Temporal range: Late Pliocene, 3.5–2.6 Ma
Recent revalidation of the species Mammuthus rumanus influences several interrelated aspects of mammoth evolution. European material referred to M. rumanus might provide a useful background for the identification of finds from Africa and the Middle East. It seems plausible that M. rumanus originated in Africa c. 3.5 Ma and migrated to Eurasia via the Levant. While remaining poorly known, M. rumanus apparently played a significant role in the dispersal of mammoths to Eurasia, and any additional information on that species might elucidate problems of the earlier stages of mammoth evolution in Africa and their subsequent dispersal.
- Adrian M. Lister, Victoria L. Herridge (9 May 2012). "Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth". Proc. R. Soc. B. 279: 3193–3200. PMC . PMID 22572206. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0671. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- Adrian M. Lister, Victoria L. Herridge (2004). "The earliest mammoths in Europe". 18th International Senckenberg Conference.
- Markov, Georgi N. (25 October 2012). "Mammuthus rumanus, early mammoths, and migration out of Africa: Some interrelated problems". Quaternary International. 276–277: 23–26. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.05.041.
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