Malin Craig

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Malin Craig
MalinCraig.jpg
General Malin Craig, official Army portrait
14th United States Army Chief of Staff
In office
October 2, 1935 – August 31, 1939
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Douglas MacArthur
Succeeded by George C. Marshall
Personal details
Born George Malin Craig
(1875-08-05)August 5, 1875
St. Joseph, Missouri
Died July 25, 1945(1945-07-25) (aged 69)
Walter Reed Hospital
Washington, D.C.
Awards Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Military service
Allegiance United States United States
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1898–1939
1941–1945
Rank US-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army
IX Corps
Battles/wars

Malin Craig (August 5, 1875 – July 25, 1945) was a United States Army general who served as United States Army Chief of Staff from 1935 to 1939. He was recalled to active duty during World War II.[1]

Early life[edit]

Craig was born on August 5, 1875 in Saint Joseph, Missouri. He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York on June 20, 1894.[2]

Early career[edit]

Craig graduated West Point on April 26, 1898 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Infantry branch. He transferred to the Cavalry on June 23 and served with the 6th Cavalry.[2]

He served in the China Relief Expedition and in the Philippine Insurrection. He was promoted to first lieutenant on February 2, 1901 and to captain on May 7, 1904.[2]

After serving in the Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the relief expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, Craig attended the Infantry and Cavalry School from 1903 to 1904 and the Staff College from 1904 to 1905. He was then promoted to captain and served in the 10th and 1st cavalry regiments, and was garrisoned as a regimental quartermaster at Fort Clark in Kinney, Texas from 1906 to 1909. He would go on to graduate from the Army War College in 1910 and serve in a variety of administrative positions, most notable of which was assigning troops to their regiments. He would then serve with the 1st Cavalry Regiment of the western U.S. in 1912, then became an instructor at Fort Leavenworth located in Leavenworth, Kansas in 1916 until 1917 where he was moved to the General Staff Corps.[3]

World War I[edit]

Craig was promoted to major on May 15, 1917 shortly after the United States entered World War I in April of the same year. He was promoted to temporary lieutenant colonel on August 17 and temporary colonel on March 27, 1918.[4]

He served in France during World War I as Chief-of-Staff to General Hunter Liggett in the 41st Infantry Division and later in I Corps where he was promoted to temporary brigadier general on July 11, 1918. He then became Chief-of-Staff of the 3rd Army.[4]

He received the Distinguished Service Medal for his service during the First World War. His citation reads as follows:

General Craig served in turn as Chief of Staff of a division, a corps, and an Army, in each of which capacities he exhibited great ability. His personal influence, aggressiveness, and untiring efforts were repeatedly displayed in the operations of the 1st Corps in the vicinity of Chateau-Thierry, on the Oureq, and the Vesle during the St. Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse offensives.[citation needed]

Interwar period[edit]

After the war, Craig reverted to his permanent rank of major on August 15, 1919 but was promoted to colonel on July 1, 1920 and to brigadier general only 15 days later.

When Craig was promoted to Colonel, he was put in command of the District of Arizona in 1920 and became the commandant of the Cavalry School from 1921 to 1923 after his promotion to brigadier general in April 1921. [5]

He served as Chief of Cavalry with the rank of major general from July 24, 1924 to March 20, 1926.[4] He also commanded the Panama Canal Zone.

Chief of Staff[edit]

Craig served as president of the Army War College in 1935 and served as the U.S. Army Chief of Staff from October 2, 1935 to August 31, 1939, succeeding General Douglas MacArthur, and preceding George C. Marshall. That appointment carried with it a temporary promotion to full (four star) general.[4]

As Chief of Staff of the Army, Craig pointed out to Congress the Army's lack of preparedness in manpower and material, stressed the necessity of lead time in military preparedness, focused attention on Army planning, and, within governmental constraints, prepared the Army for World War II. He retired, in his permanent rank of major general, on August 31, 1939 - after forty-one years of active duty. Upon his retirement, he received a second Distinguished Service Medal for his service as Army Chief of Staff.

World War II and death[edit]

General Craig's retirement was short-lived, however. On September 26, 1941, with war on the horizon he was recalled to active duty to head the War Department's Personnel Board, a body responsible for selecting individuals who were to receive direct commissions in the Army. He headed the board in his permanent rank of major general until shortly before his death.

He died at the Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C. on July 25, 1945 where he had been ill for the previous year.[1] He was posthumously awarded a third Distinguished Service Medal and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.[4]

Awards[edit]

Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
1st Row Army Distinguished Service Medal with two Oak Leaf Clusters
2nd Row Spanish Campaign Medal China Relief Expedition Medal Philippine Campaign Medal Mexican Border Service Medal
3rd Row World War I Victory Medal with five battle clasps Army of Occupation of Germany Medal American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal
4th Row World War II Victory Medal Companion of Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath Commandeur of the Legion of Honor (France) French Croix de guerre 1914-1918 with Palm
5th Row Order of the Crown, Grade Commander (Belgium) Order of the Crown of Italy, Commander Order of Abdon Calderón, 1st Class (Ecuador) Missouri State Medal of Merit

Dates of rank[edit]

No insignia Cadet, United States Military Academy: June 20, 1894
No pin insignia in 1898 Second Lieutenant, Regular Army: April 26, 1898
US-O2 insignia.svg First Lieutenant, Regular Army: February 2, 1901
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain, Regular Army: May 7, 1904
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, Regular Army: May 15, 1917
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: August 5, 1917
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, National Army: February 6, 1918
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General, National Army: June 26, 1918
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, Regular Army (reverted to permanent rank): August 15, 1919
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1920
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General, Regular Army: April 28, 1921
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General, Regular Army: July 24, 1924
US-O10 insignia.svg General, Regular Army, for service as Army Chief of Staff: October 2, 1935
US-O10 insignia.svg General, Retired List: August 31, 1939
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General, Regular Army: September 26, 1941

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Gen. Craig Is Dead. Ex-Chief Of Staff. Distinguished Army Leader Succumbs in Washington After a Year's Illness. Planned 1918 Battles. Helped Map the Strategy for Our Offensives in France. Enlisted Man's Champion Forty Years a Soldier Had Scholastic Difficulty Served With First Corps Sought Increase in Army". New York Times. July 26, 1945. 
  2. ^ a b c Davis, pp. 85-86
  3. ^ Tucker, Spencer C., ed. World War II: the definitive encyclopedia and document collection. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2016. Web. p. 475
  4. ^ a b c d e Davis, p. 86
  5. ^ Tucker, Spencer C., ed. World War II: the definitive encyclopedia and document collection. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2016. Web. p. 475

Further reading[edit]

Bibliography
  • Davis, Jr., Henry Blaine (1998). Generals in Khaki. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, Inc. pp. 85–86. ISBN 1571970886. OCLC 40298151. 
  • Official Register of the United States Army. 1945. The Adjutant General. Washington, D.C. p. 1135.
  • "Craig, Malin". 1999. American National Biography. 5.
Military offices
Preceded by
Douglas MacArthur
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1935–1939
Succeeded by
George C. Marshall