Conference 2018. As of May 2019, the Panfrost driver is part of the mainline Linux kernel.[113]

See also[edit]

  • Adreno – GPU developed by Qualcomm (formerly AMD, then Freescale)
  • Atom family of SoCs – with Intel graphics core, not licensed to third parties
  • AMD mobile APUs – with AMD graphics core, licensed to Samsung [114]
  • PowerVR – by Imagination Technologies
  • Tegra – family of SoCs by Nvidia with the graphics core available as a SIP block to third parties
  • VideoCore – family of SoCs by Broadcom with the graphics core available as a SIP block to third parties
  • Vivante – available as SIP block to third parties

References[edit]

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External links[edit]