Mallabhum

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Mallabhum
মল্লভূম
694 CE–1983 CE
Capital Laugram
Pradyumnapur
Bishnupur
Languages Sanskrit
Bengali
Religion Hinduism
Government Monarchy
Maharaja
 •  694–710 CE. Adi Malla
 •  1930–1983 CE. Kalipada Singha Thakur
Historical era Classical India
 •  Established 694 CE
 •  Disestablished 29 December 1983 CE

Mallabhum, also known as Mallabhoom[1] (Bengali: মল্লভূম) was the kingdom ruled by the Malla kings of Bishnupur, primarily in the present Bankura district in India's state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Territory of the Mallabhum[edit]

It is told that Mallabhum is the territory, which included Bankura, a part of Burdwan, Birbhum, Santhal Parganas, Midnapur and also a part of Purulia. The Malla Rajas ruled over the vast territory in the south-western part of present West Bengal and a part of southeastern Jharkhand.[2]

Extent[edit]

The area around Bishnupur was called Mallabhum. The core area would cover present day Bankura police station area (excluding Chhatna), Onda, Bishnupur, Kotulpur and Indas. In olden days the term was used for a much larger area, which probably was the furthest extent of the Bishnupur kingdom. In the north it stretched from Damin-i-koh in Santhal Parganas to Midnapore in the south. It included the eastern part of Bardhaman and included parts of Chota Nagpur in the west.[3]

According to O'Malley, the Rajas of Bishnupur were also known as Malla kings. Malla is a Sanskrit word meaning wrestler but there could be some links with the Mal tribes of the area, who had intimate connection with the Bagdis.[3]

From around 7th century AD till around the advent of British rule, for around a millennium, history of Bankura district is identical with the rise and fall of the Hindu Rajas of Bishnupur.[3] The legends of Bipodtarini Devi are associated with Malla Kings of Bishnupur.[4]

Administration[edit]

Taxation of Mallabhum[edit]

According to Bhattacharjee, Tarun Dev (1982) during Malla period, the society was centred round the village. The tax collectors were called as Gomostha and their assistants as Aat Pahari or Paik The Mukhiya or Mandal was the title of headman, who was regarded as the guardian of the village. Malla kings had several service groups. Due to scarcity of money, the Malla kings used to present land instead of salary to all these service groups. This type of land is again of two types – namely the Panchaki jamin or land with a little tax and another one is the Bepanchaki jamin or land without any tax. Again the lands were named as per the service groups name as Senapati mahal for the head of the soldier, land given to the sentry was Mahalbera Mahal, and land given to the bodyguard was Chharidar Mahal.[5]

Malla calendar[edit]

Malla's started their own calendar that is Malla era (Mallabda). It is told that Malla era started from Indra Dwadasi day in the year 102 Bengali calendar of the month Bhadro (August- September).[6]

Sl.

No.

Name of the king[7][8] Gregorian calendar Bengali calendar Malla calendar Regime

(year)

1 Adi (Raghunath) Malla 694 102 1 16
2 Jay Malla 710 117 16 10
3 Benu Malla 720 127 26 13
4 Kinu Malla 733 140 39 9
5 Indra Malla 742 149 48 15
6 Kanu (Kalu/Kalu) Malla 757 164 63 7
7 Dha (Jhau) Malla 764 171 70 11
8 Shur Malla 775 182 81 20
9 Kanak Malla 795 202 101 12
10 Kandarpa Malla 807 214 113 21
11 Sanatan Malla 828 235 134 13
12 Kharga Malla 841 248 147 21
13 Durjan (Durjay) Malla 862 269 168 44
14 Yadav Malla 906 313 212 13
15 Jagannath Malla 919 326 225 12
16 Birat Malla 931 338 237 15
17 Mahadev Malla 946 353 252 31
18 Durgadas Malla 977 384 283 17
19 Jagat Malla(Jagannath) 994 401 300 13
20 Ananta Malla 1007 414 313 8
21 Rup Malla 1015 422 321 14
22 Sundar Malla 1029 436 335 24
23 Kumud Malla 1053 460 359 21
24 Krishna Malla 1074 481 380 10
25 Rup II (Jhap) Malla 1084 491 390 13
26 Prakash Malla 1097 504 403 5
27 Pratap Malla 1102 509 408 11
28 Sindur Malla 1113 520 419 16
29 Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla 1129 536 435 13
30 Banamali Malla 1142 549 448 14
31 Yadu/Jadu Malla 1156 563 462 11
32 Jiban Malla 1167 574 473 13
33 Ram(Kshetra) Malla 1185 592 491 24
34 Gobinda Malla 1209 616 515 31
35 Bhim Malla 1240 647 546 23
36 Katar(Khattar) Malla 1263 670 569 32
37 Pritwi Malla 1295 702 601 24
38 Tapa Malla 1319 726 625 15
39 Dinabandhu Malla (Dinu) 1334 741 640 11
40 Kinu/Kanu II Malla 1345 752 651 13
41 Shur Malla II 1358 765 664 12
42 Shiv Singh Malla 1370 777 676 37
43 Madan Malla 1407 814 713 13
44 Durjan II (Durjay) Malla 1420 827 726 17
45 Uday Malla 1437 844 743 23
46 Chandra Malla 1460 867 766 41
47 Bir Malla 1501 908 807 53
48 Dhari Malla 1554 961 860 11
49 Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir) 1565 972 871 55
50 Dhari Hambir Malla Dev 1620 1027 926 6
51 Raghunath Singha Dev 1626 1033 932 30
52 Bir Singha Dev 1656 1063 962 26
53 Durjan Singha Dev 1682 1089 988 20
54 Raghunath Singha Dev ll 1702 1109 1008 10
55 Gopal Singha Dev 1712 1119 1018 36
56 Chaitanya Singha Dev 1748 1155 1054 53
57 Madhav Singha Dev 1801 1208 1107 8
58 Gopal Singha Dev ll 1809 1216 1115 67
59 Ramkrishna Singha Dev 1876 1283 1182 9
Dwhaja Moni Devi 1885 1292 1191 4
60 Nilmoni Singha Dev 1889 1296 1195 14
No King 1903 1310 1209 14
61 Kalipada Singha Thakur 1930–1983 1337 – 1390 1236–1289 53

Mallabhum temples[edit]

According to Dr. Bloch, Superintendent of the Archaeological Survey of India, Eastern Circle, the twelve date temples range in chronological order as follows:[9]

Date in

Malla year

Date C.E. Name of temple By Whom built
928 1622 Malleswar Bir Singha, son of Raghunath Singha
949 1643 Syam Rai Raghunath Singha
961 1655 Jor Bangla Raghunath Singha
962 1656 Kala Chand Raghunath Singha
964 1658 Lalji Bir Singha
971 1665 Madan Gopal Siromani, wife of Bir Singha
971 1665 Murali Mohan Churamoni /Siromoni Devi, wife of Bir Singha
1000 1694 Madan Mohan Durjan Singha
1032 1726 Jor Mandir Gopal Singha
1035 1729 Radha Gobind Krishna Singha, son of Gopal Singha
1043 1737 Radha Madhab Churamoni
1064

(Saka 1680)

1758 Radha Syam Chaitanya Singha

Notable[edit]

Bishnupur is famous for its terracotta craft, Baluchari Sari and Mallabhum Sari made of Tassar silk and was for almost a thousand years the capital of the Malla kings of Mallabhum.[10][11]

Reservoir[edit]

Bir Singha Dev also had the seven big lakes or tanks, called Lalbandh, Krishnabandh, Gantatbandh, Jamunabandh, Kalindibandh, Shyambandh, and pokabandh excavated, and erected.[12]

Image gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steemers, Koen. Architecture, City, Environment: Proceedings of PLEA 2000 : July 2000 ... James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd. p. 377. ISBN 1902916166. 
  2. ^ Dasgupta 2009, p. 12.
  3. ^ a b c O'Malley, L.S.S., ICS, Bankura, Bengal District Gazetteers, pp. 21–46, 1995 reprint, first published 1908, Government of West Bengal
  4. ^ Östör, Ákos (9 September 2015). Play of the Gods: Locality, Ideology, Structure, And Time In The Festivals Of A Bengali Town. Orient Blackswan. p. 43. ISBN 81-8028-013-6. 
  5. ^ Dasgupta 2009, p. 19-20.
  6. ^ Dasgupta 2009, p. 19.
  7. ^ Dasgupta 2009, p. 31-43.
  8. ^ Mallik, Abhaya Pada (1921). History of Bishnupur-Raj: An Ancient Kingdom of West Bengal (the University of Michigan ed.). Calcutta. pp. 128–130. Retrieved 11 March 2016. 
  9. ^ "Bankura Gazetteer CHAPTER XIV" (PDF). bankura.gov.in. Government of West Bengal. p. 185. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Pandey, Dr.S.N. (1 September 2010). West Bengal General Knowledge Digest. Upkar Prakashan. p. 28. ISBN 9788174822826. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  11. ^ App, Urs. The Birth of Orientalism. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 302. ISBN 0812200055. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  12. ^ Bengal District Gazetteers Bankura, O'Malley, L.S.S., ICS, 1908, Barcode(99999990038739), Language english, pp. 21–41(26), 1995 reprint, Government of West Bengal from Digital Library of India Archived 29 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]