The word Mamihlapinatapai (sometimes spelled mamihlapinatapei) is derived from the Yaghan language of Tierra del Fuego, listed in The Guinness Book of World Records as the "most succinct word", and is considered (for example by Austrian playwright Clemens Berger) one of the hardest words to translate.
It allegedly refers to "a look shared by two people, each wishing that the other would initiate something that they both desire but which neither wants to begin." A slightly different interpretation of the meaning also exists: "It is that look across the table when two people are sharing an unspoken but private moment. When each knows the other understands and is in agreement with what is being expressed. An expressive and meaningful silence." It is also cited in books and articles on game theory associated with the volunteer's dilemma.
It is also referenced in Defining the World in a discussion of the difficulties facing Samuel Johnson in trying to arrive at succinct, yet accurate, definitions of words. It is also referenced in the documentary film, ''Life in a Day'' (2011) in response to the question "what do you love?".
The word consists of the reflexive/passive prefix ma- (mam- before a vowel), the root ihlapi (pronounced [iɬapi]), which means "to be at a loss as what to do next", the stative suffix -n, an achievement suffix -ata, and the dual suffix -apai, which in composition with the reflexive mam- has a reciprocal sense.
In popular culture
- Mamihlapinatapai was the title of an exhibition by Max Pinckers and Michiel Burger in Amsterdam's Flemish Cultural Centre, De Brakke Grond, in 2012.
- "Mamihlapinatapai" is a song by Ronny Cox from his 2004 album Ronny Cox Live.
- Damion Searls. "intranslation". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Peter Matthews, Norris McWhirter. The Guinness Book of Records 1994. p. 392. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Drachenfutter, Saudade, Onsay".
- Kollock, Peter (1998). "Social Dilemmas: the anatomy of cooperation". Annu. Rev. Sociol. 24. pp. 183–214. JSTOR 223479.
- Fisher, Len. Rock, Paper, Scissors: Game Theory in Everyday Life. p. 76.
- Hitchings, H. (2005). Defining the World. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. p. 92. ISBN 0-374-11302-5.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWS5loAeH2M, retrieved 2015-10-09 Missing or empty
- "Max Pinckers en Michiel Burger: Mamihlapinatapai" (in Dutch and English). De Brakke Grond. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- "Ronny Cox Live RELEASED 2004". Ronny Cox. ronnycox.com. Retrieved 29 July 2016.