Malt liquor, in North America, is beer with high alcohol content. Legally, it often includes any alcoholic beverage with 5% or more alcohol by volume made with malted barley. In common usage, it refers to beers containing a high alcohol content, generally above 6%, which are made with ingredients and processes resembling those for American-style lagers.
In order to highlight the potency of malt liquor, American malt liquor brand names and advertisements have stressed themes of power and sexual dominance. Brewers' use of target marketing in advertising malt liquor primarily to young, male African-American residents of inner city areas in the United States has been controversial, due to the drink's higher alcohol content and the perceived vulnerability of the target audience.
Malt liquor is a strong lager or ale in which sugar, corn or other adjuncts are added to the malted barley to boost the total amount of fermentable sugars in the wort, and thus boost the final alcohol concentration without creating a heavier or sweeter taste. These beers tend to be mildly hopped; that is, they are not very bitter.
Brewing and legal definitions
Malt liquor is typically straw to pale amber in color. While typical beer is made primarily from barley, water, and hops, malt liquors tend to make much greater use of inexpensive adjuncts such as corn, rice, or dextrose. Use of these adjuncts, along with the addition of special enzymes, results in a higher percentage of alcohol than an average beer. Higher alcohol versions, sometimes called "high-gravity" or just "HG", may contain high levels of fusel alcohols, which gives off solvent- or fuel-like aromas and flavors.
The confusing and inconsistent use of the term "malt liquor" has to do with the vagaries of American alcoholic beverage regulations, which can vary from state to state. In some states, "malt liquor" refers to any alcoholic beverage made by fermenting grain and water; in these states a non-alcoholic beer may also be called a non-alcoholic or non-intoxicating malt liquor. In some states, products labeled "beer" must fall below a certain alcohol content, and beers that exceed the mark must be labeled as "malt liquor". While ordinary beers in the United States average around 5% alcohol by volume, malt liquors typically range from 6% up to 9% alcohol by volume. A typical legal definition is Colorado's Rev. Stat. ss. 12-47-103(19), which provides that:
"Malt Liquors" includes beer and shall be construed to mean any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of any infusion or decoction of barley, malt, hops or any other similar products, or any combination thereof, in water containing more than three and two-tenths percent of alcohol by weight.
Alcohol percentages measured by weight translate into larger figures when re-expressed as alcohol percentages by volume, because ethanol is less dense than water.
The term "malt liquor" is documented in England in 1690 as a general term encompassing both beer and ale. The first mention of the term in North America appears in a patent issued by the Canadian government on July 6, 1842, to one G. Riley for "an improved method of brewing ale, beer, porter, and other maltliquors."
While Colt 45, St. Ides, Mickey's, Steel Reserve, King Cobra, and Olde English 800 are most closely associated with malt liquors in the United States, the beverage itself is older than these products. Clix is often credited as the first malt liquor made in the United States, granted a patent in 1948. The first widely successful malt liquor brand in America was Country Club, which was produced in the early 1950s by the M. K. Goetz Brewing Company in St. Joseph, Missouri.
The core market for malt liquor brewers in the United States has been the African-American and Hispanic populations. Brewers' use of target marketing in advertising malt liquor primarily to young, inner-city, African-American males has been controversial, due to the drink's higher alcohol content and the perceived vulnerability of the target audience. Brewers and advertisers have stated that they simply advertise to those who already buy their products. Critics have objected to the targeting of a segment of the population suffering disproportionately from alcohol-related disease and poor access to medical care.
In order to highlight the potency of malt liquor, brand names have stressed powerful imagery such as Colt 45, Big Bear, and Power Master, and used slogans such as "It's got more" or "The Real Power". Power and sexual dominance have been common themes in advertising. Ads for Power Master were eventually banned in the United States due to regulations against advertising the strength of alcoholic beverages.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has reported that African Americans suffer disproportionate rates of cirrhosis of the liver and other alcohol-related health problems. In light of such statistics, African-American community leaders and some health officials have concluded that targeting high-alcohol beverage ads at this segment of the population is unethical and socially irresponsible. In 1991, U.S. Surgeon General Antonia Novello criticized all alcoholic beverage companies for "unabashedly targeting teenagers" with "sexual imagery, cartoons, and rock and rap music" in television and print ads.
In the American vernacular, a forty-ounce or simply forty is a glass or plastic bottle that holds 40 fluid ounces (1.18 litres, or 2.5 U.S. pints) of malt liquor. Malt liquors are commonly sold in 40 fluid ounce bottles, among other sizes, as opposed to the standard twelve ounce (355 mL) bottle that contains a single serving of beer, although many malt liquors are offered in varying volumes.
After the introduction of 40-ounce containers, which contain roughly the same amount of alcohol as five regular cocktails, "40s" became a favorite high of many youth in inner-city areas. When American suburban youth adopted the habit of drinking malt liquor, drug counselors began to refer to "40s" as "liquid crack" and "date-rape brew".
Examples of malt liquors sold in forty ounce bottles include Olde English 800, Colt 45, Mickey's, Camo 40, Black Fist, Country Club, Black Bull, Labatt Blue Dry 6.1/7.1/8.1/9.1/10.1, WildCat, Molson Dry 6.5/7.5/8.5/10.1, Private Stock, Big Bear, St. Ides, Steel Reserve 211, B40 Bull Max, King Cobra, Jeremiah Weed, and Hurricane. Dogfish Head Brewery has sporadically produced a high-end bottle-conditioned forty called "Liquor de Malt". Ballantine markets its ale in a forty-ounce bottle as well.
Forties are often mentioned in hip-hop and rap culture by rap stars endorsing the "40" Ounce tradition. A similar trend was common around the late 1990s' and early 2000s' punk scene, with such songs as "40.oz Casualty" by The Casualties and "Rock the 40. Oz." by Leftöver Crack; and "40oz. to Freedom" by Sublime.
At least for a brief period in the mid-1990s, some brands of malt liquor, including Olde English 800, Colt 45, and Mickey's, were available in even larger, 64-ounce glass bottles. Forty-ounce bottles are not permitted in some US states, such as Florida, where the largest container that a malt beverage may be sold at retail is 32 US fluid ounces.
While American malt liquor brands are rarely, if ever, exported to Europe, similar inexpensive high-alcohol beers are available in many areas there; these include the "super-strength lagers" such as Tennent's Super and Carlsberg Special Brew in the United Kingdom, and in France the "bières fortes" Amsterdam Navigator, Amsterdam Maximator and Bavaria 8.6; Arboga 10.2% of Sweden or Olvi Tuplapukki and Karhu Tosi Vahva in Finland.
There was a short lived fashion for brewing American style malt liquors in Britain in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Some of these were genuine American brands brewed under license, notably Colt 45, and some were simply inspired by the style. They generally contained 5% ABV. These beers were heavily marketed for a few years but failed to make a lasting impact and are no longer produced.
- Breaking Out the Forty Beer Advocate.com. March 21, 2001. Accessed on December 16, 2007.
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- Liquor de Malt Dogfish Head Brewery. Accessed on March 27, 2008.
- Florida Statutes, Title XXXIV, Chapter 563; see item (6)