Mali (GPU)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Mali series of graphics processing units (GPUs) are semiconductor intellectual property cores produced by ARM Holdings for licensing in various ASIC designs by ARM partners.

Technical details[edit]

Like other embedded IP cores for 3D rendering acceleration, the Mali GPU does not include display controllers driving monitors (such as the combination often found in common video cards). ARM does licenses display controller SIP cores independently of the Mali 3D accelerator SIP block, e.g. Mali DP500, DP550 and DP650.[1]

Instead the Mali ARM core is a pure 3D engine that renders graphics into memory and hands the rendered image over to another core that handles the display.

ARM supplies tools to help in authoring OpenGL ES shaders named Mali GPU Shader Development Studio and Mali GPU User Interface Engine.

Display controllers such as the ARM HDLCD display controller are available separately.[2]

Variants[edit]

The Mali core grew out of the cores previously produced by Falanx and currently constitute:

Model Micro-
architecture
Launch date Shader core count Fab (nm) Die size (mm2) Core clock rate (MHz) Max L2 cache size Fillrate Bus width (bits) GFLOPS
(per core)
API conformance Fused multiply–add Usage in SoCs HSA/Zero-copy Usage
M△/s (GP/s) Vulkan OpenGL ES OpenVG OpenCL Direct3D
Mali-55 ? ? 1 ? ? ? N/A ? ? ? ? N/A 1.1 1.0 N/A N/A No  ?  ? Graphics
Mali-200 Utgard[3] 2007[4] 1 ? ? ? N/A ? ? ? ? 2.0 1.1
Mali-300 ? 1 40
28
? 500 8 KiB 55 0.5 ? 5
Mali-400 MP 2008 1-4 40
28
? 500 256 KiB 55 0.5 ? 5 Allwinner H3
Mali-450 MP 2012 1-8 40
28
? 650 512 KiB 142 2.6 ? 14.6 ?
Mali-470 MP 2015 1-4 40
28
? 250–650 8–256 KiB 71 0.65 ? ?
Mali-T604[5] Midgard 1st gen ? 1-4 32
28
? 533 32–256 KiB 90 0.533 ? 17 3.1 + AEP[6] Full Profile 1.1 DirectX 11,
feature level 9_3
Yes Graphics
& Compute
Mali-T658[5] ? 1-8 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mali-T622 Midgard 2nd gen ? 1-2 32
28
? 533 ? ? ? 8.5
Mali-T624 Aug 2012 1-4 32
28
? 533 ? ? ? 17@533 MHz
Mali-T628 Aug 2012 1-8 32
28
? 533 / 695 ? ? ? 17 / 23.7
Mali-T678[7] Aug 2012 1-8 28 ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mali-T720 Midgard 3rd gen Oct 2013 1-8 28 ? 450/ 600 32–256 KiB[8] 650 5.2 ? 7.65/ 10.2 Exynos 7580, MT6735, MT6753
Mali-T760 Oct 2013 1-16 28 / 14 1.75 mm 2 per shader core at 14 nm[9] 600-700 256–2048 KiB[10] 1300 10.4 ? 20.4...[11] 302* [12] (*Cluster) (20.375@600 MHz

23.8@700 MHz)

1.0[13] 3.2[14] Full Profile 1.2 Direct3D 11.1,
feature level 11_1[15]
Exynos 7420, Exynos 5433, MT6752, MT6732
Mali-T820 Midgard 4th gen Q4 2015 1-4 28 ? 600 32–256 KiB[10] 400 2.6 ? 10.2@600 MHz Direct3D 11.1,
feature level 9_3
Amlogic S912
Mali-T830 28 ? 600 32–256 KiB[10] 400 2.6 ? 20.4 Exynos 7870
Mali-T860 1-16 28 ? 700 256–2048 KiB[10] 1300 10.4 ? 23.8@700 MHz Direct3D 11.2,
feature level 11_1
Helio P10 (MT6755)
Mali-T880 Q2 2016 1-16 16 ? 700 / 850 / 900 256–2048 KiB[10] 1700 13.6 ? 23.8 / 28.9 / 30.6 Direct3D 11.2,
feature level 11_1
Exynos 8890, Helio X20 (MT6797), Kirin 950
Mali-G71 Bifrost TBD 1-32 16
14
10
? 850 256–2048 KiB 850 27.2 ? ? Full Profile 2.0 Direct3D 12.0,
feature level 11_1
Model Micro-architecture Launch date Shader core count Fab

(nm)

Die size (mm2) Core clock rate (MHz) Max L2 cache size Fillrate Bus width (bits) GFLOPS
(per core)
Vulkan OpenGL ES OpenVG OpenCL Direct3D Fused multiply-add Usage in SoCs HSA/Zero-copy Usage

Some Malis support cache coherency for the L2 cache with the CPU.[16][17]

Adaptive Scalable Texture Compression (ASTC) supported by Mali™-T620, Mali-T720, Mali-T760, Mali-T820/T830, Mali-T860/T880 and Mali-G71.[18]

Implementations[edit]

The Mali GPU variants can be found in the following systems on chips (SoCs):

Vendor SoC name Mali version
Allwinner Allwinner A1X (A10, A10s, A13) Mali-400 MP[19][20][21] @ 300 MHz
Allwinner A20, A23 and A33 Mali-400 MP2[22] @ 350 MHz
Allwinner H3 Mali-400 MP2 @ 600 MHz
Amlogic 8726-M series (8726-M1, 8726-M3, 8726-M6, 8726-MX) Mali-400 MP/MP2[23]
Amlogic 8726-M8 series (M801, M802, S801, S802) Mali-450 MP6[23]
Amlogic 8726-M8B series (M805, S805) Mali-450 MP2[23]
Amlogic S905 Mali-450 MP5
Amlogic S912 Mali-T820 MP3
CSR Quatro 5300 Series Mali-400 MP
InfoTM iMAP×15 Mali-400
InfoTM iMAP×912 Mali-400 MP
InfoTM iMAP×820 Mali-400 MP2
HiSilicon Kirin 620 Mali-450 MP4
HiSilicon Kirin 910 Mali-450 MP4
HiSilicon Kirin 920/920T Mali-T624 MP4
HiSilicon Kirin 930/935 Mali-T628 MP4
HiSilicon Kirin 950/955 Mali-T880 MP4
Leadcore LC1810, LC1811, LC1813, LC1913 Mali-400[24][25][26][27]
MediaTek MTK6592 Octa & MTK6592m Mali-450 MP4 @ 700 MHz
MediaTek MT6572 Mali-400 MP @ 500 MHz
MediaTek MT6752 Mali-T760 MP2[28]
MediaTek MT6753 Mali-T720 MP4 @ 600 (Boost) MHz[29]
MediaTek MT6732 Mali-T760
MediaTek MT6582 Mali-400 MP2 @ 500 MHz
MediaTek MT6582M Mali-400 MP2 @ 416 MHz
MediaTek MT8127 Mali-450 MP4[30]
MediaTek MT8735 Mali-720 MP2 @ 450 MHz
NetLogic Au1380, Au1350 Mali-200[31][32]
Nufront NuSmart 2816 Mali-400 MP
Nufront NuSmart 2816M Mali-400 MP
Nufront NuSmart 115 Mali-400 MP
Rockchip RK2926 Mali-400 MP[33]
Rockchip RK3066 Mali-400 MP4[34]
Rockchip RK3188 Mali-400 MP4[35]
Rockchip RK3288 Mali-T764 MP4 @ 600 MHz
Samsung Exynos 3 Quad (3470), Exynos 4 Dual, Quad (4210, 4212 and 4412) Mali-400 MP4[36]
Samsung Exynos 5 Dual (5250) Mali-T604 MP4[37]
Samsung Exynos 5 Hexa (5260) Mali-T624 MP3
Samsung Exynos 5 Octa (5420, 5422, 5430 and 5800) Mali-T628 MP6
Samsung Exynos 7 Octa (5433/7410) Mali-T760 MP6
Samsung Exynos 7 Octa (7420) Mali-T760 MP8
Samsung Exynos 8 Octa (8890) Mali-T880 MP12
Samsung S5P6450 Vega Mali-400 MP[38]
Socle-Tech Leopard-6 Mali-200[39]
Spreadtrum SC6815 - SC8835S Mali-400[40]
ST-Ericsson NovaThor U9500, U8500, U5500 Mali-400 MP[41]
STMicroelectronics SPEAr1340 Mali-200[42]
STMicroelectronics STi7108, STiH416 Mali-400 MP[43][44]
Telechips TCC8803, TCC8902, TCC8900, TCC9201 Mali-200[23][45]
WonderMedia WM8850, WM8950 Mali-400 MP[46]
WonderMedia WM8880, WM8980 Mali-400 MP2
WonderMedia WM8860 Mali-450

Mali Video[edit]

Mali Video is the name given to ARM Holdings' dedicated video decoding and video encoding ASIC. There are multiple versions implementing a number of video codecs, such as HEVC, VP9, H.264 and VP8. As with all ARM products, the Mali Video Processor is a semiconductor intellectual property core licensed to third parties for inclusion in their chips. Real time encode-decode capability is central to videotelephony. An interface to ARM's TrustZone technology is also built-in to enable Digital Rights Management of copyrighted material.

V500[edit]

The first version of a Mali Video processor was the V500, released in 2013 with the Mali-T622 GPU.[47] The V500 is a multicore design, sporting 1-8 cores, with support for H.264 and a protected video path using ARM TrustZone. The 8 core version is sufficient for 4K video decode at 120 frames per second (fps). The V500 can encode VP8 and H.264, and decode H.264, H.263, MPEG4, MPEG2, VC-1/WMV, Real, VP8.

V550[edit]

Released with the Mali-T800 GPU, ARM V550 video processors added both encode and decode HEVC support, 10-bit color depth, and technologies to further reduced power consumption.[48] The V550 also included technology improvements to better handle latency and save bandwidth.[49] Again built around the idea of a scalable number of cores (1-8) the V550 could support between 1080p60 (1 core) to 4K120 (8 cores). The V550 supported HEVC Main, H.264, VP8, JPEG encode, and HEVC Main 10, HEVC Main, H.264, H.263, MPEG4, MPEG2, VC-1/WMV, Real, VP8, JPEG decode.

Egil[edit]

The Mali Egil video processor was released with the Mali Bifrost GPU in 2016.[50] Egil has been designed to improve video encoding, in particular HEVC and VP9, and to allow for encoding either a single or multiple streams simultaneously.[51] The design continues the 1-8 variable core number design, with a single core supporting 1080p80 while 6 cores can drive 4Kp120.

The Lima FOSS driver[edit]

On January 21, 2012, Phoronix reported that Luc Verhaegen is driving a reverse-engineering attempt aimed at the Mali series of GPUs, specifically the Mali 200 and Mali 400 versions. The project will be known as Lima and support OpenGL ES 2.0.[52] The reverse-engineering project was presented at FOSDEM, February 4, 2012,[53][54] followed by the opening of a website demonstrating some renders. On February 2, 2013, Verhaegen demonstrated Quake III Arena in timedemo mode, running on top of the Lima driver.[55]

See also[edit]

  • Adreno – GPU developed by Qualcomm (formerly AMD, then Freescale)
  • PowerVR – by Imagination Technologies
  • Vivante – available as SIP block to 3rd parties
  • Tegra – family of SoCs for mobile computers, the graphics core could be available as SIP block to 3rd parties
  • VideoCore – family of SOCs, by Broadcom, for mobile computers, the graphics core could be available as SIP block to 3rd parties.
  • Atom family of SoCs – with Intel graphics core, not licensed to 3rd parties
  • AMD mobile APUs – with AMD graphics core, not licensed to 3rd parties

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Initial support for ARM Mali Display Controller". Linux kernel mailing list. 2016-04-01. 
  2. ^ https://lwn.net/Articles/667575/
  3. ^ Mali Graphics Webpage; Arm Holdings.
  4. ^ http://www.anandtech.com/show/8234/arms-mali-midgard-architecture-explored/2
  5. ^ a b http://www.khronos.org/assets/uploads/developers/library/2012-pan-pacific-road-show/OpenGL-and-OpenGL-ES-Taiwan_Feb-2012.pdf Khronos Group OpenGL and OpenGL ES Taiwan Feb 2012
  6. ^ Android Extension Pack depends on implementation of GL_ANDROID_extension_pack_es31a in the userspace driver. Supported as of r7p0
  7. ^ AnandTech | ARM Announces 8-core 2nd Gen Mali-T600 GPUs
  8. ^ depending on number of GPU shader core groups
  9. ^ "The Samsung Exynos 7420 Deep Dive - Inside A Modern 14nm SoC". AnandTech. Retrieved 2015-06-15. 
  10. ^ a b c d e depending on number of shader core groups
  11. ^ http://kyokojap.myweb.hinet.net/gpu_gflops/
  12. ^ http://www.notebookcheck.com/ARM-Mali-T760-MP8.137436.0.html
  13. ^ "Vulkan - Mali Developer Center". ARM. Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  14. ^ Supported as of June 2016 with r12p0 userspace driver
  15. ^ "ARM's Mali Midgard Architecture Explored". AnandTech. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  16. ^ http://www.heterogeneouscompute.org/hipeac2011Presentations/OpenCL-Midgard.pdf Midgard OpenCL Cache coherency
  17. ^ http://www.chipdesignmag.com/pallab/2011/06/30/arm-mali-gpu-unifying-graphics-across-platforms/ Heterogeneous Computing
  18. ^ "Adaptive Scalable Texture Compression (ASTC) technology developed by ARM® and AMD". 
  19. ^ "A10". Allwinner Technology. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  20. ^ "A10s". Allwinner Technology. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  21. ^ "A13". Allwinner Technology. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  22. ^ "AllWinner Publishes A31 and A20 Processors Details". CNXSoft. December 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  23. ^ a b c d Limadriver.org: Hardware
  24. ^ "LC1810". Leadcore. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  25. ^ "LC1811". Leadcore. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  26. ^ "LC1813". Leadcore. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  27. ^ "LC1913". Leadcore. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  28. ^ http://www.notebookcheck.net/ARM-Mali-T760-MP2.146753.0.html
  29. ^ http://www.notebookcheck.net/ARM-Mali-T720-MP4.150999.0.html
  30. ^ Mediatek MT8127
  31. ^ NetLogic Au1300
  32. ^ RMI Au1300 Press release
  33. ^ Filla Sapphire 7 Product Specification
  34. ^ Rockchip Licenses a Wide Range of ARM IP for Turnkey Solution Targeting Mass Market, Cost-Effective Android Tablets
  35. ^ http://sg.finance.yahoo.com/news/28nm-quad-core-era-rk3188-144500035.html
  36. ^ (English) ARM Powered Smartphone Sets New Graphics Benchmark on ARM blog
  37. ^ Samsung Confirms Mali is in the Exynos 5250 Processor - ARM Community
  38. ^ Hardkernel ODROID-E7 development board
  39. ^ Socle Leopard-6 SoC
  40. ^ Spreadtrum SC8819
  41. ^ ST-Ericsson NovaThor product page
  42. ^ STMicro SPEAr1340
  43. ^ STMicro STi7108 Press release
  44. ^ STMicro STiH416 Press release
  45. ^ 2010, ARM Limited: TCC8900 development board
  46. ^ WonderMedia Prizm WM8950 Press release
  47. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand (2 June 2013). "ARM MaliT622 V500 Video Block Complement Cortex A12". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 16 June 2016. 
  48. ^ Smith, Ryan (27 October 2014). "ARM Announces Mali V550 Video Processor and Mali P550 Display Processor". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 16 June 2016. 
  49. ^ Sims, Gary (27 October 2014). "Mali-T860 GPU headlines new range of integrated media designs from ARM". Android Authority. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  50. ^ Smith, Ryan (16 June 2016). "ARM Announces Mali Egil Video Processor". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  51. ^ Walrath, Josh (16 June 2016). "ARM Introduces Egil Video Processor: 4K 120 Hz the Top!". TechReport.com. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  52. ^ Phoronix, Jan 27 2012: Announcing The Lima Open-Source GPU Driver
  53. ^ Phoronix, Jan 21 2012: An Open-Source, Reverse-Engineered Mali GPU Driver
  54. ^ FOSDEM schedule, Jan 21 2012: Liberating ARM's Mali GPU
  55. ^ Quake 3 Arena timedemo on top of the lima driver!

External links[edit]